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  • When you think about nothing you have to be a little more careful than you normally are

  • because, in fact, nothing is a physical concept because it's the absence of something, and

  • something is a physical concept. And what we've learned over the last hundred years

  • is that nothing is much more complicated than we would've imagined otherwise.

  • For example, the simplest kind of nothing is the kind of nothing of the Bible. Say an

  • infinite empty space, an infinite dark void of the Bible. You know, nothing in it, no

  • particles, no radiation, nothing. Well, that kind of nothing turns out to be full of stuff

  • in a way or at least much more complicated than you might have imagined because due to

  • the laws of quantum mechanics and relativity, we now know that empty space is a boiling

  • bubbling brew of virtual particles that are popping in and out of existence at every moment.

  • And in fact, for that kind of nothing, if you wait long enough, you're guaranteed by

  • the laws of quantum mechanics to produce something. So the difference between empty space with

  • stuff in it and empty space with nothing in it is not that great anymore. In fact, they're

  • different versions of the same thing. So the transition from nothing to something is not

  • so surprising. Now you might say well that's not good enough because you have space. Where

  • did the space come from? Well, a more demanding definition of nothing is no space, but, in

  • fact, once you apply the laws of quantum mechanics to gravity itself, then space itself becomes

  • a quantum mechanical variable and fluctuates in and out of existence and you can literally,

  • by the laws of quantum mechanics, create universes.

  • Create spaces and times, where there was no space and time before. So now you got no particles,

  • no radiation, no space, no time, that sounds like nothing. But then you might say, well,

  • you know what, you got the laws of physics. You got the laws of nature. The laws themselves

  • are somehow something; although, I would argue in fact that that is not at all obvious or

  • clear or necessary. But even there, it turns out physics potentially has an answer because

  • we now have good reason to believe that even the laws of physics themselves are kind of

  • arbitrary.

  • There may be an infinite number of universes, and in each universe that's been created,

  • the laws of physics are different. It's completely random. And the laws themselves come into

  • existence when the universe comes into existence. So there's no pre-existing fundamental law.

  • Anything that can happen, does happen. And therefore, you got no laws, no space, no time,

  • no particles, no radiation. That's a pretty good definition of nothing.

When you think about nothing you have to be a little more careful than you normally are


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勞倫斯-克勞斯:一無所有的味道(YouTube極客周!)。 (Lawrence Krauss: The Flavors of Nothing (YouTube Geek Week!))

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