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  • Can plants talk to each other?

    植物可以跟彼此溝通嗎?

  • It certainly doesn't seem that way.

    看起來完全不行啊!

  • Plants don't have complex sensory or nervous systems like animals do, and they look pretty passive, basking in the sun, and responding instinctively to inputs like light and water.

    植物不像動物有複雜的感官或神經系統,而且看似頗為被動,曬著太陽,本能地對光線與水份的供應做出反應。

  • But odd as it sounds, plants can communicate with each other.

    聽起來怪了些, 但植物真能彼此溝通,

  • Just like animals, plants produce all kinds of chemical signals in response to their environments, and they can share those signals with each other, especially when they're under attack.

    跟動物一樣, 植物可製造各種化學訊號對其環境做出反應,並且可彼此分享那些訊號,特別是當它們遭受攻擊時。

  • These signals take two routes: through the air, and through the soil.

    訊號傳播的途徑有兩種:透過空氣與土壤。

  • When plant leaves get damaged, whether by hungry insects or an invading lawn mower, they release plumes of volatile chemicals.

    當植物的葉子遭破壞時,無論是被飢餓的昆蟲或是除草機,它們會釋放出一縷縷揮發性的化學物質。

  • They're what's responsible for the smell of freshly-cut grass.

    就是這些化學物質造成了剛割完草時那股味道。

  • Certain kinds of plants, like sagebrush and lima beans, are able to pick up on those airborne messages and adjust their own internal chemistry accordingly.

    某些種類的植物,如山艾樹與棉豆,可接收這些由空氣傳播的訊息,並因應調整自身內部的化學物質。

  • In one experiment, sagebrush leaves were deliberately damaged by insects or scissor-wielding scientists.

    有一個實驗故意讓昆蟲破壞山艾樹的葉子,或由科學家以剪刀破壞。

  • Throughout the summer, other branches on the same sagebrush plant got eaten less by insects wandering through, and so did branches on neighboring bushes, suggesting that they had beefed up their anti-insect defenses.

    那整個夏季,同一株山艾樹的其他樹枝比較少遭穿梭其間的昆蟲侵害,附近灌木的樹枝也是,由此顯示它們已強化了它們的防蟲機制。

  • Even moving the air from above a clipped plant to another one made the second plant more insect-resistant.

    即便是把被剪植株上的空氣移到其他植株上,也會讓下一個植株抗蟲力更強。

  • These airborne cues increase the likelihood of seedling survival, and made adult plants produce more new branches and flowers.

    這些空氣傳播的信號增加了幼苗存活的可能性,且使成株生出更多新枝與花朵。

  • But why would a plant warn its neighbors of danger, especially if they're competing for resources?

    但植株為何要警告鄰近植物,特別當它們彼此會競爭資源的時候呢?

  • Well, it might be an accidental consequence of a self-defense mechanism.

    可能是它們的自衛機制附帶產生的結果。

  • Plants can't move information through their bodies as easily as we can, especially if water is scarce.

    植物沒辦法跟我們一樣輕易地在體內傳送資訊,尤其在缺水時。

  • So plants may rely on those airborne chemicals to get messages from one part of a plant to another.

    所以植物會依賴空氣傳播的化學物質,將訊息從植物的某一部分傳到其他部份。

  • Nearby plants can eavesdrop on those signals, like overhearing your neighbor sneeze and stocking up on cold medicine.

    附近的植物可竊取這些訊號,就像你無意聽見鄰居打噴嚏後,就先囤積感冒藥一樣。

  • Different plants convey those warnings using different chemical languages.

    不同的植物用不同的化學語言來傳達警告。

  • Individual sagebrush plants in the same meadow release slightly different sets of alarm chemicals.

    同個草原的個別山艾樹會釋放稍微不同的警示化學物。

  • The makeup of that cocktail influences the effectiveness of communication.

    這混合物的組成影響了溝通的效力。

  • The more similar two plants' chemical fingerprints are, the more fluently they can communicate.

    兩株植物的化學標記越相似,交流就越順暢無礙。

  • A plant will be most sensitive to the cues emitted by its own leaves.

    植株對自身葉子所散發的信號最敏感。

  • But because these chemicals seem to be inherited, like human blood types, sagebrush plants communicate more effectively with relatives than with strangers.

    但因為這些化學物質似乎是經遺傳而得的,就像人類的血型,山艾樹在溝通上,跟親戚比陌生植株更有效率。

  • But sometimes, even other species can benefit.

    但有時,其他的物種也能獲益。

  • Tomato and tobacco plants can both decipher sagebrush warning signals.

    蕃茄與菸草植株皆可解讀山艾樹的警告訊號。

  • Plants don't have to rely solely on those airborne broadcasts.

    植物不單只依賴空氣來傳播訊息,

  • Signals can travel below the soil surface, too.

    訊息也可在地下傳播。

  • Most plants have a symbiotic relationship with fungi,

    大多數植物都與真菌類有共生關係,

  • which colonize the plants' roots and help them absorb water and nutrients.

    真菌類在植物的根部繁殖, 並幫助植物吸收水分與養分。

  • These fungal filaments form extensive networks that can connect separate plants, creating an underground super highway for chemical messages.

    這些真菌絲形成多個廣闊的網路連結分開的植物,創造出傳導化學物訊息的地下超級高速公路。

  • When a tomato plant responds to blight by activating disease-fighting genes and enzymes, signaling molecules produced by its immune system can travel to a healthy plant, and prompt it to turn on its immune system, too.

    當蕃茄植株得枯萎病時,會活化對抗疾病的基因與酵素,其免疫系統發出信號的分子會傳播給健康的植株,促使它也啟動免疫系統。

  • These advance warnings increase the plants chance of survival.

    這種提前的警訊提高了植株的存活機率。

  • Bean plants also eavesdrop on each other's health through these fungal conduits.

    豆類植物也會藉由這些真菌管道暗中得知彼此的健康情況。

  • An aphid infestation in one plant triggers its neighbor to ramp up production of compounds that repel aphids, and attract aphid-eating wasps.

    一株植物被蚜蟲侵害時,會刺激其鄰近植株,提高抵制蚜蟲的複合物之產量,並吸引吃蚜蟲的黃蜂。

  • If you think of communication as an exchange of information, then plants seem to be active communicators.

    若你認為溝通是一種交換訊息,那麼植物似乎是活躍的溝通者。

  • They're sending, receiving, and responding to signals without making a sound, and without brains, noses, dictionaries, or the Internet.

    他們一聲不響地傳送、接收並回應訊號,也不需使用頭腦、鼻子、字典或網際網路。

  • And if we can learn to speak to them on their terms, we may gain a powerful new tool to protect crops and other valuable species.

    我們如果能學會用它們的方式與它們溝通,也許就能取得強而有力的新方法, 來保護農作物以及一些珍貴的物種。

  • It all makes you wonder: what else are we missing?

    這不禁讓人好奇地想,我們還有什麼未注意到?

Can plants talk to each other?

植物可以跟彼此溝通嗎?

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 植物 化學 訊號 傳播 溝通

【Ted-Ed】植物會對話嗎? (Can plants talk to each other? - Richard Karban)

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