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  • Charles Osborne began to hiccup in 1922 after a hog fell on top of him.

    1922年,查爾斯·奧斯本在一隻豬掉到他頭上後,便開始打嗝

  • He wasn't cured until 68 years later

    一直到68年後,打嗝才停止

  • and is now listed by Guinness as the world record holder

    他至今仍被金氏世界紀錄中

  • for hiccup longevity.

    打嗝時間最長紀錄的保持人

  • Meanwhile, Florida teen Jennifer Mee

    同時,佛羅里達州的少女珍妮佛‧米

  • may hold the record for the most frequent hiccups,

    則保有打嗝最頻繁的紀錄

  • 50 times per minute for more than four weeks in 2007.

    她在2007年時,曾超過四個星期每分鐘打嗝五十次

  • So what causes hiccups?

    但究竟什麼原因導致人會打嗝呢?

  • Doctors point out that a round of hiccups often follows from stimuli

    醫生指出,一輪的打嗝常緊接著刺激

  • that stretch the stomach,

    引發胃部的伸展而來

  • like swallowing air

    像是吞嚥下空氣

  • or too rapid eating or drinking.

    或者進食、喝水速度太快

  • Others associate hiccups with intense emotions

    至於其它與打嗝有關的原因,還有強烈的情緒變化

  • or a response to them:

    或者對以下的反應:

  • laughing,

    大笑

  • sobbing,

    抽泣

  • anxiety,

    焦慮

  • and excitement.

    以及興奮

  • Let's look at what happens when we hiccup.

    讓我們來看一下,打嗝時人體會發生什麼變化

  • It begins with an involuntary spasm or sudden contraction of the diaphragm,

    橫隔膜會先不自主地痙攣或突然收縮

  • the large dome-shaped muscle below our lungs

    它是肺部底下的大圓頂狀肌肉

  • that we use to inhale air.

    而肺平常則用來吸入空氣

  • This is followed almost immediately by the sudden closure of the vocal chords

    緊接著聲帶會幾乎突然關閉

  • and the opening between them,

    介於它們之間的開口

  • which is called the glottis.

    就是所謂的聲門也一樣會閉合

  • The movement of the diaphragm initiates a sudden intake of air,

    由於橫隔膜的移動會觸發突然吸入空氣

  • but the closure of the vocal chords stops it from entering the wind pipe

    而聲帶的閉合又阻絕空氣進入氣管

  • and reaching the lungs.

    和抵達肺部

  • It also creates the characteristic sound: "hic."

    並產生特有的聲音:嗝。

  • To date, there is no known function for hiccups.

    到目前為止, 還不知道打嗝有什麼功能。

  • They don't seem to provide any medical or physiological advantage.

    打嗝並未提供任何醫療上或生理上的益處

  • Why begin to inhale air only to suddenly stop it from actually entering the lungs?

    至於為什麼會突然吸入空氣又實際阻止其進入肺部呢?

  • Anatomical structures,

    從解剖生理結構

  • or physiological mechanisms, with no apparent purpose

    或者生理機制來看,打嗝並沒有明顯的目的

  • present challenges to evolutionary biologists.

    卻為演化生物學者帶來挑戰

  • Do such structures serve some hidden function that hasn't yet been discovered?

    這樣的結構,有什麼尚未被發現的隱藏功能嗎?

  • Or are they relics of our evolutionary past,

    或者打嗝是人類的進化歷程中的遺跡,

  • having once served some important purpose

    或者一度肩負何種重要目的

  • only to persist into the present as vestigial remnants??

    只是目前僅殘存些微的遺跡?

  • One idea is that hiccups began

    有一個想法是,打嗝起於

  • many millions of years before the appearance of humans.

    人類出現的數百萬年前

  • The lung is thought to have evolved as a structure to allow early fish,

    肺臟被認為已進化成一個結構,以便讓早期的魚類,

  • many of which lived in warm, stagnant water with little oxygen,

    讓牠們能住在溫暖、氧氣量不多的積水裡生存,

  • to take advantage of the abundant oxygen in the air overhead.

