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  • This is me building a prototype

    這是我組裝的原型

  • for six hours straight.

    它花了我整整六個小時

  • This is slave labor to my own project.

    根本就是件苦差事

  • This is what the DIY and maker movements really look like.

    這正是 DIY 組裝和工人實際作業的模樣

  • And this is an analogy for today's construction and manufacturing world

    這也表現出現今建造業與製造業

  • with brute-force assembly techniques.

    仰賴著如蠻力般的組裝技術

  • And this is exactly why I started studying

    而這正是我為何開始研究

  • how to program physical materials to build themselves.

    如何讓實體物質自我組裝

  • But there is another world.

    但其實還有個全然不同的領域

  • Today at the micro- and nanoscales,

    如今在微米、甚至是奈米的層級下

  • there's an unprecedented revolution happening.

    正進行著前所未有的革命

  • And this is the ability to program physical and biological materials

    而這也使我們有辦法設計物理及生物材料

  • to change shape, change properties

    讓這些材料可以改變其形體與特性

  • and even compute outside of silicon-based matter.

    甚至矽基以外的物質也有可能辦到

  • There's even a software called cadnano

    現在甚至還有一套名為 cadnano 的軟體

  • that allows us to design three-dimensional shapes

    讓我們能設計 3D 形體

  • like nano robots or drug delivery systems

    像是奈米機器人或是藥物制放系統

  • and use DNA to self-assemble those functional structures.

    又或是運用 DNA 去自我組裝出具有功能的構造

  • But if we look at the human scale,

    但如果應用在人類大小的層級中

  • there's massive problems that aren't being addressed

    會有個很大的問題

  • by those nanoscale technologies.

    是奈米科技還未能解決的

  • If we look at construction and manufacturing,

    放眼建造業及製造業

  • there's major inefficiencies, energy consumption

    盡是低效率、耗能

  • and excessive labor techniques.

    和過度仰賴勞力的技術

  • In infrastructure, let's just take one example.

    讓我們看個基礎設施的例子

  • Take piping.

    以水利運輸系統為例

  • In water pipes, we have fixed-capacity water pipes

    以水管來說,都是固定容量、流速的管子

  • that have fixed flow rates, except for expensive pumps and valves.

    外加昂貴的泵和水閥

  • We bury them in the ground.

    我們把水管埋在地下

  • If anything changes -- if the environment changes,

    但如果有任何變動,像是環境變遷

  • the ground moves, or demand changes --

    地殼移動、或是需求改變

  • we have to start from scratch and take them out and replace them.

    我們就得挖出所有管線,並換上新的水管

  • So I'd like to propose that we can combine those two worlds,

    因此我建議將兩者結合

  • that we can combine the world of the nanoscale programmable adaptive materials

    將可編制的奈米級適性材料

  • and the built environment.

    與人工環境做結合

  • And I don't mean automated machines.

    但我指的不是自動化設備

  • I don't just mean smart machines that replace humans.

    也不是要用智能化設備來取代人力

  • But I mean programmable materials that build themselves.

    我指的是讓可編制的材料去自我建構

  • And that's called self-assembly,

    這就叫做自我組裝

  • which is a process by which disordered parts build an ordered structure

    這個過程就是讓一堆混亂的零組件組裝成一個有組織的架構

  • through only local interaction.

    僅僅藉由零組件的局部交互作用進行

  • So what do we need if we want to do this at the human scale?

    如果我們打算運用在人類層級中,還需要些什麼呢?

  • We need a few simple ingredients.

    我們需要一些簡單的概念

  • The first ingredient is materials and geometry,

    首要概念就是材料和幾何原理

  • and that needs to be tightly coupled with the energy source.

    這些需要和能源緊密結合

  • And you can use passive energy --

    我們可以使用被動式能源

  • so heat, shaking, pneumatics, gravity, magnetics.

    像熱能、震動、氣動能、重力、磁力等

  • And then you need smartly designed interactions.

    然後我們需要巧妙地設計這當中的交互作用

  • And those interactions allow for error correction,

    而這些交互作用還要能被錯誤修正

  • and they allow the shapes to go from one state to another state.

    這些交互作用還可以讓物體從一種形態轉換到另一種形態

  • So now I'm going to show you a number of projects that we've built,

    現在要展示的是我們之前做的一些專案

  • from one-dimensional, two-dimensional, three-dimensional

    當中包括一維、二維、三維

  • and even four-dimensional systems.

    甚至還有四維的系統

  • So in one-dimensional systems --

    在一維系統裡

  • this is a project called the self-folding proteins.

