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  • When you have 21 minutes to speak,

    當你有21分鐘發言時間,

  • two million years seems like a really long time.

    相比之下二百萬年似乎是很長一段時間

  • But evolutionarily, two million years is nothing.

    但就進化論而言,二百萬年是很短的

  • And yet in two million years the human brain has nearly tripled in mass,

    然而,二百萬年的時間,人腦的體積增長了將近3倍

  • going from the one-and-a-quarter pound brain of our ancestor here, Habilis,

    從直立猿人(我們的祖先)的 1.25磅腦袋,

  • to the almost three-pound meatloaf that everybody here has between their ears.

    到現在我們每個人兩耳中間的近3磅重的肉餅

  • What is it about a big brain that nature was so eager for every one of us to have one?

    大腦究竟有什麼特質,讓我們每個人都需要有一個呢?

  • Well, it turns out when brains triple in size,

    哦,原來人腦體積增加了近3倍後

  • they don't just get three times bigger; they gain new structures.

    不單只增大了,它們還配備新的結構

  • And one of the main reasons our brain got so big is because it got a new part,

    它們變得那麼大的主因之一,是因為新增了一個部分

  • called the "frontal lobe." And particularly, a part called the "pre-frontal cortex."

    稱為「額葉」,尤其是稱為「前額葉皮質」的部分

  • Now what does a pre-frontal cortex do for you that should justify

    究竟前額葉皮質有什麼功能可以

  • the entire architectural overhaul of the human skull in the blink of evolutionary time?

    在進化過程中,一瞬間重整全部頭骨的結構?

  • Well, it turns out the pre-frontal cortex does lots of things,

    哦,原來,前額葉皮質能做很多功能,

  • but one of the most important things it does

    但其中一個最重要的功能

  • is it is an experience simulator.

    是作為一個經驗模擬器

  • Flight pilots practice in flight simulators

    飛機駕駛員利用飛行模擬器練習

  • so that they don't make real mistakes in planes.

    以減低在真正駕駛時的出錯率

  • Human beings have this marvelous adaptation

    人類有這種非凡的能力

  • that they can actually have experiences in their heads

    可以先在腦中創造模擬經驗

  • before they try them out in real life.

    然後在現實生活中嘗試實行

  • This is a trick that none of our ancestors could do,

    我們的祖先無法這麼做

  • and that no other animal can do quite like we can. It's a marvelous adaptation.

    也沒有其他動物能做到,這是一種非凡的適應能力

  • It's up there with opposable thumbs and standing upright and language

    非凡程度可以比美相對的十指、雙腳的站立、語言

  • as one of the things that got our species out of the trees

    這些能力讓我們從住在森林中進化到

  • and into the shopping mall.

    能進入購物商場

  • Now -- (Laughter) -- all of you have done this.

    現在-- 在座每個人都做過

  • I mean, you know,

    我的意思是

  • Ben and Jerry's doesn't have liver-and-onion ice cream,

    Ben & Jerry’s冰淇淋店沒有賣肝臟加洋蔥口味

  • and it's not because they whipped some up, tried it and went, "Yuck."

    不是因為他們試吃過了才發現很難吃

  • It's because, without leaving your armchair,

    而是因為,只要坐在那

  • you can simulate that flavor and say "yuck" before you make it.

    就能模擬那味道,光想就知道很難吃

  • Let's see how your experience simulators are working.

    來看看我們的經驗模擬器是怎樣運作

  • Let's just run a quick diagnostic before I proceed with the rest of the talk.

    在我繼續演講前,先很快的問大家個問題

  • Here's two different futures that I invite you to contemplate,

    請你們想一下這兩個不同的未來

  • and you can try to simulate them and tell me which one you think you might prefer.

    試著模擬這兩個未來,然後告訴我你比較喜歡哪個

  • One of them is winning the lottery. This is about 314 million dollars.

    第一個是中彩卷,約三億一千四百萬美金

  • And the other is becoming paraplegic.

    另外個是下半身癱瘓

  • So, just give it a moment of thought.

    讓大家考慮一下

  • You probably don't feel like you need a moment of thought.

    你可能覺得這根本不用考慮

  • Interestingly, there are data on these two groups of people,

    有趣的是,我們有這兩組人的數據

  • data on how happy they are.

    他們有多快樂的數據

  • And this is exactly what you expected, isn't it?

    你們預期的像這樣,對嗎?

  • But these aren't the data. I made these up!

    但這些不是真的數據,是我作出來的!

  • These are the data. You failed the pop quiz, and you're hardly five minutes into the lecture.

