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If you follow me on Instagram, you probably know I went to the North Pole recently, and
this time of year the sun never sets. It was crazy. Why is it so hard to sleep when it's light out?
Hey light sleepers, Trace here. This is DNews. Everything sleeps or has some kind of active
and inactive cycle, but not everything sleeps at night, like we do. Regular DNews watchers
will know about the circadian rhythm, the pattern of sleep and wakefulness connected
to the amount of light entering the eye. When we perceive daylight, our brains lessen the
release of melatonin, making us more wakeful. And at night, more melatonin, more sleepy.
But, it's not just about sleepiness. Even self-proclaimed night owls need darkness to
sleep. We evolved to sleep in the dark, and we know this because when it's dark our hormone
levels fluctuate causing widespread changes in our physiology. Melatonin lowers blood
pressure, sugar levels, and body temperature. Leptin makes us less hungry. Both of these
prepping us for rest. When we're sleeping, the levels of cortisol, a stress hormone, drop,
and our immune function improves.
Even though this explains why we sleep at night, it doesn't tell us why we evolved this
way. Sleeping at night is actually kinda weird. Only 20 percent of mammals sleep at night.
Most mammals are nocturnal, spending their days tucked away for sleepy time.
A study of fossils from the last 100 million years found nocturnal species evolved way
before mammals even appeared. Primates don't have a specific pattern of day-night cycling.In
fact, a study in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology looked at fossils of primates
and found species can be either diurnal (day active) or nocturnal (night active). But because
we sleep at night, modern humans must have evolved from a diurnal group of ancient primates.
And this is supported by scientists who study pre-industrial societies before the electric light. They've found humans
went to sleep just after sunset for a while, woke up, were active in the middle of the
night (in the dark), then slept again -- that's called second sleep. That's our natural order,
sleeping twice, in the dark.
But now, even a little light can mess up your sleep schedule because we have electricity. Because our brain is just watching,
always watching. and it gets confused when any light is present… because it didn't
evolve to have light at night. Even when your eyes are closed your brain sees light through
your eyelids, and lowers melatonin release. You're affected by glowing electronics, digital
clocks, and lights from other rooms or the street that shine onto you. A study with rats
found they slept in different positions and had different sleep behaviors when exposed
only to dim twilight sleep, and a study with hamsters found signs of depression when they slept
with light at the equivalent of a glowing TV screen in their room. Studies have correlated
excess light at night with breast cancer, and darkness at night with better performance
of a breast cancer drug, and even connected lessened tumor growth with more sleep. Not
to mention all the normal immune, obesity, depressive and other health effects associated with having too much or too little sleep.
So, while we don't know exactly why we evolved to sleep in the dark, we know our eyes and
brains have adapted to work better during daytime and not at night… thus, we should
sleep in a dark room, regardless of the actual time of day. And this is supported by the
National Sleep Foundation, so... maybe… *yawn* I should just… have a nap. Give me
that pillow. Have a nap!
*yawn again* Why is it that yawning makes you want to yawn? Why do we even YAWN!?
Check out this old video, opens it wide, and checks in on this weird universal behavior.
The act itself is usually associated with being tired.
Of course a symbol of boredom in humans
But in animals, yawning could be associated with sexual arousal, fear, uncertainty,
mating rituals ,and even a warning sign on other animals .
Perhaps a it's a way to passively show large teeth to the enemy.
Do you sleep in PURE DARKNESS? Or you are more of a...... "I'll sleep anywhere" person
Subscribe so you get more DNews .Thanks for watching and let us know down on the comments.
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晚上開燈睡不著?你知道為什麼人類不是夜行性動物嗎? (Why Aren’t Humans Naturally Nocturnal?)

41696 分類 收藏
Richard Wei 發佈於 2017 年 11 月 2 日   Richard Wei 翻譯   吳宜臻 審核

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你睡覺的時候習慣開個小夜燈嗎?還是你一定要在全暗的環境中才有辦法入睡呢?這部影片要告訴你人類為甚麼適合在晚上睡覺,光線又會對我們造成甚麼影響?說不定看完之後,你能找到幫助你睡得更好的方式喔!一起來學學吧!

1circadian rhythm       0:25
circadian rhythm,是「約日節律」的意思,比較通俗的講法是 circadian clockbody clock、biological clock「生理時鐘」,就是讓我們到中午會想吃飯,晚上會想睡覺的一種生理機制。這個單字是由 circadianrhythm 所組成。
首先我們來看 circadian。在拉丁文裡面,circa 是「繞轉」的意思,dies 則是「天」。這在說天體有規律地運行轉造成日夜輪動,所以合在一起的意思就是「晝夜節律的;生理節奏的」。
rhythm 是「節奏;節律」的意思。大家生活中最常看到他的地方應該是在音樂表演上,人家在討論這首曲子的節拍時。比方說:
She is trying to play the same tune in a different rhythm on the piano.
她正試圖用鋼琴以不同節奏彈奏同首曲子。


但其實這是個被廣泛使用的單字,許多有規律的東西都可以用 rhythm 表示,從跑步的節奏到潮汐的漲落等都可以。
My Earth science teacher said that the rhythm of the tides is affected by the moon.我的地科老師說潮汐的漲落會受月亮的影響。


*同場加映:
想把英文講得跟美國人一樣?這是你該知道的事!(Wanna Speak English Like An American?)


