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  • If nothing else, at least I've discovered

    如果不出意外,

  • what it is we put our speakers through:

    至少我已發現我們加諸於我們演講人身上的東西:

  • sweaty palms, sleepless nights,

    手心出汗、無法入睡的夜晚

  • a wholly unnatural fear of clocks.

    對時鐘一種完全不自然的恐懼

  • I mean, it's quite brutal.

    我的意思是,這挺殘酷的

  • And I'm also a little nervous about this.

    我也對這有點緊張

  • There are nine billion humans coming our way.

    九億人來到我們這

  • Now, the most optimistic dreams

    現在,最樂觀的夢想

  • can get dented by the prospect

    會被全球的

  • of people plundering the planet.

    人口增長踏扁

  • But recently, I've become intrigued

    但最近,我對那巨大人群有了

  • by a different way of thinking of large human crowds,

    感到不同的想法和興趣

  • because there are circumstances

    因為在這些情況中

  • where they can do something really cool.

    他們可以做些真正有意思的事

  • It's a phenomenon that I think

    我想這是一個現象

  • any organization or individual can tap into.

    任何組織或個人都可以進入

  • It certainly impacted the way we think about TED's future,

    它確實影響了我們思考關於 TED 未來的方式、

  • and perhaps the world's future overall.

    或這整個世界的未來

  • So, let's explore.

    所以,讓我們一起探索吧

  • The story starts with just a single person,

    故事開始於一個人

  • a child, behaving a little strangely.

    一個孩子,行為有點古怪的孩子

  • This kid is known online as Lil Demon.

    這孩子 Lil Demon 在網路上竄紅

  • He's doing tricks here, dance tricks,

    他正在秀一些舞技

  • that probably no six-year-old in history ever managed before.

    歷史上,大概從來沒有一個六歲小孩可以做出這些動作吧

  • How did he learn them?

    他是怎麼學會的?

  • And what drove him to spend the hundreds of hours of practice

    什麽樣的動力使他

  • this must have taken?

    必須花上幾百個小時練成這樣?

  • Here's a clue.

    這裡有個線索

  • (Video) Lil Demon: ♫ Step your game up. Oh. Oh. ♫

    (影片)Lil Demon: ♫ Step your game up. Oh. Oh. ♫

  • Step your game up. Oh. Oh. ♫

    ♫ Step your game up. Oh. Oh. ♫

  • Chris Anderson: So, that was sent to me by this man,

    Chris Anderson: 所以,是這個人寄給我的

  • a filmmaker, Jonathan Chu,

    電影工作者朱浩偉 (Jonathan Chu)

  • who told me that was the moment he realized

    他告訴我,那一刻他明白了

  • the Internet was causing dance to evolve.

    網際網路正在促使舞蹈演化

  • This is what he said at TED in February.

    這是二月時他在 TED 所說的

  • In essence,

    本質上

  • dancers were challenging each other online to get better;

    舞者在網上彼此較量,讓自己變得更好

  • incredible new dance skills were being invented;

    發明新的難以置信的舞技

  • even the six-year-olds were joining in.

    甚至連六歲的兒童都加入

  • It felt like a revolution.

    就像革命

  • And so Jon had a brilliant idea:

    於是 Jon 有個絕妙的想法

  • He went out to recruit the best of the best dancers

    他跑去徵求最最傑出的舞者

  • off of YouTube

    在 YouTube 上

  • to create this dance troupe --

    成立這個舞蹈團隊 --

  • The League of Extraordinary Dancers, the LXD.

    "超舞聯盟" (The League of Extraordinary Dancers, the LXD)

  • I mean, these kids were web-taught,

    我指的是,這些孩子是網路教出來的

  • but they were so good that they got to play at the Oscars this year.

    但他們竟然好到可以參加今年的奧斯卡演出

  • And at TED here in February,

    這是在二月時的 TED

  • their passion and brilliance just took our breath away.

    他們的天才熱情實在教人屏息

  • So, this story

    所以,這個關於

  • of the evolution of dance

    舞蹈的演化故事

  • seems strangely familiar.

    似乎有點怪異又親切

  • You know, a while after TEDTalks started taking off,

    你們知道嗎,在 TEDTalks 剛開始不久

  • we noticed that speakers

    我們注意到

  • were starting to spend a lot more time in preparation.

    講者開始花許多時間準備

  • It was resulting in incredible new talks like these two.

    後來促成一些非比尋常的演說,比如這兩個...

  • ... Months of preparation

    多個月的準備

  • crammed into 18 minutes,

    濃縮於短短 18 分鐘

  • raising the bar cruelly for the next generation of speakers,

    殘酷地為下一代的演說者提高標準

  • with the effects that we've seen this week.