    這些才是真正的數據。演講還不到5分鐘,你們小考就不及格了

  • Because the fact is that a year after losing the use of their legs,

    因為實際上,下半身癱瘓之後一年,

  • and a year after winning the lotto, lottery winners and paraplegics

    和中了彩卷之後一年,贏彩卷和癱瘓的人

  • are equally happy with their lives.

    都同樣地滿意他們的生活

  • Now, don't feel too bad about failing the first pop quiz,

    現在,請不要為第一次小考不及格感到丟臉

  • because everybody fails all of the pop quizzes all of the time.

    小考不合格的情況是很常發生的事

  • The research that my laboratory has been doing,

    根據我的實驗室所做的研究

  • that economists and psychologists around the country have been doing,

    全國各地的經濟學家和心理學家也在做的研究

  • have revealed something really quite startling to us,

    得出一些令人吃驚的結論

  • something we call the "impact bias,"

    我們稱之為 預測的偏差

  • which is the tendency for the simulator to work badly.

    這是指模擬器出錯的狀況

  • For the simulator to make you believe that different outcomes

    這模擬器預測不同未來的差異

  • are more different than in fact they really are.

    比實際的差異還大

  • From field studies to laboratory studies,

    從實地研究到實驗室研究

  • we see that winning or losing an election, gaining or losing a romantic partner,

    我們都看到,選舉勝出或落敗、獲得或失去一個伴侶

  • getting or not getting a promotion, passing or not passing a college test,

    有沒有得到升遷、有沒有通過大學入學考

  • on and on, have far less impact, less intensity and much less duration

    等等產生的影響,比預期中較輕、較弱、及時間較短

  • than people expect them to have.

    不同人們所想像的

  • In fact, a recent study -- this almost floors me --

    事實上,令我完全屈服的是

  • a recent study showing how major life traumas affect people

    最近一項研究,關於人生重大創傷造成的影響

  • suggests that if it happened over three months ago,

    顯示,創傷發生超過3個月之後

  • with only a few exceptions,

    只有少數例外

  • it has no impact whatsoever on your happiness.

    否則它對你的人生幸福並沒有任何影響

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Because happiness can be synthesized.

    因為快樂是可以合成的

  • Sir Thomas Brown wrote in 1642, "I am the happiest man alive.

    托馬斯.布朗爵士在1642年寫道: 「我是活著中最幸福的人」

  • I have that in me that can convert poverty to riches, adversity to prosperity.

    「我擁有的潛能可以把貧困轉換為財富,逆境轉換為繁榮」

  • I am more invulnerable than Achilles; fortune hath not one place to hit me."

    「我比阿基里斯更加刀槍不入;命運找不到一處能打擊我的地方。」

  • What kind of remarkable machinery does this guy have in his head?

    這傢伙的腦子裡有什麼非凡的機器嗎

  • Well, it turns out it's precisely the same remarkable machinery that all off us have.

    原來,這非凡的機器我們每個人都有

  • Human beings have something that we might think of as a "psychological immune system."

    人類有種東西可視為是 精神免疫的系統

  • A system of cognitive processes, largely non-conscious cognitive processes,

    認知程序的系統,大量不自覺的認知程序

  • that help them change their views of the world,

    能幫助他們改變自己的世界觀

  • so that they can feel better about the worlds in which they find themselves.

    能使他們對自己的生活,產生更好的感受

  • Like Sir Thomas, you have this machine.

    和托馬斯爵士一樣,你們也有這機器

  • Unlike Sir Thomas, you seem not to know it. (Laughter)

    和托馬斯爵士不一樣的是,你們並不知道這點

  • We synthesize happiness, but we think happiness is a thing to be found.

    我們能合成快樂,但我們認為快樂是尋找來的

  • Now, you don't need me to give you too many examples of people synthesizing happiness,

    現在,你們並不需要我給太多合成快樂的例子

  • I suspect. Though I'm going to show you some experimental evidence,

    但是我要給你們一些實驗例子

  • you don't have to look very far for evidence.

    一些很容易找到的證據

  • As a challenge to myself, since I say this once in a while in lectures,

    算是給我自己的挑戰,因為我偶爾在演講時會講

  • I took a copy of the New York Times and tried to find some instances of people synthesizing happiness.

    我用一份紐約時報想試圖找出一些合成快樂的例子

  • And here are three guys synthesizing happiness.

    這裡有三個人合成快樂

  • "I am so much better off physically, financially, emotionally, mentally

    「我在多方面也比以前好多了,身體上、經濟上、感情上、精神上、

  • and almost every other way." "I don't have one minute's regret.

