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  • I want to talk about sex for money.

    我要講的是性交易。

  • I'm not like most of the people you'll have heard speaking

    不同於以往

  • about prostitution before.

    說過「性交易」主題的演講者,

  • I'm not a police officer or a social worker.

    我並不是警員或社工,

  • I'm not an academic, a journalist or a politician.

    也不是學術家,記者或政治家。

  • And as you'll probably have picked up from Maryam's blurb,

    而且,也許你已聽說了,

  • I'm not a nun, either.

    我也不是修女。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Most of those people would tell you that selling sex is degrading;

    那些人,大多數會說 性交易是低級的;

  • that no one would ever choose to do it;

    是沒人會選擇的;

  • that it's dangerous; women get abused and killed.

    是很危險,會讓女性 受虐待和殺害的。

  • In fact, most of those people would say,

    而且他們會提出,

  • "There should be a law against it!"

    「這該有法律禁止的!」

  • Maybe that sounds reasonable to you.

    相信在你聽來有道理。

  • It sounded reasonable to me until the closing months of 2009,

    我也覺得有道理, 直到 2009 年底。

  • when I was working two dead-end, minimum-wage jobs.

    當時我有兩個毫無前景的 最低時薪工作。

  • Every month my wages would just replenish my overdraft.

    每個月的薪資都不夠 填補我的透支。

  • I was exhausted and my life was going nowhere.

    我感到精疲力竭, 我的生活陷入僵局。

  • Like many others before me,

    就如其他同行一樣,

  • I decided sex for money was a better option.

    我覺得性交易是個較好的出路。

  • Now don't get me wrong --

    但別誤會,

  • I would have loved to have won the lottery instead.

    我當然更希望能贏樂透。

  • But it wasn't going to happen anytime soon,

    但贏的機率很低,

  • and my rent needed paying.

    我還有房租得支付。

  • So I signed up for my first shift in a brothel.

    所以我開始在妓院工作。

  • In the years that have passed,

    在之後的幾年裡,

  • I've had a lot of time to think.

    我有了很多時間去思考。

  • I've reconsidered the ideas I once had about prostitution.

    我重新審視我之前 對「性交易」的見解。

  • I've given a lot of thought to consent

    我思考關於「意願」,

  • and the nature of work under capitalism.

    以及資本主義下的工作本質。

  • I've thought about gender inequality

    我思考有關性別上的不平等

  • and the sexual and reproductive labor of women.

    和女性在性行為和生殖上的勞動。

  • I've experienced exploitation and violence at work.

    工作上我曾遭遇暴力和剝削。

  • I've thought about what's needed

    我也想過該如何能

  • to protect other sex workers from these things.

    捍衛性工作者不受類似傷害。

  • Maybe you've thought about them, too.

    也許你也想過。

  • In this talk,

    在這演說裡,

  • I'll take you through the four main legal approaches

    我會介紹全球四大法制

  • applied to sex work throughout the world,

    應用於性工作上,

  • and explain why they don't work;

    並解說為什麼沒用;

  • why prohibiting the sex industry actually exacerbates every harm

    為何禁止色情行業只是更加害

  • that sex workers are vulnerable to.

    性工作者成為弱者。

  • Then I'm going tell you about what we, as sex workers, actually want.

    然後我會介紹性工作者 真正想要什麼。

  • The first approach is full criminalization.

    第一種法治是全面非法化。

  • Half the world,

    有一半的國家,

  • including Russia, South Africa and most of the US,

    包括俄羅斯、南非, 以及大部分在美國的州,

  • regulates sex work by criminalizing everyone involved.

    管制性工作以罪犯化 處置所有相關人士。

  • So that's seller, buyer and third parties.

    這包括了賣者、嫖者, 以及所有相關仲介。

  • Lawmakers in these countries apparently hope

    這些立法者是期望

  • that the fear of getting arrested will deter people from selling sex.

    能嚇止這些人進行性交易。

  • But if you're forced to choose between obeying the law

    但在只能選擇「遵法」

  • and feeding yourself or your family,

    或「自我及家人溫飽」,

  • you're going to do the work anyway,

    你會選擇繼續賣淫,

  • and take the risk.

    冒被捕的風險。

  • Criminalization is a trap.

    罪犯化制度是有弊端的。

  • It's hard to get a conventional job when you have a criminal record.

