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  • Hi, I’m John Green and this is Crash Course Literature

    嗨,我是約翰-格林,這裡是文學速成班。

  • and today were going to talk about The Catcher in the Rye,

    今天我們要討論的是《麥田守望者》。

  • the bestselling book never to be adapted into a film.

    暢銷書從未被改編成電影。

  • Mr. Green, Mr. Green!

    格林先生,格林先生!

  • What about the Quran?

    那《古蘭經》呢?

  • Fair enough, Me from the Past,

    很公平,《過去的我》。

  • but there’s a religious injunction there.

    但那裡有一個宗教禁令。

  • The reason this has never been made into a movie is of course

    之所以一直沒有被拍成電影,當然是由於

  • because Salinger and his estate won’t allow it.

    因為塞林格和他的遺產不允許。

  • [spoilsporting FTL or Litigation as sport FTW?]

    [寵辱不驚的超光速飛行還是把訴訟當作運動?]

  • But how this text

    但是,這段文字如何-

  • I mean, even most of Salinger’s covers are imageless

    我的意思是,即使是塞林格的大部分封面都是無形象的--。

  • has managed to remain relevant without a movie adaptation

    在沒有電影改編的情況下,仍然能夠保持其相關性

  • in our image-saturated and image-driven culture is a very interesting question.

    在我們這個影像飽和和影像驅動的文化中,這是一個非常有趣的問題。

  • [but not one to subject TFIOS to, if you please]

    [但請不要讓TFIOS受制於人]

  • And so today were gonna take a look at the pure and unadulterated text of

    所以今天我們就來看看純正的、不摻雜任何雜質的文字。

  • The Catcher in the Rye.

    麥田裡的守望者

  • Now there are many ways to read a novel critically,

    現在,批判性閱讀小說的方法有很多。

  • and next week well take a very different approach:

    而下週我們將採取非常不同的方法。

  • Well infuriate J.D Salinger’s ghost by reading this novel in a historical

    我們將通過閱讀這部歷史小說來激怒J.D.塞林格的鬼魂。

  • and biographical context.

    和傳記背景。

  • But today, let’s appease Salinger’s ghost by pretending

    但今天,讓我們來安撫塞林格的鬼魂,裝作

  • that he as a person never existed.

    他作為一個人從未存在過。

  • [BEST]

    [最佳]

  • [intro music]

    [介紹音樂]

  • [intro music]

    [介紹音樂]

  • [intro music]

    [介紹音樂]

  • [intro music]

    [介紹音樂]

  • [EVER]

    [永遠]

  • These days our artistic landscape is so deeply defined by visual narratives

    如今我們的藝術格局被視覺敘事深深地定義了

  • on TV and in the movies that we can hardly imagine a world without images.

    在電視和電影中,我們很難想象一個沒有影像的世界。

  • [or without HBO, ideally]

    [或沒有HBO,理想情況下]

  • In fact, I’d argue that we have a bad habit

    事實上,我認為我們有一個壞習慣。

  • of seeing books as sort of cheaply-made movies

    把書看成是廉價的電影

  • where the words do nothing but create visual narratives in our heads.

    在那裡,文字什麼都不做,只是在我們的腦海中創造視覺敘事。

  • So too often what passes for literary criticism is

    所以,很多時候,文學批評的內容往往是

  • “I couldn’t picture that guyor “I liked that part

    "我無法想象那個人 "或 "我喜歡那個部分"

  • orThis part shouldn’t have happened;”

    或 "這部分不應該發生;"

  • that is, weve left language so far behind that sometimes

    也就是說,我們已經把語言遠遠地甩在了後面,以至於有時候... ...

  • we judge quality solely based on a story’s actions.

    我們只根據一個故事的行動來判斷品質。

  • So we can appreciate a novel that constructs its conflicts

    所以,我們可以欣賞一部小說,它的衝突的構建

  • primarily through plot

    主要通過情節

  • the layered ambiguity of a fatal car accident caused

    致命車禍的層層迷霧。

  • by a vehicle owned by Gatsby but driven by someone else, for instance.

