Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • I come from one of the most liberal,

    我來自全美最自由、 最包容、最前衛的地方之一:

  • tolerant, progressive places in the United States,

    華盛頓州的西雅圖。

  • Seattle, Washington.

    我在大西雅圖地區的一個家庭長大。

  • And I grew up with a family of great Seattlites.

    我的母親是個藝術家,父親是大學教授,

  • My mother was an artist, my father was a college professor,

    我很感激所得到的教養,

  • and I am truly grateful for my upbringing,

    因為我一直能完全照我的心意

  • because I always felt completely comfortable designing my life

    設計、安排我的生活。

  • exactly as I saw fit.

    事實上,

  • And in point of fact,

    我走了一條並非父母期望的路。

  • I took a route that was not exactly what my parents had in mind.

    我 19 歲的時候休學 ——

  • When I was 19, I dropped out of college --

    休學、退學,類似啦。

  • dropped out, kicked out, splitting hairs.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    我後來成為職業法國號演奏家,

  • And I went on the road as a professional French horn player,

    這是我畢生的夢想。

  • which was my lifelong dream.

    我在歐美各地巡迴兩、三年,

  • I played chamber music all over the United States and Europe,

    演奏室內樂,

  • and I toured for a couple of years

    和知名爵士吉他手查理·博德同團。

  • with a great jazz guitar player named Charlie Bird.

    在我快 30 歲的時候,

  • And by the end of my 20s,

    加入西班牙的巴塞隆納交響樂團。

  • I wound up as a member of the Barcelona Symphony Orchestra in Spain.

    此生無憾了。

  • What a great life.

    我父母從未抱怨過。

  • And you know, my parents never complained.

    他們一路支持我,

  • They supported me all the way through it.

    儘管這不是他們的夢想。

  • It wasn't their dream.

    他們曾跟鄰居和朋友說,

  • They used to tell their neighbors and friends,

    「我們的兒子在放長假。」

  • "Our son, he's taking a gap decade."

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    然後...

  • And --

    我要告訴你一個 有關我生活形式的尷尬對話。

  • There was, however, one awkward conversation about my lifestyle

    27歲時我從巴塞隆納回來,

  • that I want to tell you about.

    在聖誕節時跟父母團聚,

  • I was 27, and I was home from Barcelona,

    當時只有母親和我在廚房煮晚餐。

  • and I was visiting my parents for Christmas,

    她很安靜,一句話都沒說。

  • and I was cooking dinner with my mother, and we were alone in the kitchen.

    我知道一定有什麼事。

  • And she was quiet, too quiet.

    我問:「媽,妳在想什麼?」

  • Something was wrong.

    她回答:「你爸和我很擔心你。」

  • And so I said, "Mom, what's on your mind?"

    我說:「什麼啊?」 意思是,在這個時候有什麼好擔心的?

  • And she said, "Your dad and I are really worried about you."

    她說:「你老實告訴我,

  • And I said, "What?" I mean, what could it be, at this point?

    你投票給了共和黨嗎?」

  • And she said, "I want you to be completely honest with me:

    (笑聲)

  • have you been voting for Republicans?"

    是這樣的,

  • (Laughter)

    我並不把政治掛在嘴邊, 我只是個法國號樂手。

  • Now, the truth is,

    但是我有些頓悟,

  • I wasn't really political, I was just a French horn player.

    我的父母察覺了,所以這樣問。

  • But I had a bit of an epiphany,

    我迷上了資本主義,

  • and they had detected it, and it was causing some confusion.

    讓我告訴你怎麼了。

  • You see, I had become an enthusiast for capitalism,

    似乎從很久以前,

  • and I want to tell you why that is.

    我就一直關心貧窮的問題。

  • It stems from a lifelong interest of mine

    我從小在西雅圖長大,

  • in, believe it or not, poverty.

    還記得第一次看到真正的貧窮。

  • See, when I was a kid growing up in Seattle,

    我們是較低的中產階級家庭, 並不真正窮,

  • I remember the first time I saw real poverty.

    和貧窮差得遠了。

  • We were a lower middle class family, but that's of course not real poverty.

    第一次看到貧窮、貧窮的臉,

  • That's not even close.

    是在我六、七歲時, 也就是在70年代早期,

  • The first time I saw poverty, and poverty's face,

    和許多人一樣,我看到一個平淡無奇, 甚至可算陳腐的例子,

  • was when I was six or seven years old, early 1970s.

    是一張國家地理雜誌曾經刊登的照片,

  • And it was like a lot of you, kind of a prosaic example, kind of trite.