    在有了犯罪記錄後, 很難再找到正當工作。

  • Potential employers won't hire you.

    一般雇主都不會聘用你。

  • Assuming you still need money,

    假設你仍需要錢,

  • you'll stay in the more flexible, informal economy.

    你會留在較有彈性的 非正式經濟裡。

  • The law forces you to keep selling sex,

    法律迫使你繼續賣性維生,

  • which is the exact opposite of its intended effect.

    這違背了原來訂法的用意。

  • Being criminalized leaves you exposed to mistreatment by the state itself.

    被定罪後會使你受到 州政府的不平等待遇。

  • In many places you may be coerced into paying a bribe

    在許多時候,你得行賄

  • or even into having sex with a police officer

    甚至得跟員警性交

  • to avoid arrest.

    來避免拘捕。

  • Police and prison guards in Cambodia, for example,

    例如,在柬埔寨的 警察和獄警人員

  • have been documented subjecting sex workers

    就有被記錄強迫性工作者

  • to what can only be described as torture:

    接受酷刑:

  • threats at gunpoint,

    如槍口下威脅、

  • beatings, electric shocks, rape

    毆打、電擊、強姦

  • and denial of food.

    和不供給食物。

  • Another worrying thing:

    另一個憂人的法規是:

  • if you're selling sex in places like Kenya, South Africa or New York,

    如果你在如肯亞、 南非或紐約的地方賣淫,

  • a police officer can arrest you if you're caught carrying condoms,

    一名警員可以因你 攜帶保險套而拘捕你,

  • because condoms can legally be used as evidence that you're selling sex.

    因為保險套在法律上 可以作為你賣淫的證據。

  • Obviously, this increases HIV risk.

    顯然,這會增加染愛滋病的機率。

  • Imagine knowing if you're busted carrying condoms,

    想像一下,如果你知道 攜帶保險套會被拘捕,

  • it'll be used against you.

    會用來定你的罪,

  • It's a pretty strong incentive to leave them at home, right?

    想必會將它留在家裡,不是嗎?

  • Sex workers working in these places are forced to make a tough choice

    這些地方的性工作者 面臨兩難的抉擇,

  • between risking arrest or having risky sex.

    冒被捕的風險或染性病的風險。

  • What would you choose?

    你會怎麼選擇呢?

  • Would you pack condoms to go to work?

    你會攜帶保險套上班嗎?

  • How about if you're worried

    那如果你也擔心

  • the police officer would rape you when he got you in the van?

    警察一帶你上車就強姦你呢?

  • The second approach to regulating sex work seen in these countries

    第二種法規,所見於這幾個國家

  • is partial criminalization,

    是局部判罪,

  • where the buying and selling of sex are legal,

    就是說買性和賣淫是合法的,

  • but surrounding activities,

    但是週邊活動,

  • like brothel-keeping or soliciting on the street, are banned.

    像是妓院或街上招客都是禁止的。

  • Laws like these --

    這樣的法律

  • we have them in the UK and in France --

    在英國和法國都有。

  • essentially say to us sex workers,

    基本上是對性工作者說,

  • "Hey, we don't mind you selling sex,

    「嘿,我們不介意你賣淫,

  • just make sure it's done behind closed doors

    只要是在暗地裡,

  • and all alone."

    單獨發生。」

  • And brothel-keeping, by the way,

    順便說明「妓院」的定義

  • is defined as just two or more sex workers working together.

    是指一個以上的賣淫者共事就算。

  • Making that illegal means that many of us work alone,

    因為如此,我們大多都單獨工作,

  • which obviously makes us vulnerable to violent offenders.

    因此讓我們容易遭受暴力。

  • But we're also vulnerable

    但就算我們選擇非法共事,

  • if we choose to break the law by working together.

    我們還是處於弱勢。

  • A couple of years ago,

    幾年前,

  • a friend of mine was nervous after she was attacked at work,

    我一個朋友在遭受暴力後, 一直很緊張,

  • so I said that she could see her clients from my place for a while.

    我就邀她先暫時在我那兒接客。

  • During that time,

    在那段時間裡,

  • we had another guy turn nasty.

    就遇到另一個惡劣的嫖客。

  • I told the guy to leave or I'd call the police.

    我叫那嫖客快離開,不然就叫警察。

  • And he looked at the two of us and said,

    他看著我們倆說:

  • "You girls can't call the cops.

    「妳們不能叫警察。

  • You're working together, this place is illegal."

