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  • Have you ever walked into a grocery store

    你有去過雜貨店

  • and wondered where all those variety of apples came from?

    並且好奇那些不同種類的蘋果是從哪來的嗎?

  • You might find SnapDragon,

    你可能會看到 SnapDragon (蘋果種類)

  • Pixie Crunch,

    Pixie Crunch(蘋果種類)

  • Cosmic Crisp,

    Cosmic Crisp(蘋果種類)

  • Jazz,

    Jazz,(蘋果種類)

  • or Ambrosia

    或是 Ambrosia(蘋果種類)

  • next to the more familiar Red Delicious and Granny Smith.

    放在常見的 Red Delicious和 Granny Smith種的蘋果旁

  • These delightfully descriptive names

    這些描述生動的名稱

  • belong to just a handful of the over 7,500 apple varieties in the world.

    只是佔全世界7500種蘋果的少部分

  • This huge diversity exists largely because of humanity's efforts to bear new fruit.

    由於人類對於育種新水果的努力,我們有大量多樣化的水果

  • Fruit breeding is a way to fulfill the expectations of farmers and consumers

    水果的育種是種方法,為了滿足果農的期待和

  • who seek specific qualities in an apple.

    尋求高品質蘋果的消費者

  • On the one hand, farmers may want them to be disease-resistant and to store well.

    一方面,果農也希望水果可以抵抗疾病又好保存,

  • On the other, consumers are swayed by appearance, taste, and novelty.

    另一方面,消費者會因為外觀、口感及新鮮感而買單

  • So, breeders have to consider everything

    所以,育種家就必須了解

  • from how well apples grow in certain climates

    好蘋果的生長氣候

  • to their color, taste, and size.

    會決定他們的顏色、口感和尺寸

  • And sometimes finding the perfect fit means breeding something new.

    有時發現完美的性質就是培育出新品種了

  • To create apples with desirable characteristics,

    要培育出理想的蘋果種

  • breeders first need to find parent apples that carry those characteristics.

    育種家首先要找擁有那些特徵的育種植株

  • Once the parents have been selected,

    一旦育種植株被選上,

  • they have to wait until the trees bloom in the spring.

    育種家們就必須等到春天植株開花

  • The breeder takes the pollen from one bloom, called the father,

    育種家會從一朵花中取得花粉,那就是父系植株

  • and transfers it by hand to the other parent bloom, called the mother,

    然後手工的方式傳遞到另一個植株的花上,就是母系植株

  • through a process called cross-pollination.

    透過稱作異花受粉的過程

  • Once the mother bloom turns into an apple,

    一旦母系植株開花接著變成蘋果

  • the seeds are collected and then planted.

    種子就會被收集起來,然後種植

  • It takes about five years for these seeds to grow into trees that produce apples,

    這些種子長成可以結蘋果的樹大概要花上五年的時間

  • but because of the way traits are inherited,

    但因為品質繼承

  • all of the seedlings produced will have different sets of genes

    所有生長出的籽苗都會有不同的基因組合

  • and characteristics.

    以及特徵

  • This means that to achieve a desired quality,

    這表示為了達到一個品質需求

  • it takes a lot of offspring,

    需要很多後代

  • not to mention patience on the breeder's part.

    育種家的耐心就更不用說了

  • When a seedling does bear fruit with the desired qualities,

    當籽苗結出合乎品質要求的水果

  • it's selected for further evaluation.

    它還會經過更多的評估篩選

  • Of the original crossed seedlings,

    原本異花授粉的籽苗中

  • about one in every 5,000 makes it to this prestigious stage.

    每5000株約有1株可以達到卓越的層級

  • They're then sent to new farms

    接著他們會被送到新的農場

  • where breeders can assess how various climates and soil types

    在那裏育種家可以評估各種不同的氣候和土壤種類

  • affect the plant's growth.

    對植物生長造成的影響

  • The fruit of the seedling and its many clones

    育種出的水果以及很多由無性生殖出的植株

  • must then be collected and sampled to ensure consistency.

    必須經過篩選並抽樣以確保一致性

  • Breeders study about 45 traits in an apple,

    育種家研究大約45種蘋果的特徵

  • like the texture and firmness of the flesh,

    像是質地和果肉的硬度

  • when it ripens,

    當它成熟時

  • how sugary its juice is,

    它的汁液甜度

  • and how long it stays fresh.

    以及它保鮮的時間

  • Over several years, they weed out all the bad apples,

    幾年後,他們淘汰所有不好的蘋果

  • selecting only those whose fruits are the best.

    只選擇品質最好的水果

  • These exclusive plants officially form the cultivar,

    這些獨有的植物用來培育植物品種

  • or new apple variety.

    或是新的蘋果種類

  • To ensure an exact copy of this cultivar,

    為了確保準確複製出的培育品種

  • all apple trees must be grafted from the original seedling.

    所有的蘋果樹必須要是從原本的籽苗培育出來的

  • Branches, called scion wood,

    稱為接穗木的樹支,

  • are cut from the original tree and grown to generate more scion wood.

    會從原植株剪下,用來培育出更多的接穗木

  • Segments of these trees are then grafted onto root stalk -

    然後這些樹的分節會被接到根莖上

  • that's the lower section of another tree

    另一棵樹較低的斷面

  • that's been chosen from a different cultivar

    那是從不同品種選出來的植株

  • for its superior roots and growing ability.

    因為它有更優良的地下莖和成長能力

  • Finally, this fusion creates a new apple tree

    最後,這個互相結合的培育株就會長成一顆

  • with the desired qualities.

    合乎品質需求的新蘋果樹

  • Each new plant takes up to four years

    每一棵新植株都需要四年的時間

  • before it starts producing the fruit we eat.

    在開始生產出我們食用的水果之前

  • Apple breeding may be a difficult art, but it's accessible to all:

    育種蘋果或許是一項困難的藝術,但每個人都可以處理

  • universities,

    大學

  • companies,

    公司

  • and even individuals can create new cultivars.

    甚至是個人都可以創造出新的栽培品系

  • But to fully own an apple, the breeder faces a final challenge -

    但是為了完全擁有一個蘋果的品種,培育家面臨了一個最終的挑戰

  • naming the fruit.

    為水果取名

  • After a cultivar is patented,

    一個栽培品系被申請專利後,

  • a breeder chooses a name for its trademark.

    培育家要為了它的商標選擇一個名字

  • That final step grants them long-lasting rights over the apple and its clones.

    這最後一步可以讓他們擁有對於這個蘋果種類和它培育出的後代持久的專利權

  • That name must be completely original,

    這個名字必須是完全原創的

  • and the catchier, the better, of course.

    而且當然要更引人注意,更好

  • With over 7,500 varieties and counting,

    現在已有超過7500種的蘋果種類

  • that's why we have apples called Pink Lady,

    這就是為甚麼我們有稱作 Pink Lady

  • Sweet Tango,

    Sweet Tango

  • Kiku,

    Kiku

  • and EverCrisp.

    和 EverCrisp的蘋果

  • The more we work with nature's bounty to breed new cultivars,

    我們有越多從大自然培育出的新品種

  • the more creative and delectable these names will become.

    就會有更富創意和趣味的名稱。

Have you ever walked into a grocery store

你有去過雜貨店

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 蘋果 種類 水果 品種 品質

【TED-Ed】為什麼蘋果有這麼多種類?- 特蕾莎-杜德 (【TED-Ed】Why are there so many types of apples? - Theresa Doud)

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    Bary Tseng 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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