    一個跟我差不多年紀的東非孩子,

  • It was a picture in the National Geographic Magazine

    他的臉上有許多蒼蠅,肚子腫脹。

  • of a kid who was my age in East Africa,

    我知道他活不了多久了,但我無能為力。

  • and there were flies on his face and a distended belly.

    你可能記得這張照片,

  • And he wasn't going to make it, and I knew that, and I was helpless.

    或者是其他類似的照片。

  • Some of you remember that picture,

    這照片讓西方看見世界其他地方的赤貧。

  • not exactly that picture, one just like it.

    這影像在我腦海中盤旋不去。

  • It introduced the West to grinding poverty around the world.

    我長大、上學、休學、復學,

  • Well, that vision kind of haunted me as I grew up and I went to school

    然後有了自己的家庭。

  • and I dropped out and dropped in

    我心裡想著,那小孩後來怎樣了?

  • and started my family.

    世界上其他類似的人怎樣了?

  • And I wondered, what happened to that kid?

    雖然沒上大學,我還是開始研究這個問題,

  • Or to people just like him all over the world?

    試著找出答案。

  • And so I started to study, even though I wasn't in college,

    世界上最貧窮的人後來怎樣了?

  • I was looking for the answer:

    他們的情況更糟嗎?變好了嗎?到底怎麼了?

  • what happened to the world's poorest people?

    最後我找到答案,也徹底改變了我自己,

  • Has it gotten worse? Has it gotten better? What?

    這就是我接下來要與你們分享的。

  • And I found the answer, and it changed my life,

    是這樣的 --

  • and I want to share it with you.

    大部分美國人以為 自我們幼時、或看到這景象時,

  • See --

    到現在,貧窮情況愈來愈糟。

  • most Americans believe that poverty has gotten worse

    如果你問一位美國人, 「世上的貧窮是更嚴重還是改善了?」

  • since we were children, since they saw that vision.

    百分之七十的人回答, 自70年代到現在,越來越多人挨餓。

  • If you ask Americans, "Has poverty gotten worse or better around the world?",

    但,實情如下。

  • 70 percent will say that hunger has gotten worse since the early 1970s.

    下面的頓悟改變了我的想法。

  • But here's the truth.

    從1970年到今天,

  • Here's the epiphany that I had that changed my thinking.

    世界上飢餓人口的百分比,

  • From 1970 until today,

    意即,隨通貨膨脹調整, 每天少於一美元的生活費,

  • the percentage of the world's population

    百分比下降了八成之多。

  • living in starvation levels,

    從我幼時到現在, 世界的赤貧人口減少了80%。

  • living on a dollar a day or less, obviously adjusted for inflation,

    以前我並不知道。

  • that percentage has declined

    朋友們,這是個奇蹟啊!

  • by 80 percent.

    我們應該為這件事慶祝。

  • There's been an 80 percent decline in the world's worst poverty

    這是人類歷史上 消滅貧窮最大的成就,

  • since I was a kid.

    而且就發生在我們這一生中。

  • And I didn't even know about it.

    (掌聲)

  • This, my friends, that's a miracle.

    得知這事實時,我找原因, 想知道是如何脫貧的?

  • That's something we ought to celebrate.

    如果我們不知道原因, 就不能繼續改善貧窮的情況。

  • It's the greatest antipoverty achievement in the history of mankind,

    如果要複製 使另外二十億人能夠脫離貧窮,

  • and it happened in our lifetimes.

    如同我們正在談論的,

  • (Applause)

    從我幼時至今,

  • So when I learned this, I asked, what did that? What made it possible?

    有二十億最貧困的弟兄姊妹們已脫離赤貧。

  • Because if you don't know why, you can't do it again.

    我要接下來的二十億人也脫離貧困, 所以我必須明白如何辦得到。

  • If you want to replicate it

    我尋找答案。

  • and get the next two billion people out of poverty,

    不是政治的答案,因我不在乎政治。

  • because that's what we're talking about: since I was a kid,

    至今,我仍不在乎政治。

  • two billion of the least of these, our brothers and sisters,

    我要主流經濟學家的最好答案,

  • have been pulled out of poverty.

    不管左派、中間、或右派。

  • I want the next two billion, so I've got to know why.

    答案揭曉。

  • And I went in search of an answer.

    是這些原因。

  • And it wasn't a political answer, because I didn't care.

    自幼至今,是這五個原因

  • You know what, I still don't care.