    這裡有個名為「自我摺疊的蛋白質」的專案

  • And the idea is that you take the three-dimensional structure of a protein --

    概念就是利用蛋白質的 3D 結構

  • in this case it's the crambin protein --

    這裡我們用「花菜蛋白」來說明

  • you take the backbone -- so no cross-linking, no environmental interactions --

    以該蛋白主鏈來看(沒有交叉鏈結也沒有環境交互作用干擾)

  • and you break that down into a series of components.

    把它分解成一系列的元素零件

  • And then we embed elastic.

    然後置入彈性這個特性

  • And when I throw this up into the air and catch it,

    當我把它丟到半空中,然後接住

  • it has the full three-dimensional structure of the protein, all of the intricacies.

    它就有了花菜蛋白完整的三維結構和蛋白質複雜的特性

  • And this gives us a tangible model

    這項實體實驗表現出

  • of the three-dimensional protein and how it folds

    三維蛋白質和其摺疊的過程

  • and all of the intricacies of the geometry.

    也表現出其中複雜的幾何特性

  • So we can study this as a physical, intuitive model.

    我們可以利用這樣的實際模型來做研究

  • And we're also translating that into two-dimensional systems --

    以此類推應用在二維系統裡

  • so flat sheets that can self-fold into three-dimensional structures.

    讓平版結構可以自我摺疊成三維立體的結構

  • In three dimensions, we did a project last year at TEDGlobal

    去年在 TED Global 展示了一個三維系統的專案

  • with Autodesk and Arthur Olson

    是我們和 Autodesk 及 Arthur Olson 一起合作完成

  • where we looked at autonomous parts --

    在這個案子我們研究獨立運作的組件

  • so individual parts not pre-connected that can come together on their own.

    如何能透過獨自的力量從完全分離的狀況組接完成

  • And we built 500 of these glass beakers.

    另外我們做了五百個用作示範的錐形瓶

  • They had different molecular structures inside

    裡面代表不同的分子構造

  • and different colors that could be mixed and matched.

    這些構造還有不同的顏色可以讓我們去搭配

  • And we gave them away to all the TEDsters.

    然後我們把錐形瓶給了所有的 TED 觀眾

  • And so these became intuitive models

    這些模型幫助我們

  • to understand how molecular self-assembly works at the human scale.

    以巨觀的角度理解分子自我組成的方式

  • This is the polio virus.

    這是小兒麻痺症病毒(脊髓灰質炎病毒)

  • You shake it hard and it breaks apart.

    經過劇烈搖晃之後會分裂

  • And then you shake it randomly

    接著隨意搖晃瓶子

  • and it starts to error correct and built the structure on its own.

    病毒模型就會開始修正錯誤並進行自我組裝

  • And this is demonstrating that through random energy,

    這證實了我們能以不定的能量

  • we can build non-random shapes.

    組成規則的形狀

  • We even demonstrated that we can do this at a much larger scale.

    我們甚至可以擴大自我組裝的應用規模

  • Last year at TED Long Beach,

    例如去年的 TED Long Beach

  • we built an installation that builds installations.

    我們製造了一個可以製造其他設備的裝置

  • The idea was, could we self-assemble furniture-scale objects?

    我們的概念是:像家具般大小的物體能不能自我組裝呢?

  • So we built a large rotating chamber,

    因此我們做了一間巨大的滾動室

  • and people would come up and spin the chamber faster or slower,

    大家可以或快或慢隨意地搖動它

  • adding energy to the system

    提供能量給這座滾動室

  • and getting an intuitive understanding of how self-assembly works

    進而理解自我組裝的過程

  • and how we could use this

    以及我們如何把自我組裝應用在

  • as a macroscale construction or manufacturing technique for products.

    大規模建造業及製造業的生產技術

  • So remember, I said 4D.

    還記得我剛剛提到的四維

  • So today for the first time, we're unveiling a new project,

    今天我們要開啟一項嶄新的專案

  • which is a collaboration with Stratasys,

    是和 Stratasys 公司合作開發

  • and it's called 4D printing.

    一項叫做 4D 輸出的技術

  • The idea behind 4D printing

    4D 輸出的概念就是

  • is that you take multi-material 3D printing --

    我們選用各式的材料去做 3D 輸出

  • so you can deposit multiple materials --

    藉著放入各式不同的材料

  • and you add a new capability,

    再置入新的功能

  • which is transformation,

    也就是轉型

  • that right off the bed,

    造成根本改變

  • the parts can transform from one shape to another shape directly on their own.

    這些組件可以自己直接從一個型態轉型成另一個型態

  • And this is like robotics without wires or motors.

    這概念好比是不用接電線和馬達的機器人

  • So you completely print this part,

    你可以完整列印出這些零組件

  • and it can transform into something else.

    然後它們可以轉型成別的構造

  • We also worked with Autodesk on a software they're developing called Project Cyborg.