    幾乎所有的方面 」、「我沒有一點的遺憾,

  • It was a glorious experience." "I believe it turned out for the best."

    這是一個光榮的歷程」、「最後的結果是最好的」

  • Who are these characters who are so damn happy?

    這些快樂的人究竟是誰呢?

  • Well, the first one is Jim Wright.

    第一位是吉姆.賴特

  • Some of you are old enough to remember: he was the chairman of the House of Representatives

    有些人年紀較大可能記得,他當過美國眾議院主席

  • and he resigned in disgrace when this young Republican named Newt Gingrich

    因為被一位年輕的共和黨員紐特.金奇

  • found out about a shady book deal he had done.

    揭發受賄醜聞而黯然辭職

  • He lost everything. The most powerful Democrat in the country,

    他失去了一切,曾是全國擁有最大權力的民主黨員

  • he lost everything.

    他失去了一切

  • He lost his money; he lost his power.

    他失去了他的金錢、他的權力

  • What does he have to say all these years later about it?

    那麼他在多年後說了什麼?

  • "I am so much better off physically, financially, mentally

    「我好多了,不管是身體上、經濟上、感情上、精神上、

  • and in almost every other way."

    幾乎所有的方面 」

  • What other way would there be to be better off?

    還有什麼方面能變得更好?

  • Vegetably? Minerally? Animally? He's pretty much covered them there.

    植物上?礦物上?動物上?他差不多都說完啦

  • Moreese Bickham is somebody you've never heard of.

    你們應該沒有聽說這位慕仁.碧咸

  • Moreese Bickham uttered these words upon being released.

    慕仁.碧咸被釋放時說出這些話

  • He was 78 years old. He spent 37 years

    他那時78歲,他被關了37年,

  • in a Louisiana State Penitentiary for a crime he didn't commit.

    在路易斯安那州監獄,因一宗他沒有犯的罪

  • He was ultimately exonerated,

    78歲時,因為DNA證據

  • at the age of 78, through DNA evidence.

    他最後被證明無罪

  • And what did he have to say about his experience?

    那他被釋放時說了什麼?

  • "I don't have one minute's regret. It was a glorious experience."

    「我沒有一點的遺憾,這是一個光榮的歷程。」

  • Glorious! This guy is not saying,

    光榮的!這傢伙不是說:

  • "Well, you know, there were some nice guys. They had a gym."

    「嗯,獄中有一些人還不錯的,又有健身房。」

  • It's "glorious,"

    他說「光榮」

  • a word we usually reserve for something like a religious experience.

    這個字通常只用來形容宗教體驗之類的吧

  • Harry S. Langerman uttered these words, and he's somebody you might have known

    哈利.蘭格曼說出以下這些話,你們可能原本會認識他

  • but didn't, because in 1949 he read a little article in the paper

    但最後沒有,因為在1949年,他讀了一篇文章

  • about a hamburger stand owned by these two brothers named McDonalds.

    關於兩個姓麥當勞的兄弟所擁有的一個漢堡攤

  • And he thought, "That's a really neat idea!"

    他想︰「這是一個非常好的主意!」

  • So he went to find them. They said,

    於是,他找到那兩兄弟。他們說︰

  • "We can give you a franchise on this for 3,000 bucks."

    「3000美元,我們就給你經營權」

  • Harry went back to New York, asked his brother who's an investment banker

    哈利回到紐約,請他那個做投資銀行家的兄弟

  • to loan him the 3,000 dollars,

    讓他貸款3000美元

  • and his brother's immortal words were,

    那兄弟的不朽話語是︰

  • "You idiot, nobody eats hamburgers."

    「你這白痴,沒有人吃漢堡的」

  • He wouldn't lend him the money, and of course six months later

    他沒有借給他錢,當然,半年後

  • Ray Croc had exactly the same idea.

    一位雷‧克羅也有相同的想法

  • It turns out people do eat hamburgers,

    原來很多人喜歡吃漢堡

  • and Ray Croc, for a while, became the richest man in America.

    有段時間,雷‧克羅成了美國最富有的人

  • And then finally -- you know, the best of all possible worlds --

    最後,最精彩的這個

  • some of you recognize this young photo of Pete Best,

    有一些人可能認得這位彼得‧貝斯特年輕時的照片

  • who was the original drummer for the Beatles,

    他原是披頭四的鼓手

  • until they, you know, sent him out on an errand and snuck away

    直到他們打發了他

  • and picked up Ringo on a tour.