    由蓋茨比擁有的車輛,但由其他人駕駛,例如。

  • But in this image-drenched world, sometimes we struggle to appreciate

    但在這個充滿想象力的世界裡,有時我們卻很難體會到。

  • and celebrate books where the quality arises not exclusively from plot

    頌揚那些品質不完全來自於情節的書。

  • but also from the language itself. [did things just get a bit personal?]

    但也從語言本身。[事情只是變得有點個人化?]

  • Holden Caulfield, by the way,

    對了,霍爾登-考爾菲爾德。

  • was aware of this because he too lived in an image-driven world.

    是意識到了這一點,因為他也生活在一個形象驅動的世界裡。

  • I mean,

    我的意思是

  • on the very first page of the book, Holden calls his brother a prostitute

    在書的第一頁,霍爾登稱他的兄弟為妓女。

  • for abandoning bookwriting for Hollywoodband says,

    為放棄寫書去好萊塢帶說。

  • If there’s one thing I hate, it’s the movies.”

    "如果有一件事我討厭,那就是電影。"

  • [hipsters can be such haters]

    [時髦的人可以是這樣的仇人]

  • And the novel frequently identifies itself in direct opposition to film,

    而小說經常將自己的身份與電影直接對立起來。

  • as for instance when Holden says,

    比如霍頓說:

  • “I don’t remember if he knocked me out or not, but I don’t think so.

    "我不記得他有沒有把我打暈,但我想應該沒有。

  • It’s pretty hard to knock a guy out, except in the goddam movies.”

    要想把一個人打倒是挺難的,除了在神馬電影裡。"

  • By the way, for the record,

    順便說一下,為了記錄在案,

  • it is okay to sayCharlotte Bronteif you are quoting the book in question.

    如果你引用的是有關的書,說 "夏洛蒂-勃朗特 "是可以的。

  • But, now, outside of the text, I have to useCharlotte Bronte.”

    但是,現在,在文本之外,我必須使用 "夏洛特-勃朗特"。

  • Stan, I know we have to do it for the schools,

    斯坦,我知道我們必須為學校做這件事。

  • but this prohibition on cursing is so Emily Bronte annoying.

    但這種禁止罵人的規定太讓艾米麗-勃朗特討厭了。

  • [see what he did there]

    [看他做了什麼]

  • Okay so if youll just allow me one biographical note here,

    好吧,所以如果你能讓我在這裡寫一篇傳記的話。

  • Salinger once wrote in a letter,

    塞林格曾在一封信中寫道。

  • “‘The Catcher in the Ryeis a very novelistic novel.

    "《麥田裡的守望者》是一部非常新穎的小說。

  • There are readymadescenes’— only a fool would deny that

    有現成的 "場景"--只有傻瓜才會否認這一點--。

  • but, for me, the weight of the book is in the narrator’s voice,

    但是,對我來說,這本書的重量是在敘述者的聲音。

  • the non-stop peculiarities of it,

    的不間斷的奇特之處。

  • his personal, extremely discriminating attitude to his reader-listener.

    他個人對讀者聽眾極為挑剔的態度。

  • He can’t legitimately be separated from his own first-person technique.”

    他不能合法地與自己的第一人稱技術分開。"

  • Alright, but before we examine that first-person technique,

    好吧,但在我們研究第一人稱技術之前。

  • let’s go to the image-tastic Thought Bubble.