2pattern       0:26
pattern 通常作名詞用,翻作「模式;圖案;模範」,像是英文課時常提到的「句型」,就是 sentence patterns
The two copies are written after the same pattern.
這兩份文案是照著同一個模式寫的。

I don't like the pattern on his clothes.
我不喜歡他衣服上的圖案。

The parents set a pattern of what upstanding people should be to their children.
那對父母向他們的孩子示範了如何當個正派、誠實的人。


它偶爾可以當作動詞「以圖案裝飾;模仿」
She patterned herself upon a athlete she admired.
她模仿一位她很敬佩的運動員。


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】一則著名的邏輯謎題:綠眼睛的人 (The famously difficult green-eyed logic puzzle - Alex Gendler)


3self-proclaimed       0:40
self-proclaimed 就是「自稱的」的意思,很明顯是由 selfproclaim 這兩個單字所結合而成。一般都會把後面的 proclaim 加上 ed 變過去分詞,當形容詞用。
People nowadays can be self-proclaimed "otaku" without being ashamed.
人們現在可以坦蕩蕩地自稱為「御宅族」。


常看到 self 後面接一些詞彙,該詞彙意思就會多加個「自我...的」,比方說 self-evident「不證自明的」、self-decipline「自律」、self-motivated「自我激勵的」。
We are looking for self-motivated candidates with good self-discipline.
我們在尋找會自己尋求進步且自律的人。


proclaim 是及物動詞,作「正式宣布;聲明;表明;讚揚」。它比較正式,有正式宣佈的感覺。像是:
The central bank proclaimed that a new currency would be issued.
中央銀行宣布將發行新貨幣。


也因為它比較正式,所以也是作文考試時常見的單字,常可以看到它加 that 後再接句子,比方說,你要寫「某某教授指出...」的時候,你就可以說 The professor proclaimed that...。如果沒有要那麼正式第表示「指出、說出」,可以用以下幾個單字:claim、point out、state、assert
它也可以當「表明」:
After weeks of speculation, the politician proclaimed his stance on the matter.
經過一個禮拜的思索過後,這名政客表明了他的立場。


4fluctuate        0:47
這個單字是「波動、變動;動搖」的意思,可以用在許多層面,物理的波動、經濟局勢的震盪、天氣、心情都可以。
The price of gold will fluctuate with market conditions.
金價會隨著市場情勢而波動。

My mom’s mood seems to fluctuate from day to day.
我媽的情緒好像每天都變來變去。


另外,swingsway 這兩個詞也可表示「前後、上下、來回搖擺」。但 swing 是指一頭固定住而另一頭成弧形擺動;fluctuate 指的是沒有規律地上下起伏、波動;sway 則是指靈活或不穩定的東西緩慢地晃動。
The ceilling lamp swung in the wind during the typhoon.
吊燈在颱風的時候搖盪不已。

The earthquake caused the wall to sway to the right.
地震使牆向右傾斜。


*同場加映:
【英文技巧】讓你聽起來比較聰明的5個單字! (English Vocabulary: 5 verbs to make you sound smart)


5tuck    1:17   
tuck 是個常見的單字,它的意思非常多。可以當「把...塞入、藏起...」
Tuck your chair in the table so that no one trips over it.把你的椅子推到桌下,以免有人被絆倒。


在講「藏起」的時候,也可以在後面加上 away,變成 tuck something away。像在這部影片裡面,哺乳類動物會在白天時把自己藏到一邊去睡覺,就用上了 tuck away 這個片語。
My father always kept a little of money tucked away in case of an emergency.我爸爸總會藏點錢應急。


有趣的是,tuck away 還有「大吃一頓」的用法。
You should see the amount of food that little boy can tuck away in a single meal!
你該來看看那個男孩一餐可以嗑掉多少東西!


此外,他也常用在「摺(衣服)、捲(衣服)」上面。
Hey kid, tuck in your shirt!
嘿!孩子,把你的袖子捲起來。


*同場加映:
超強12種旅行打包術! (12 Travel Packing Tips: Howdini Hacks)


看完之後有沒有比較熟悉睡覺的機制了呢?想趕快睡著的人在看完主編精選之後就趕快關機準備入眠吧!讓褪黑激素發揮它的功效!晚安~

文/ Henry

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