    找了林哥一起巡迴

  • Well, in 1994, when Pete Best was interviewed

    好了,當彼得在1994年接受採訪時

  • -- yes, he's still a drummer; yes, he's a studio musician --

    是,他仍是個鼓手;是,他是個錄音室音樂家

  • he had this to say: "I'm happier than I would have been with the Beatles."

    他曾這樣說:「我現在比我在披頭四時更快樂」

  • Okay. There's something important to be learned from these people,

    好吧。我們可以從這些人身上學到些很重要的東西

  • and it is the secret of happiness.

    就是快樂的秘訣

  • Here it is, finally to be revealed.

    現在,要揭露了

  • First: accrue wealth, power, and prestige,

    第一:累積財富、權力和威望

  • then lose it. (Laughter)

    然後失去它們

  • Second: spend as much of your life in prison as you possibly can.

    第二:能被關多久就被關多久

  • (Laughter) Third: make somebody else really, really rich. (Laughter)

    第三:讓別人變得非常非常富有

  • And finally: never ever join the Beatles. (Laughter)

    最後:永遠不要加入披頭四

  • OK. Now I, like Ze Frank, can predict your next thought,

    現在,像澤‧法蘭克一樣,我可以預測你們在想什麼

  • which is, "Yeah, right." Because when

    就是「對啦,最好是」

  • people synthesize happiness, as these gentlemen seem to have done,

    因為當人合成快樂時,像這些人的例子

  • we all smile at them, but we kind of roll our eyes and say,

    我們臉上掛著微笑,但其實都翻著白眼想︰

  • "Yeah right, you never really wanted the job."

    「是嗎?你從來沒有想過要那份工作?」

  • "Oh yeah, right. You really didn't

    「是嗎?你和她」

  • have that much in common with her,

    確實沒有什麼共同點

  • and you figured that out just about the time

    而你就在她把訂婚戒指扔向你的時候

  • she threw the engagement ring in your face."

    才發現這個事實」

  • We smirk because we believe that synthetic happiness

    我們偷笑,是因為我們認為合成快樂

  • is not of the same quality as what we might call "natural happiness."

    次於自然快樂

  • What are these terms?

    這是什麼術語?

  • Natural happiness is what we get when we get what we wanted,

    自然快樂,是我們得到心理所想要的東西那種快樂

  • and synthetic happiness is what we make when we don't get what we wanted.

    合成快樂,是我們得不到想要的東西時,改變想法的快樂

  • And in our society, we have a strong belief

    在我們的社會,我們堅信

  • that synthetic happiness is of an inferior kind.

    合成快樂是比較差的一種

  • Why do we have that belief?

    為什麼我們這樣想?

  • Well, it's very simple. What kind of economic engine

    很簡單,我們的經濟發展

  • would keep churning

    會變成怎樣

  • if we believed that not getting what we want could make us just as happy as getting it?

    如果我們相信,得不到想要的東西和得到想要的東西都能同樣地快樂?

  • With all apologies to my friend Matthieu Ricard,

    先向我的朋友馬修‧瑞卡道歉

  • a shopping mall full of Zen monks

    一個只有僧侶光顧的購物中心

  • is not going to be particularly profitable

    是很難取得高利潤

  • because they don't want stuff enough.

    因他們的購買慾不夠強

  • I want to suggest to you that synthetic happiness

    我想告訴各位,合成快樂的

  • is every bit as real and enduring

    真實性和持久性

  • as the kind of happiness you stumble upon

    其實和那種當你達到目標

  • when you get exactly what you were aiming for.

    所得到的快樂一樣程度

  • Now, I'm a scientist, so I'm going to do this not with rhetoric,

    我是一個科學家,所以我不只是空談

  • but by marinating you in a little bit of data.

    我會用一些數據來感化你們

  • Let me first show you an experimental paradigm that is used

    首先,這個典型的實驗範例

  • to demonstrate the synthesis of happiness

    用來說明合成的快樂

  • among regular old folks. And this isn't mine.

    這是較早之前的,不是我的範例

  • This is a 50-year-old paradigm called the "free choice paradigm."

    差不多50年前的,稱為自由選擇模式

  • It's very simple.

    這很簡單

  • You bring in, say, six objects,

    你有6件物件

  • and you ask a subject to rank them from the most to the least liked.

    請你的實驗對象用自己對物件的好感程度排名

  • In this case, because the experiment I'm going to tell you about uses them,

    在這實驗中的研究員使用了

  • these are Monet prints.

    莫內的畫

  • So, everybody can rank these Monet prints

    每個人都以喜好來排這些莫內的印刷畫

  • from the one they like the most, to the one they like the least.

    由最喜歡到最不喜歡

  • Now we give you a choice:

    現在,我們告訴你:

  • "We happen to have some extra prints in the closet.