    我們這一星期見到了成效

  • It's not as if J.J. and Jill

    雖然不大像 J.J. 和 Jill

  • actually ended their talks saying, "Step your game up,"

    在演說中的總結: 「舞力全開吧!」

  • but they might as well have.

    但他們應該也使盡了全力

  • So, in both of these cases,

    所以,在這兩個例子中

  • you've got these cycles of improvement,

    你們見到進步的循環

  • apparently driven

    很明顯地,是由於

  • by people watching web video.

    人們觀看網路影片使然

  • What is going on here?

    這裡發生了什麽事?

  • Well, I think it's the latest iteration of a phenomenon we can call

    嗯,我想最近頻繁發生的現象,我們可以稱之為

  • "crowd-accelerated innovation."

    「群眾加速的創新」

  • And there are just three things you need for this thing to kick into gear.

    只要擁有三種東西,你就可以使它轉動

  • You can think of them

    你們可以把它們想像為

  • as three dials on a giant wheel.

    三個巨大轉輪

  • You turn up the dials, the wheel starts to turn.

    一旦啟動,輪子便開始旋轉

  • And the first thing you need is ... a crowd,

    而你所需的第一件東西是......人群

  • a group of people who share a common interest.

    分享共同利益的一群人

  • The bigger the crowd,

    人群愈大

  • the more potential innovators there are.

    潛在的創新者就愈多

  • That's important, but actually most people in the crowd

    那很重要,但事實上,大多數的人群

  • occupy these other roles.

    佔有這些其他角色

  • They're creating the ecosystem

    他們正在創造一個

  • from which innovation emerges.

    使創新得以浮現的生態系統

  • The second thing you need is light.

    第二個你所需要具備的東西是 光

  • You need clear, open visibility

    你需要明亮、大家都可見到的空間

  • of what the best people in that crowd are capable of,

    使那群眾中最傑出的人得以擁有能力

  • because that is how you will learn

    因為你可以從中學習

  • how you will be empowered to participate.

    學習如何參與其中

  • And third, you need desire.

    第三,你需要慾望

  • You know, innovation's hard work.

    你知道,創新是困難的工作

  • It's based on hundreds of hours of research, of practice.

    它是建立於上百小時的研究與訓練

  • Absent desire, not going to happen.

    少了慾望,什麽都不會發生

  • Now, here's an example -- pre-Internet --

    現在,這裡有一個例子 -- 網路世代前 --

  • of this machine in action.

    機器是這麼運作的

  • Dancers at a street corner --

    舞者在街角 --

  • it's a crowd, a small one,

    這是一群人,一小群人

  • but they can all obviously see what each other can do.

    但所有人都可以清楚地看見每個人的動作

  • And the desire part comes, I guess,

    慾望來自於,我猜,

  • from social status, right?

    來自於社會地位,是吧?

  • Best dancer walks tall, gets the best date.

    最好的舞者趾高氣昂,獲得最好的約會

  • There's probably going to be some innovation happening here.

    這裡肯定有某些創新發生吧

  • But on the web,

    但是,在網路上

  • all three dials are ratcheted right up.

    所有的齒輪扣合在一起

  • The dance community is now global.

    舞蹈的社群如今已躍上全球

  • There's millions connected.

    幾百萬個連結

  • And amazingly,

    多麼令人驚異

  • you can still see what the best can do,

    你仍然可以看到最棒的人的舞技

  • because the crowd itself shines a light on them,

    因為人群照亮了他們

  • either directly, through comments, ratings,

    不是直接透過評論、評分、

  • email, Facebook, Twitter,

    Email, Facebook, Twitter

  • or indirectly,

    就是間接地

  • through numbers of views,

    透過觀看的次數

  • through links that point Google there.

    透過 Google 連結

  • So, it's easy to find the good stuff,

    在 Google 搜尋東西是很容易的

  • and when you've found it, you can watch it in close-up repeatedly

    當你找到時,你可以近距離反覆觀看它

  • and read what hundreds of people have written about it.

    而且讀到上百人寫下的評論

  • That's a lot of light.

    那是偌大的光

  • But the desire element

    但慾望的成份

  • is really dialed way up.

    真正使輪轉動

  • I mean, you might just be a kid with a webcam,

    我的意思是,也許你只是電腦有視訊的小孩

  • but if you can do something that goes viral,

    但如果你可以做什麽超級絕妙的事的話

  • you get to be seen by the equivalent

    觀看你的群眾

  • of sports stadiums crammed with people.

    就會有如一座擠滿人的巨型體育場

  • You get hundreds of strangers writing excitedly about you.

