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  • The discovery of the structure of DNA

    DNA結構的發現

  • was one of the most important scientific achievements in the last century,

    事實上,是上個世紀其中一個最重要的科學成就

  • in human history, in fact.

    在人類歷史上

  • The now-famous double helix is almost synonymous with Watson and Crick,

    現今知名的雙螺旋結構與華生和克里克,兩個幾乎是同義字

  • two of the scientists who won the Nobel Prize for figuring it out.

    這兩位科學家因解析其結構而贏得諾貝爾獎

  • But there's another name you may know, too,

    但有另一個名字你也應該知道

  • Rosalind Franklin.

    羅莎琳.富蘭克林

  • You may have heard that her data supported Watson and Crick's brilliant idea,

    你可能已聽過她的研究資料佐證華生和克里克的卓越想法

  • or that she was a plain-dressing, belligerent scientist,

    或她是一個衣著樸素,好戰的科學家

  • which is how Watson actually described her in "The Double Helix."

    這其實是華生在《雙螺旋》書中對她的形容

  • But thanks to Franklin's biographers,

    但多虧富蘭克林傳記的作家們

  • who investigated her life and interviewed many people close to her,

    他們調查她的生平,與許多與她親近的人面談

  • we now know that that account is far from true,

    我們現在知道那些指控遠非事實

  • and her scientific contributions have been vastly underplayed.

    她的科學貢獻被極度貶低

  • Let's hear the real story.

    讓我們來聽真實的故事

  • Rosalind Elsie Franklin was born in London in 1920.

    羅莎琳.愛爾西.富蘭克林,在 1920 年生於倫敦

  • She wanted to be a scientist ever since she was a teenager,

    她自青少年時期就想要成為一名科學家

  • which wasn't a common or easy career path for girls at that time.

    在當時對於女孩子,這不是一條普通或容易的職涯途徑

  • But she excelled at science anyway.

    即使這樣,她在科學上仍很傑出

  • She won a scholarship to Cambridge to study chemistry,

    她獲得獎學金到劍橋大學研修化學

  • where she earned her Ph.D.,

    在那裡她獲得博士學位

  • and she later conducted research on the structure of coal

    後來,她研究了關於煤的結構

  • that led to better gas masks for the British during World War II.

    使得二戰時期英國有較好的防毒面具

  • In 1951, she joined King's College

    在1951年,她加入國王學院

  • to use x-ray techniques to study the structure of DNA,

    運用X-射線技術研究DNA的結構

  • then one of the hottest topics in science.

    那是當時科學最熱門的主題之一

  • Franklin upgraded the x-ray lab and got to work

    富蘭克林改善了X-射線實驗室,並開始投入工作

  • shining high-energy x-rays on tiny, wet crystals of DNA.

    將高能量X-射線照射在小而濕潤的DNA晶體上

  • But the acadmemic culture at the time wasn't very friendly to women,

    但當時的學術文化對女性並不友善

  • and Franklin was isolated from her colleagues.

    而且富蘭克林被她的同事排擠

  • She clashed with Maurice Wilkins,

    她與莫里斯.威爾金斯發生衝突

  • a labmate who assumed Franklin had been hired as his assistant.

    他是她的實驗室夥伴,認為富蘭克林是被僱來當他的助手

  • But Franklin kept working,

    但富蘭克林繼續研究

  • and in 1952, she obtained Photo 51, the most famous x-ray image of DNA.

    在1952年,她獲得照片51號,這是最知名透過X射線所拍的DNA影像

  • Just getting the image took 100 hours,

    光要取得照片就花了100個小時

  • the calculations necessary to analyze it would take a year.

    必要的計算去分析它,還要花一年

  • Meanwhile, the American biologist James Watson

    同時,美國生物學家詹姆斯.華生

  • and the British physicist Francis Crick

    以及英國物理學家佛朗西斯.克里克

  • were also working on finding DNA's structure.

    也在研究發掘DNA的結構

  • Without Franklin's knowledge,

    在富蘭克林不知情下

  • Wilkins took Photo 51 and showed it to Watson and Crick.

    威爾金斯將照片51號,拿給華生與克里克看

  • Instead of calculating the exact position of every atom,

    他們兩人不去計算每個原子的正確位置

  • they did a quick analysis of Franklin's data

    而把富蘭克林的數據做了快速分析

  • and used that to build a few potential structures.

    並且利用資料建立一些可能的結構

  • Eventually, they arrived at the right one.

    最後,他們得出正確的DNA結構

  • DNA is made of two helicoidal strands,

    DNA 是由兩股螺旋鏈構成

  • one opposite the other with bases in the center like rungs of a ladder.

    兩股相對而生,鹼基在中間狀如梯子的階梯

  • Watson and Crick published their model in April 1953.

    華生和克里克,在 1953 年四月發表了他們的模型

  • Meanwhile, Franklin had finished her calculations,

    同時,富蘭克林已完成她的計算

  • come to the same conclusion,

    得到相同的結論

  • and submitted her own manuscript.

    提交她自己的手稿

  • The journal published the manuscripts together,

    期刊將他們的手稿一起刊登

  • but put Franklin's last,

    但順序將富蘭克林排在最後

  • making it look like her experiments just confirmed Watson and Crick's breakthrough

    使得她的實驗看起來,只不過是驗證華生和克里克的突破性進展

  • instead of inspiring it.

    而不是啟發了他們

  • But Franklin had already stopped working on DNA

    但是富蘭克林已停止DNA的研究

  • and died of cancer in 1958,

    而且在1958年因癌症過逝

  • never knowing that Watson and Crick had seen her photographs.

    從不知道華生和克里克,曾經看過她的照片

  • Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize in 1962

    在1962年,華生、克里克與威爾金斯榮獲諾貝爾獎

  • for their work on DNA.

    因他們在DNA上的研究貢獻

  • It's often said that Franklin would have been recognized by a Nobel Prize

    人們總說富蘭克林本可能獲頒諾貝爾獎

  • if only they could be awarded posthumously.

    如果他們能死後追授

  • And, in fact, it's possible she could have won twice.

    其實,她可能還能贏得兩次

  • Her work on the structure of viruses led to a Nobel for a colleague in 1982.

    在1982年,她在病毒結構的研究,使得一位同事獲得諾貝爾獎

  • It's time to tell the story of a brave woman who fought sexism in science,

    該是時候述說這位勇敢的女性在科學界對抗性別歧視

  • and whose work revolutionized medicine, biology, and agriculture.

    她的研究徹底革新醫學、生物學和農學

  • It's time to honor Rosalind Elsie Franklin,

    該是榮耀羅莎琳.愛爾西.富蘭克林的時候

  • the unsung mother of the double helix.

    這位未被讚頌的雙螺旋之母

The discovery of the structure of DNA

DNA結構的發現

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 富蘭克林 華生 結構 射線 諾貝爾獎

【TED-Ed】羅莎琳·富蘭克林:DNA的無名英雄 (Rosalind Franklin: DNA's unsung hero - Cláudio L. Guerra)

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    Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2016 年 07 月 14 日
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