    並利用頭頂上豐富的氧氣

  • When descendants of these animals later moved onto land,

    後來當這些物種的後裔,遷移到陸地上

  • they moved from gill-based ventilation to air-breathing with lungs.

    他們也從用鰓呼吸,轉變成用肺來呼吸空氣

  • That's similar to the much more rapid changes faced by frogs today

    有點類似今日青蛙所面對的快速變化

  • as they transition from tadpoles with gills

    他們從蝌蚪用鰓呼吸過渡而來

  • to adults with lungs.

    到成熟時改用肺來呼吸

  • This hypothesis suggests that the hiccup is a relic of the ancient transition

    這項假設認為,打嗝是古代過渡的遺物

  • from water to land.

    從水中遷移到陸地

  • An inhalation that could move water over gills

    吸入時可能把水送進鰓裡

  • followed by a rapid closure of the glottis preventing water from entering the lungs.

    隨後聲門快速閉合以防止水進入肺中

  • That's supported by evidence

    而這可是有證據支持的

  • which suggests that the neural patterning involved in generating a hiccup

    其中並有神經模式牽涉到打嗝的產生

  • is almost identical to that responsible for respiration in amphibians.

    因為負責兩棲類的循環系統,幾乎與此完全相同

  • Another group of scientists believe that the reflex is retained in us today

    另一組科學家則認為,今日人類仍留存這種反射機制

  • because it actually provides an important advantage.

    因為它實際上提供一個重要的優點

  • They point out that true hiccups are found only in mammals

    他們指出,打嗝只有真正在哺乳動物身上會發現

  • and that they're not retained in birds, lizards, turtles,

    鳥類、蜥蜴和烏龜身上並沒有留下這些東西

  • or any other exclusively air-breathing animals.

    或是在其它只呼吸空氣的動物身上

  • Further, hiccups appear in human babies long before birth

    此外,打嗝也早於人類嬰兒出生之前

  • and are far more common in infants than adults.

    而嬰兒打嗝也比成人更常見

  • Their explanation for this

    他們的解釋是

  • involves the uniquely mammalian activity of nursing.

    因為牽涉到哺乳動物獨特的養育活動

  • The ancient hiccup reflex may have been adapted by mammals

    哺乳動物可能已完全適應這種古早的打嗝反射

  • to help remove air from the stomach as a sort of glorified burp.

    以一種美化的打嗝方式來幫助腸胃排除空氣。

  • The sudden expansion of the diaphragm would raise air from the stomach,

    因為橫隔膜的突然膨脹,會把胃裡的空氣向上推昇

  • while a closure of the glottis would prevent milk from entering the lungs.

    而聲門的閉合則可防止奶水進入肺部。

  • Sometimes, a bout of hiccups will go on and on,

    有時,打嗝會不斷持續

  • and we try home remedies:

    我們則嘗試家族偏方來治療

  • sipping continuously from a glass of cold water,

    像是持續啜飲一杯冷開水

  • holding one's breath,

    摒住呼吸

  • a mouthful of honey or peanut butter,

    喝下一口蜂蜜或花生醬

  • breathing into a paper bag,

    或者朝著紙袋吹氣

  • or being suddenly frightened.

    或者突然被驚嚇

  • Unfortunately, scientists have yet to verify that any one cure

    不幸的是,科學家尚未證實其中有任何一種的療效

  • works better or more consistently than others.

    會比其它的效果好,或者比其它方法更一致

  • However, we do know one thing that definitely doesn't work.

    但不管怎麼,我們很確定知道一件事,它們都無法發揮功能

Charles Osborne began to hiccup in 1922 after a hog fell on top of him.

1922年,查爾斯·奧斯本在一隻豬掉到他頭上後,便開始打嗝

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 空氣 肺部 呼吸 吸入 哺乳動物

【TED-Ed】為什麼我們會打嗝呢? (Why do we hiccup? - John Cameron)

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    Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2016 年 09 月 15 日
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