    使二十億我們的弟兄姊妹們脫離貧窮。

  • I wanted the best answer from mainstream economists

    一:全球化。

  • left, right and center.

    二:自由貿易。

  • And here it is.

    三:產權。

  • Here are the reasons.

    四:法治。

  • There are five reasons that two billion of our brothers and sisters

    五:創業。

  • have been pulled out of poverty since I was a kid.

    是1970年後,廣泛散佈世界各地的 自由企業制度所達成的。

  • Number one: globalization.

    我並不天真。

  • Number two: free trade.

    我知道自由企業制度並非完美,

  • Number three: property rights.

    我們不能僅靠自由企業制度

  • Number four: rule of law.

    來建造更美好的世界。

  • Number five: entrepreneurship.

    但是它很棒。

  • It was the free enterprise system spreading around the world

    它凌駕於政治之上。

  • after 1970 that did that.

    這是我學到、頓悟到的。

  • Now, I'm not naive.

    資本主義不僅是資產的累積。

  • I know that free enterprise isn't perfect,

    而是心願、抱負的極致,

  • and I know that free enterprise isn't everything we need

    如同這講台上許多人所說的,

  • to build a better world.

    在自由企業制度中的資本主義

  • But that is great.

    能夠讓夢想延伸成心願、抱負。

  • And that's beyond politics.

    而且我們必須與更多的人分享。

  • Here's what I learned. This is the epiphany.

    讓我告訴你第二個頓悟,

  • Capitalism is not just about accumulation.

    與第一個有關,

  • At its best, it's about aspiration,

    它能帶來進步,不只世界各地,

  • which is what so many people on this stage talk about,

    我們美國本地也是。

  • is the aspiration that comes from dreams

    我所聽過最好的引用句,

  • that are embedded in the free enterprise system.

    總結我剛剛所說

  • And we've got to share it with more people.

    拯救貧窮的想法,

  • Now, I want to tell you about a second epiphany

    如下:

  • that's related to that first one

    「自由市場比歷史上任何的機制 創造了更多的財富。

  • that I think can bring us progress, not just around the world,

    它們使數十億的人出脫貧窮。」

  • but right here at home.

    誰說的?

  • The best quote I've ever heard

    聽起來像米爾頓·弗里德曼 或 雷根總統。

  • to summarize the thoughts that I've just given you

    錯了。

  • about pulling people out of poverty

    奧巴馬總統說的。

  • is as follows:

    為什麼我熟知?

  • "Free markets have created more wealth than any system in history.

    因為是他對我說的。

  • They have lifted billions out of poverty."

    難以置信啊。

  • Who said it?

    我說,「哈利路亞!」

  • It sounds like Milton Friedman or Ronald Reagan.

    我還說,

  • Wrong.

    「大好的機會。」

  • President Barack Obama said that.

    可知道我想什麼?

  • Why do I know it by heart?

    那是2015年的5月,

  • Because he said it to me.

    我們正在喬治城大學研討這議題。

  • Crazy.

    當時我想,這正是當前美國 所面對的最大問題的解答。

  • And I said, "Hallelujah."

    什麼?

  • But more than that, I said,

    是接受這些想法,

  • "What an opportunity."

    自由派和保守派攜手幫助 那些最需要被幫助的人。

  • You know what I was thinking?

    不需要我告訴在座的各位 我們正面臨危機,

  • It was at an event that we were doing on the subject

    美國和世界各地許多國家 正面臨政治的兩極化。

  • at Georgetown University in May of 2015.

    已經升高到關鍵危機的層次。

  • And I thought, this is the solution

    這是不宜人、不對的。

  • to the biggest problem facing America today. What?

    西方世界最負盛名的期刊之一的 美國國家科學院期刊,

  • It's coming together around these ideas,

    在去年發表了一篇文章。

  • liberals and conservatives,

    這篇2014年的文章講得是

  • to help people who need us the most.

    政治動機的不對稱性。

  • Now, I don't have to tell anybody in this room that we're in a crisis,

    那是什麼?這就是心理學家所說的現象:

  • in America and many countries around the world with political polarization.

    臆斷你的思想基於愛,

  • It's risen to critical, crisis levels.

    而對手的思想卻基於仇恨。

  • It's unpleasant. It's not right.

    這是世界衝突常見的現象。

  • There was an article last year

    例如,在以巴衝突中看得到。

  • in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,

    本文作者發現

  • which is one of the most prestigious scientific journals

    在今日的美國, 大多數共和黨和民主黨人

  • published in the West.

    苦於政治動機的不對稱性。