    讓我們一起去看看形象逼真的思想保麗龍。

  • Catcher in the Rye is the story of Holden Caulfield’s expulsion from Pencey Prep

    麥田守望者》講述的是霍爾登-考菲爾德被彭西預科學校開除的故事。

  • and his journey back home to New York City,

    以及他回紐約市的旅程。

  • where he bums around for a few days trying to get someone to listen to him

    在那裡,他四處流浪了幾天,試圖讓別人聽他的。

  • and meaningfully respond to his fears about becoming an adult

    並有意義地迴應他對成為一個成年人的恐懼,

  • Holden has grown six inches in the past year

    霍爾登在過去的一年裡長了6英寸。

  • and one side of his head is full of gray hair,

    而他的一側腦袋上滿是白髮。

  • both symbols of impending, inevitable adulthood

    風雨欲來風滿樓

  • and its accompanying adulteration of innocence.

    以及隨之而來的對無辜的摻雜。

  • He’s so obsessed with and protective of innocence

    他是那麼的執著,那麼的保護純真。

  • that he can’t even throw a snowball at a car because the car quote

    他甚至不能向汽車扔雪球,因為汽車報價。

  • looked so nice and white.”

    "看起來很好,很白。"

  • Over and over again, Holden tries to reach out to people

    霍爾登一次又一次地嘗試著去接觸人們

  • who might tell him that adulthood will be okay

    誰會告訴他,成年後會好起來的,

  • friends, old teachers, a prostitute, a nun, cab drivers--

    朋友,老教師,妓女,修女,計程車司機... ...

  • but he can never quite find a way to ask these questions directly,

    但他始終找不到直接問這些問題的方法。

  • and anyway, no one ever listens to him.

    反正,從來沒有人聽他的。

  • Nothing much else happens:

    沒有什麼其他的事情發生。

  • There are no explosions or car chases and certainly no skoodilypooping,

    沒有爆炸和汽車追逐,當然也沒有skoodilypooping。

  • as Holden Caulfield is perhaps the first human in history

    霍爾登-考爾菲爾德也許是歷史上第一個人類。

  • ever to pay a prostitute not to have sex with him.

    曾付給妓女錢讓她不要和他發生關係。

  • What Holden really wants is not

    霍頓真正想要的不是

  • sex or money or power or any of the dramatic stuff in Hollywood movies:

    性或金錢或權力或任何好萊塢電影中的戲劇性的東西。

  • He wants to stop time.

    他想讓時間停止。

  • As he famously says when thinking about the Natural History Museum,

    正如他在思考自然歷史博物館時的名言。

  • The best thing, though,

    "最好的事情,不過。

  • in that museum was that everything always stayed right where it was.”

    在那座博物館裡,所有的東西總是呆在正確的地方。"

  • Holden wants to be a protector of innocence

    霍爾登想做一個純真的保護者--。

  • a catcher in the rye

    亡羊補牢

  • but he also wants to stay innocent himself.

    但他自己也想保持清白。

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble.

    謝謝你,思想保麗龍。

  • So one way this is explored is through sex.

    所以,探討這個問題的一個方法就是通過性。

  • Holden is certainly very interested in sexuality,

    霍爾登當然對性生活非常感興趣。

  • and he acknowledges his sexual desire,

    他承認自己的性慾。

  • but what he knows of the adult world of sex is very scary and even abusive.

    但他所知道的成人世界的性愛是非常可怕的,甚至是虐待。

  • After a possible sexual advance from a trusted adult near the end of the novel,

    在小說接近尾聲時,一個值得信賴的成年人可能會對其進行性暗示。

  • Holden says,

    霍頓說。

  • That kind of stuff’s happened to me about twenty times since I was a kid.”

    "從小到大,這種事情在我身上發生了二十多次。"

  • [grody to the maXXX]

    [GRODY TO THE MAXXX]

  • Like a lot of what Holden tells us about his feelings, that’s very subtle

    就像霍爾登告訴我們的很多關於他的感情的事情一樣,那是非常微妙的。

  • and it requires close reading. But it’s important.

    而且需要仔細閱讀。但它很重要。

  • Like it’s easy to see why the adult world strikes Holden as so phony:

    就像不難理解為什麼成人世界對霍爾登的印象那麼假。

  • The only adult who pays attention to him in the entire novel has ulterior motives.