    妳們一起共事,這是違法的。」

  • He was right.

    他說的沒錯。

  • He eventually left without getting physically violent,

    在最後他終於沒施暴,離開了,

  • but the knowledge that we were breaking the law

    但因為這樣的法律,

  • empowered that man to threaten us.

    讓那男人有機會威脅我們。

  • He felt confident he'd get away with it.

    他有信心他能得逞。

  • The prohibition of street prostitution also causes more harm

    禁止街頭應召

  • than it prevents.

    所造成的傷害比其預防的還多。

  • Firstly, to avoid getting arrested,

    首先,為躲警察,

  • street workers take risks to avoid detection,

    街頭妓女得冒些風險以避免被發現。

  • and that means working alone

    例如單獨工作

  • or in isolated locations like dark forests

    或在偏僻的地方,像黑暗的森林,

  • where they're vulnerable to attack.

    讓她們容易被攻擊的地方。

  • If you're caught selling sex outdoors,

    如果你在街上應召被抓,

  • you pay a fine.

    你得繳罰款。

  • How do you pay that fine without going back to the streets?

    但哪兒來的錢付款, 除了再回街上賺?

  • It was the need for money that saw you in the streets

    原本就因為缺錢

  • in the first place.

    才會在街上招客。

  • And so the fines stack up,

    因此罰款越欠越多,

  • and you're caught in a vicious cycle

    你陷入了惡性循環,

  • of selling sex to pay the fines you got for selling sex.

    你得賣淫來繳賣淫的罰款。

  • Let me tell you about Mariana Popa who worked in Redbridge, East London.

    我要講「馬里 ‧ 波帕」, 在倫敦東部工作的事。

  • The street workers on her patch would normally wait for clients in groups

    她街上的妓女一般都是群體招客,

  • for safety in numbers

    這樣較安全,

  • and to warn each other about how to avoid dangerous guys.

    也能警告彼此, 避免一些危險的嫖客。

  • But during a police crackdown on sex workers and their clients,

    但在一次性交易掃蕩期間,

  • she was forced to work alone to avoid being arrested.

    她被迫得單獨工作以避免被拘捕。

  • She was stabbed to death in the early hours of October 29, 2013.

    在 2013 年 10 月 29 日凌晨, 她被刺殺身亡。

  • She had been working later than usual

    那天她工作得比平時要晚,

  • to try to pay off a fine she had received for soliciting.

    為了多賺點錢繳納賣淫的罰單。

  • So if criminalizing sex workers hurts them,

    既然罪犯化處治 性工作者會傷害他們,

  • why not just criminalize the people who buy sex?

    那何不就只罪犯化嫖客?

  • This is the aim of the third approach

    這就是接下來要講的

  • I want to talk about --

    第三種法制,

  • the Swedish or Nordic model of sex-work law.

    瑞典和北歐的性工作法律模式。

  • The idea behind this law

    這法律的理念是

  • is that selling sex is intrinsically harmful

    賣淫在本質上是有害的,

  • and so you're, in fact, helping sex workers by removing the option.

    所以借由除去市場需求, 挽救性工作者。

  • Despite growing support

    儘管「需求終結」法

  • for what's often described as the "end demand" approach,

    逐漸獲得支持,

  • there's no evidence that it works.

    卻沒被證實有效。

  • There's just as much prostitution in Sweden as there was before.

    賣淫在瑞典並沒比以前少。

  • Why might that be?

    怎麼會這樣呢?

  • It's because people selling sex

    這是因為賣淫者

  • often don't have other options for income.

    通常沒有其它收入方式。

  • If you need that money,

    如果你需要錢,

  • the only effect that a drop in business is going have

    而生意卻低落時,

  • is to force you to lower your prices

    你只能降價求售,

  • or offer more risky sexual services.

    或提供高危險的性服務。

  • If you need to find more clients,

    如果需要更多客戶,

  • you might seek the help of a manager.

    你會求經理人幫助。

  • So you see, rather than putting a stop

    所以你看, 這並未制止所謂的拉皮條,

  • to what's often descried as pimping,

    這樣的法律,

  • a law like this actually gives oxygen

    反而助長仲介濫用的機會。

  • to potentially abusive third parties.

    為了安全,

  • To keep safe in my work,

    我盡量不接

  • I try not to take bookings from someone

    電話未顯示號碼的嫖客。