    「我們有些多餘的印刷畫放在櫃子裡」

  • We're going to give you one as your prize to take home.

    「我們送你一張作為獎品」

  • We happen to have number three and number four,"

    「我們正好有3號和4號」

  • we tell the subject. This is a bit of a difficult choice,

    就這樣告訴他們,這是個有點困難的抉擇

  • because neither one is preferred strongly to the other,

    因為兩張沒有太大的喜好差異

  • but naturally, people tend to pick number three

    但自然地,他們傾向選擇3號

  • because they liked it a little better than number four.

    因為比4號還更喜歡一點

  • Sometime later -- it could be 15 minutes; it could be 15 days --

    之後,可能是15分鐘後,也可能是15天後

  • the same stimuli are put before the subject,

    實驗對象會再看同一組物件

  • and the subject is asked to re-rank the stimuli.

    請他們重新排列好感程度

  • "Tell us how much you like them now."

    「請告訴我們,你有多喜歡它們」

  • What happens? Watch as happiness is synthesized.

    會發生什麼事呢?請看快樂被合成

  • This is the result that has been replicated over and over again.

    重做實驗也得出這結果

  • You're watching happiness be synthesized.

    你們正在看快樂被合成

  • Would you like to see it again? Happiness!

    你們想再看一次嗎?快樂!

  • "The one I got is really better than I thought!

    「我擁有的那件物件真的比我想像中好!

  • That other one I didn't get sucks!"

    「我沒有選擇的那件物件真爛!」

  • (Laughter) That's the synthesis of happiness.

    這正是合成的快樂

  • Now what's the right response to that? "Yeah, right!"

    好了,正確的反應怎樣的?「噢,真的嗎?」

  • Now, here's the experiment we did,

    這個是我們做的實驗

  • and I would hope this is going to convince you that

    希望這個實驗能說服你們

  • "Yeah, right!" was not the right response.

    「對啦,最好是」不是正確的反應

  • We did this experiment with a group of patients

    我們以病人為實驗對象來重做以上的實驗,

  • who had anterograde amnesia. These are hospitalized patients.

    是患有順行性遺忘症的病人,長期住院的患者

  • Most of them have Korsakoff's syndrome,

    他們多數患有科爾薩科夫氏症候群

  • a polyneuritic psychosis that -- they drank way too much,

    一種複合性神經炎 - 他們酒喝太多

  • and they can't make new memories.

    無法製造新的回憶

  • OK? They remember their childhood, but if you walk in and introduce yourself,

    懂嗎?他們還記得童年,但如果你向他們自我介紹

  • and then leave the room,

    然後離開房間

  • when you come back, they don't know who you are.

    當你再回去時,他們已經忘記你是誰

  • We took our Monet prints to the hospital.

    我們把莫內的印刷畫帶到醫院

  • And we asked these patients to rank them

    要這些病人排名

  • from the one they liked the most to the one they liked the least.

    從最喜歡到最不喜歡

  • We then gave them the choice between number three and number four.

    然後,要他們選3號或4號作為禮物

  • Like everybody else, they said,

    和其他人一樣,他們說:

  • "Gee, thanks Doc! That's great! I could use a new print.

    「哎呀,多謝醫生!太棒了!我正好要張新的畫

  • I'll take number three."

    我要3號」

  • We explained we would have number three mailed to them.

    我們告訴他們會郵寄3號那張過去

  • We gathered up our materials and we went out of the room,

    我們整理好東西就離開了房間

  • and counted to a half hour.

    然後等了半小時

  • Back into the room, we say, "Hi, we're back."

    之後回到房間,我們說︰「嗨,我們回來了」

  • The patients, bless them, say, "Ah, Doc, I'm sorry,

    那些病人,真的要保佑他們,說:「啊,對不起醫生

  • I've got a memory problem; that's why I'm here.

    我有記憶問題,正是我住院的原因

  • If I've met you before, I don't remember."

    如果我之前遇見你,我已經忘了」

  • "Really, Jim, you don't remember? I was just here with the Monet prints?"

    「真的嗎,吉姆,你不記得?我剛剛才拿了莫內的印刷畫過來」

  • "Sorry, Doc, I just don't have a clue."

    「對不起醫生,我真的不知道」

  • "No problem, Jim. All I want you to do is rank these for me

    「沒關係,吉姆,我只想請你幫我把這些印刷畫

  • from the one you like the most to the one you like the least."

    從最喜歡到最不喜歡作排名」

  • What do they do? Well, let's first check and make sure

    他們會做什麼?好,讓我們先測試一下