    整部小說中,唯一關注他的大人都是別有用心的。

  • So he just wants to stop time

    所以他只是想讓時間停止

  • to keep himself and the people he cares about away from that world.

    讓自己和自己在乎的人遠離那個世界。

  • You may remember this obsession with stopping time

    你可能還記得這種對時間停止的痴迷。

  • holdintime back, [grumble] if youll pardon the pun

    耽誤時間,[咕嚕]如果你會原諒雙關語-

  • from The Great Gatsby.

    來自《了不起的蓋茨比》。

  • Of course,

    當然了

  • that doesn’t work out for Gatsby, just as it doesn’t work for Holden.

    這對蓋茨比是行不通的,就像對霍爾登也行不通一樣。

  • I mean, the kid’s sixteen-years-old and he’s already got gray hair.

    我是說,這孩子才16歲,就已經有了白頭髮。

  • [worked for Anderson "silverfox" Cooper]

    [曾為安德森"銀狐"庫珀工作]

  • Oh, it’s time for the Open Letter?

    哦,是時候寫公開信了?

  • [Solo Green squarely skids to score specific seat singly significant to self]

    [獨身綠色正直地滑行到得分特定的座位獨身重要的的自己]。

  • An Open Letter to Gray Hair.

    給白髮的一封公開信。

  • But first, let’s see what’s in the secret compartment today.

    不過今天先來看看密室裡有什麼。

  • Oh, thank God, it’s the red hunting cap.

    哦,謝天謝地,是那頂紅色的狩獵帽。

  • Oh, my people-hunting hat.

    哦,我的獵人帽。

  • [the most dangerous game]

    [最危險的遊戲]

  • Stan, I know this is corny,

    斯坦,我知道這很老套

  • but I just feel so much more confident when I’m wearing it.

    但我只是覺得當我穿上它的時候更自信了。

  • It’s kind of my emblem of protection.

    這是一種我的保護標誌。

  • Dear Gray Hair,

    親愛的灰頭髮。

  • You generally result from the wisdom that comes with age,

    你一般是隨著年齡的增長而產生的智慧。

  • or else someone experiencing a great fright.

    否則有人經歷巨大的驚嚇。

  • But gray hair, if youre associated with age,

    但白髮,如果你與年齡有關。

  • how come youve already attacked Holden Caulfield?

    為什麼你已經攻擊霍爾登・考爾菲爾德了?

  • And more importantly, how come youve already attacked ME?

    更重要的是,你怎麼已經攻擊我了?

  • I just had a haircut,

    我剛剛剪了個頭發

  • and not a great one I might add, [for reals. Poufador? Pompapouf?]

    我想說的是,這不是一個偉大的人,[真的。 Poufador? Pompapouf? ]。

  • and my [former] stylist said,

    和我的[前]造型師說。

  • Do you think we should dye your hair? You ARE on YouTube.”

    "你覺得我們應該給你染髮嗎?" "Do you think we should dye your hair?你是在YouTube上。"

  • There’s no room in the brave, new media world for wisdom or age.

    在這個勇敢的新媒體世界裡,沒有智慧和年齡的空間。

  • Holden Caulfield, I’m beginning to know what it’s like to be you.

    霍爾登・考爾菲爾德,我開始知道你是什麼樣子了。

  • Gray hair, all of this leads,

    白髮,這一切都導致。

  • as T.S. Eliot put it, to anoverwhelming question,”

    正如T.S.艾略特所說,對一個 "壓倒性的問題"。

  • should I dye my hair?

    我應該染髮嗎?

  • Eh, I think I’ll just stick with my red hat.

    嗯,我想我還是戴著我的紅帽子吧。

  • It covers my gray hair and [preempts Stan from flicking his ears]

    它遮住了我的白髮,並[搶先一步阻止了Stan的耳朵]。

  • it makes me feel like I can take on the crushing phoniness of the adult world.

