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  • Whether you say tomato or tomato, it’s clear that your accent is a defining feature of

    不管你說 tomato或是 tomato,你的口音都是一個很明顯的個人特徵

  • who you are. Everyone has an accent (heck, even goats have regional ways of saying BAAH),

    每個人都有口音(甚至是山羊都有地域性的叫聲)

  • but what’s the science behind language acquisition and does your accent say something about you?

    那語言掌握背後的學問是什麼呢? 你的口音又會透露出哪些訊息呢?

  • In an American survey, 47% of adults found British accents to be sophisticated, while

    一份美國的調查顯示,47%的成年人覺得英國口音很複雜,

  • 51% thought New York accents were rude; Southern accents were considered nice but possibly

    而有51%的人覺得紐約口音很粗魯;南方口音被視為和善但可能是沒受教育的,

  • uneducated, while New England accents were considered intelligent. But it turns out that

    新英格蘭口音被視為聰明的,但這樣表示

  • humans have a bias towards others who sound like them or have the same accent. Of course,

    人類對於和他們相似或是相同的口音存在著偏見,

  • it’s important to distinguish between a native language accent and an additional language

    當然,區別出當地和外地口音是重要的

  • accent. English native language accents depend on factors such as geographic location and

    當地的英文口音取決於一些因素,像是地理位置

  • socioeconomic status. For example a cockney accent of the working class London is markedly

    和社會地位,舉例來說,一位勞動階級的考克尼音明顯地

  • different than the Queen’s Received Pronunciation.

    跟標準的女王音不同

  • However, when it comes to non-native language accents, things are more complicated. If you

    可是提到非當地的英文口音,事情就更複雜了,

  • decide to move to Spain and learn Spanish as an English speaker, you will always speak

    如果身為一個英文母語者,你決定去西班牙並且學習西文,

  • with an English accent - even if you remain there for decades. After the age of 12, the

    就算你待在那裏幾十年,你還是會帶有英文口音,

  • length of residence has almost no effect on your accent. Studies pinpoint the ideal age

    你居住的時間長短幾乎對你的口音沒影響,研究精確的指出理想的年齡

  • as 6 years old, with diminishing ability from that forward.

    是在六歲,接著能力會隨者年齡增長消失

  • Interestingly, some stroke patients wake with an accent completely different to their original

    有趣的是,一些中風的患者醒來後,口音跟他原本的聲音完全不同

  • voice. This condition is known as theForeign Accent Syndromeand results from damage

    這個情況就是「外國口音綜合症」,

  • to the insula region of the brain which is responsible for language processing.

    起因來自大腦負責語言處理的島葉部分受的傷害,

  • One integral aspect of language is the phoneme. Phonemes are the different sound units we

    另外,語言其中一個的整體的面向是音位(語言學術語),音位是我們用來構成單字的不同聲音單元

  • use to make up words - some of which are unique to different languages. For example, the phonemes

    不同的語言都有一些獨特的音位,例如th的音位

  • with TH (th and th) as in words liketheandthingdo not exist in German, making

    像是「the」和「thing」就不存在於德文,

  • it difficult for German speakers to pronounce these words properly. Conversely, there are

    使得德文母語者比較難正確的去發與其類似的音,相反地,

  • many phonemes in other languages that as English speakers we cannot pronounce or even hear

    也有很多語言的音位是我們英文母語者很難發音甚至很難聽到的

  • properly.

  • In a groundbreaking study, 32 American and 32 Japanese six month old babies listened

    有一個開創性的研究,讓32個美國和32個日本六個月大的寶寶

  • to a recorder playla la larepeatedly. When the recording switched tola la ra

    去重複聽錄音「la la la」,當錄音變成「la la ra」

  • a toy to the side would light up and play a musical tune. The babies were primed to

    玩具就會亮燈然後演奏美妙的旋律,

  • understand that recognizing the difference betweenlaandralead to an audio-visual

    寶寶們就會辨別出透過視聽覺呈現的「la」和「ra」

  • reward and both the American and Japanese 6 month old babies were able to tell the difference

    而且所有美國和日本六個月大的寶寶都能講出不同之處

  • and anticipate the toy reward when necessary. ButLaandraare phonemes that

    必要時,會給予玩具當獎賞,但是「La」和「ra」

  • do not exist in the Japanese language. When this study was replicated with 10-12 month

    卻是不存在於日文的音位,當這項研究複製到10到12月大的寶寶時,

  • old babies, the Japanese babies could not tell the difference between these uniquely

    日本的寶寶就無法講出這些英文音位的不同,

  • English phonemes, showing that a critical period for recognizing phonemes and brain

    這顯示出便別音位和腦部發展的關鍵時期

  • development is at merely six months old.

    是僅在六個月大的時候

  • If you try and learn a language, regardless of your age, synaptic connections are made,

    如果你試著學習一個與言,不管你的年齡,最終造出腦部灰色組織及強壯的白質網絡

  • which ultimately create a denser grey matter and stronger white matter networks. In fact,

    的染色體就會有所連結,事實上,

  • those who have grown up in bilingual households are consistently more sensitive to subtle

    相較於單一語言的家庭,那些成長在雙語家庭的人

  • language differences compared to their monolingual counterparts. Brain scans have shown that

    都對語言上的不同比較敏感,腦部斷層掃描顯示

  • bilingual babies have stronger brain responses in their orbital and prefrontal cortices,

    雙語家庭寶寶的腦部眶皮層和前額葉皮質都有較強烈的反應

  • which are areas linked to focus and problem-solving abilities.

    就是負責專注和解決問題能力的區域

  • But have you ever wondered why so many people hate the sound of their own voice? We break

    但你曾想過為何很多人討厭他們自己的聲音嗎?

  • down the science and challenge some people to come to terms with their own voice in our

    我們從科學的角度去分析,讓一些人在我們的AsapTHOUGHT影片中挑戰,並接受自己的聲音

  • AsapTHOUGHT video. Check it out with the link in the description

    看看我們的介紹連結

  • And subscriber for more weekly science videos.

    然後訂閱看更多每周發佈的科學影片

Whether you say tomato or tomato, it’s clear that your accent is a defining feature of

不管你說 tomato或是 tomato,你的口音都是一個很明顯的個人特徵

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你的口音偷偷洩漏了什麼事情? (What Does Your Accent Say About You?)

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    Stephtt. 發佈於 2016 年 11 月 02 日
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