    會有上百人興奮地寫著你

  • And even if it's not that eloquent -- and it's not --

    甚至,如果並不是特愛表現的話

  • it can still really make your day.

    這仍然可以讓你感到快樂

  • So, this possibility

    因此,這個可能性

  • of a new type of global recognition,

    是新型態的全球認可

  • I think, is driving huge amounts of effort.

    我想,正促使大量的努力

  • And it's important to note that it's not just the stars who are benefiting:

    尤其重要的是,並不是只有明星得益:

  • because you can see the best, everyone can learn.

    因為,你能看到最好的,每個人都可學習

  • Also, the system is self-fueling.

    這個系統也是自發的

  • It's the crowd that shines the light and fuels the desire,

    人群發光閃亮,注入慾望

  • but the light and desire are a lethal one-two combination

    但光芒和慾望是致命的兩組結合

  • that attract new people to the crowd.

    它們引來新人,加入群眾

  • So, this is a model

    所以,這是一個模式

  • that pretty much any organization could use

    任何組織都可藉此

  • to try and nurture its own cycle

    試圖豐富它們自己的

  • of crowd-accelerated innovation.

    群眾加速循環

  • Invite the crowd, let in the light,

    邀請人群,注入光芒

  • dial up the desire.

    使慾望運轉

  • And the hardest part about that is probably the light,

    這一部份中,最困難之處,大概就是光了

  • because it means you have to open up,

    因為,那意謂著你必須放開心胸

  • you have to show your stuff to the world.

    你必須展示你的東西給全世界

  • It's by giving away what you think is your deepest secret

    展示出你認為最深的秘密

  • that maybe millions of people

    使上百萬人

  • are empowered to help improve it.

    都被賦予這個能力,幫助彼此進步

  • And, very happily, there's one class of people

    而且,快樂的是,有一群階級的人

  • who really can't make use of this tool.

    無法使用這項工具

  • The dark side of the web

    網絡黑暗的一面

  • is allergic to the light.

    對光照過敏

  • I don't think we're going to see terrorists, for example,

    比如說,我不認為我們可以看到恐怖份子,

  • publishing their plans online and saying to the world,

    把他們的計劃公佈在網上,然後向全世界說:

  • "Please, could you help us to actually

    「請你幫幫我們

  • make them work this time?"

    搞定這些?」

  • But you can publish your stuff online.

    但你可以在網上發佈自己的東西

  • And if you can get that wheel to turn,

    只要你可以使輪子轉動

  • look out.

    看看!

  • So, at TED,

    所以在 TED

  • we've become a little obsessed with this idea of openness.

    我們變得有點執迷於開放性的想法

  • In fact, my colleague, June Cohen, has taken to calling it "radical openness,"

    事實上,我的同事 June Cohen 將它稱為「基進開放性(radical openness)」

  • because it works for us each time.

    因為對我們來說,每次都有用

  • We opened up our talks to the world,

    我們將演說開放給全世界

  • and suddenly there are millions of people out there

    突然間,上百萬的人出現了

  • helping spread our speakers' ideas,

    幫助傳播講者的思維意念

  • and thereby making it easier for us

    於是也使我們變得較易於

  • to recruit and motivate the next generation of speakers.

    號召、鼓舞下一代的演講人

  • By opening up our translation program,

    透過開放翻譯計劃

  • thousands of heroic volunteers --

    上千位勇敢的義工 --

  • some of them watching online right now, and thank you! --

    有些人現在正在網上看著。謝謝你們!

  • have translated our talks

    將我們的演說

  • into more than 70 languages,

    譯成七十多種語言

  • thereby tripling our viewership in non-English-speaking countries.

    使我們在非英語系國家的點閱率成長三倍

  • By giving away our TEDx brand,

    藉由授予我們的 TEDx 品牌

  • we suddenly have a thousand-plus

    我們突然擁有了上千個

  • live experiments in the art of spreading ideas.

    以宣傳想法為概念出發的現場實驗

  • And these organizers,

    這些組織者

  • they're seeing each other, they're learning from each other.

    也看得見彼此,向彼此學習

  • We are learning from them.

    我們向他們學習

  • We're getting great talks back from them.

    我們反過來從他們那裡得到許多很棒的演說

  • The wheel is turning.

    輪子正在轉動著

  • Okay, step back a minute.

    好吧,退一分鐘

  • I mean, it's really not news for me to tell you

    我的意思是,這已不是新鮮事了

  • that innovation emerges out of groups.

    創新發生於團體

  • You know, we've heard that this week --

    你們知道,我們在這星期已聽到 --

  • this romantic notion of the lone genius

    一個孤獨天才的浪漫概念

  • with the "eureka!" moment that changes the world

    他說,那改變世界的「發現」時刻

  • is misleading.