    我們也和 Autodesk 合作一個名為 Project Cyborg 的軟體

  • And this allows us to simulate this self-assembly behavior

    可以用來模擬自我組裝的形式

  • and try to optimize which parts are folding when.

    試著去操縱使各個組件在對的時間做摺疊

  • But most importantly, we can use this same software

    最重要的是我們可以用這個軟體

  • for the design of nanoscale self-assembly systems

    來研製奈米級的自我組裝系統

  • and human scale self-assembly systems.

    以及人體規格的自我組裝系統

  • These are parts being printed with multi-material properties.

    這些要被列印的零組件原料會有各式物質的特性

  • Here's the first demonstration.

    這裡是第一個範例

  • A single strand dipped in water

    將一條單鍊浸入水中

  • that completely self-folds on its own

    它會自我摺疊

  • into the letters M I T.

    然後變成了 MIT

  • I'm biased.

    我這是老王賣瓜

  • This is another part, single strand, dipped in a bigger tank

    另一個例子也是將一個單鍊浸入更大的水箱中

  • that self-folds into a cube, a three-dimensional structure, on its own.

    它會自我摺疊成一個 3D 架構的立方體

  • So no human interaction.

    完全沒有外力介入

  • And we think this is the first time

    這是第一次

  • that a program and transformation

    有人將編程設計與轉型的概念

  • has been embedded directly into the materials themselves.

    直接置入到物質本身

  • And it also might just be the manufacturing technique

    這也可以是一項製造技術

  • that allows us to produce more adaptive infrastructure in the future.

    讓我們在未來可以建造出更適性的基礎建設

  • So I know you're probably thinking,

    我想大家可能會想說

  • okay, that's cool, but how do we use any of this stuff for the built environment?

    好吧!這是滿酷的!但我們如何應用它們呢?

  • So I've started a lab at MIT,

    因此我在麻省理工學院開啟了一個實驗室

  • and it's called the Self-Assembly Lab.

    名為「自我組裝實驗室」

  • And we're dedicated to trying to develop programmable materials

    我們致力於發展可被編製的材質

  • for the built environment.

    以應用在人工環境上

  • And we think there's a few key sectors

    我們認為這當中有幾項重點

  • that have fairly near-term applications.

    可以立即應用上的

  • One of those is in extreme environments.

    其中一項就是在極端環境裡的應用

  • These are scenarios where it's difficult to build,

    這些例子顯示出某些艱難的環境

  • our current construction techniques don't work,

    是以我們目前的建造技術所無法克服的

  • it's too large, it's too dangerous, it's expensive, too many parts.

    它可能太大、太危險、太昂貴、太多零件

  • And space is a great example of that.

    外太空就是一個很好的例子

  • We're trying to design new scenarios for space

    我們想要設計一個應用於外太空的方案

  • that have fully reconfigurable and self-assembly structures

    是一個可重新編置且自我組裝的構造

  • that can go from highly functional systems from one to another.

    可以從一個功能系統轉為另一種功能的系統

  • Let's go back to infrastructure.

    我們回到先前基礎建設的例子

  • In infrastructure, we're working with a company out of Boston called Geosyntec.

    我們和一家名為 Geosyntec 的波士頓公司合作

  • And we're developing a new paradigm for piping.

    一起開發一套全新的水力管線的配置

  • Imagine if water pipes could expand or contract

    試想如果我們可以讓水管擴張或收縮

  • to change capacity or change flow rate,

    用以改變容量或流速

  • or maybe even undulate like peristaltics to move the water themselves.

    或是讓水自行呈波浪型向前蠕動

  • So this isn't expensive pumps or valves.

    如此就和使用昂貴的泵和閥的系統是截然不同的

  • This is a completely programmable and adaptive pipe on its own.

    而是是一套可編製跟適應環境的水管系統

  • So I want to remind you today

    所以我今天要告訴大家

  • of the harsh realities of assembly in our world.

    在今日組裝上仍存在實際困難的環境裡

  • These are complex things built with complex parts

    有著由複雜的零件所組成的複雜物品

  • that come together in complex ways.

    用複雜的方式組織起來

  • So I would like to invite you from whatever industry you're from

    所以不論你來自哪個行業領域我希望大家能加入我們

  • to join us in reinventing and reimagining the world,

    和我們一起重新創造、重新想像這個世界

  • how things come together from the nanoscale to the human scale,

    如何讓奈米層級的微等級擴及到人類世界的尺度

  • so that we can go from a world like this

    所以我們可以讓現在的世界

  • to a world that's more like this.

    變成這樣的世界(圖)

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

This is me building a prototype

這是我組裝的原型

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【TED】Skylar Tibbits: "4D 列印" 的出現 (The emergence of "4D printing" | Skylar Tibbits)

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 05 月 25 日
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