    是錯誤的

  • Even he said that, and he would know.

    就算他這麼說,他也會知道

  • We're a social species.

    我們是社群的物種

  • We spark off each other.

    我們引領彼此

  • It's also not news

    網絡加速創新

  • to say that the Internet has accelerated innovation.

    也早已不是新聞

  • For the past 15 years,

    過去十五年來

  • powerful communities have been connecting online,

    強大的社群已連結上網

  • sparking off each other.

    互相領導對方

  • If you take programmers,

    拿程式設計師來說吧

  • you know, the whole open-source movement

    你們知道,整個開放原始碼運動

  • is a fantastic instance of crowd-accelerated innovation.

    就是一個群眾加速創新的絕佳例子

  • But what's key here is,

    但關鍵之處在於

  • the reason these groups have been able to connect

    這些團體能夠連結在一起

  • is because their work output is of the type

    是因為他們的工作成果

  • that can be easily shared digitally --

    可以輕易地數位化分享

  • a picture, a music file,

    照片、音樂檔案

  • software.

    以及軟體

  • And that's why what I'm excited about,

    那便是我爲什麽會感到興奮的原因

  • and what I think is under-reported,

    而我認為,這一波線上影片

  • is the significance of the rise

    出現的重要性

  • of online video.

    被低估了

  • This is the technology

    這是一個能夠數位化地分享

  • that's going to allow the rest of the world's talents to be shared digitally,

    全世界天才稟賦的一項新科技

  • thereby launching a whole new cycle

    它正在開啟可一個全新的

  • of crowd-accelerated innovation.

    群眾加速創新的循環

  • The first few years of the web

    網絡剛開始的最初幾年

  • were pretty much video-free,

    沒有什麽線上影片

  • for this reason: video files are huge; the web couldn't handle them.

    原因是: 影片檔太大了,網絡無法處理

  • But in the last 10 years,

    但最近十年來

  • bandwidth has exploded a hundredfold.

    頻寬擴大百倍

  • Suddenly, here we are.

    突然間,我們就在這了

  • Humanity watches 80 million hours of YouTube every day.

    在 YouTube 上,每天每小時有八千萬人觀看影片

  • Cisco actually estimates that, within four years,

    Cisco 實際上估計,四年內

  • more than 90 percent of the web's data will be video.

    超過 90% 的網絡內容將是影片

  • If it's all puppies, porn and piracy,

    如果全是小狗、色情、和盜版作品的話

  • we're doomed.

    我們就完了

  • I don't think it will be.

    我不認為會這樣

  • Video is high-bandwidth for a reason.

    影片佔據大量頻寬是有原因的

  • It packs a huge amount of data,

    它包含大量的數據

  • and our brains are uniquely wired to decode it.

    而我們的頭腦擁有獨特的解碼能力

  • Here, let me introduce you to Sam Haber.

    讓我在這裡向各位介紹 Sam Haber

  • He's a unicyclist.

    他是個單輪車騎士

  • Before YouTube,

    在 YouTube 風行以前

  • there was no way for him to discover

    他無法發現

  • his sport's true potential,

    他的運動的真正潛力

  • because you can't communicate this stuff in words, right?

    畢竟你無法以文字表達這玩意,不是嗎?

  • But looking at video clips posted by strangers,

    然而,在看到陌生人上傳的影片後

  • a world of possibility opens up for him.

    一個可能性世界向他敞開了

  • Suddenly, he starts to emulate and then to innovate.

    突然間,他開始模仿和再創新

  • And a global community of unicyclists discover each other online,

    一個單輪騎士的全球社群在網上發現了彼此

  • inspire each other to greatness.

    互相鼓勵,向前邁進

  • And there are thousands of other examples of this happening --

    有其它上千個例子發生著 --

  • of video-driven evolution of skills,

    透過影片鼓舞的技術演化

  • ranging from the physical to the artful.

    從身體到技巧

  • And I have to tell you,

    我必須告訴你們

  • as a former publisher of hobbyist magazines,

    作為一個興趣雜誌的前出版人

  • I find this strangely beautiful.

    我發覺這有著異樣的魅力

  • I mean, there's a lot of passion right here on this screen.

    在這銀幕中藏有許多熱情

  • But if Rube Goldberg machines

    但假使 Rube Goldberg 的機器

  • and video poetry aren't quite your cup of tea,

    與影像詩不合你口味的話

  • how about this.

    不如試試這個

  • Jove is a website

    Jove 是一個爲了鼓勵科學家

  • that was founded to encourage scientists

    在網路影片上

  • to publish their peer-reviewed research

    發表他們研究

  • on video.

    的網站