    這讓我覺得我可以在成人的世界裡承擔起破碎的音律。

  • Best Wishes, John Green

    最良好的祝願,約翰-格林

  • Okay, let’s now turn to what Salinger called Holden’s first-person technique.

    好了,現在我們來談談塞林格所說的霍爾登的第一人稱技術。

  • So, all these experiences are obviously very important and intense to Holden.

    所以,這些經歷對於霍頓來說,顯然都是非常重要和緊張的。

  • I mean, he’s writing us about the stuff that led him to a mental hospital.

    我的意思是,他給我們寫的東西 導致他到精神病院。

  • But, the intensity of these emotions is masked by the tactics of his narration.

    但是,這些情感的強烈程度被他的敘述策略所掩蓋。

  • I mean, we just saw how subtly he hints at sexual abuse, for instance.

    我的意思是,我們剛剛看到他多麼巧妙地暗示性虐待,例如。

  • And also, Holden uses the passive voice constantly,

    而且,霍頓還不斷地使用被動語態。

  • which of course youre not supposed to do as a writer.

    當然,你不應該做 作為一個作家。

  • Look, for instance, at this sentence,

    比如說,看這句話。

  • The reason I was standing way up on Thomsen Hill,

    "我之所以站在湯臣山的路上。

  • instead of down at the game,

    而不是在遊戲中下。

  • was because I’d just got back from New York with the fencing team.”

    是因為我剛從紐約跟擊劍隊回來。"

  • Any writing teacher would tell you that this is a disaster.

    任何一個寫作老師都會告訴你,這是一場災難。

  • You ought to say, “I stood way up on Thomsen Hill,”

    你應該說,"我站在湯姆森山上"

  • not “I was standing on it.”

    而不是 "我站在上面"

  • But this passive voice is a coping mechanism.

    但這種被動的聲音是一種應對機制。

  • I mean,

    我的意思是

  • the whole reason that writing teachers tell you not to use the passive voice

    寫作老師告訴你不要用被動語態的全部原因。

  • is because it creates distance, whereas active verbs feel immediate and real.

    是因為它產生了距離感,而主動動詞則讓人感到直接和真實。

  • But Holden needs to create distance between himself

    但霍爾登需要在自己之間製造距離

  • and the reality of his pain.

    以及他痛苦的現實。

  • I mean, he’s standing on top of that hill because he’s been expelled from school

    我是說,他站在山頂上是因為他被學校開除了。

  • and also because everyone hates him

    也因為大家都討厭他

  • because he left the fencing team’s equipment on the subway

    因為他把擊劍隊的裝備留在了地鐵上。

  • thereby forcing them to forfeit, becoming

    從而迫使他們放棄,成為他們中的一員。

  • the first person in history to lose the big game WITHOUT BEING ON THE TEAM.

    歷史上第一個在沒有加入球隊的情況下輸掉大賽的人。

  • Who wouldn’t want to distance themselves from that humiliation?

    誰不想與這種屈辱保持距離?

  • You see this again and again in Holden’s voice, and you also see

    你在霍爾登的聲音中一次又一次地看到了這一點,你也看到了。

  • other strategies of minimization of language as a form of self-protection.

    儘量減少語言作為一種自我保護形式的其他策略;

  • I mean, he describes his institutionalized self as

    我的意思是,他形容他的機構化的自我是

  • pretty run down.”

    "相當破舊。"

  • He says that Ackley issort of a nasty guy.”

    他說阿克利是個 "有點討厭的傢伙"。

  • Hesort ofstrikes up a conversation with a cab driver,

    他 "有點 "和一個計程車司機搭訕。

  • asking him what happens to the ducks in the pond when winter comes.

    問他冬天來了,池塘裡的鴨子會怎麼樣?

  • Late in the novel, he sort of gives his sister, Phoebe, a kiss.

    小說後期,他算是給了妹妹菲比一個吻。

  • In fact, the phrasesort ofappears in the novel 179 times.

    事實上,"算是 "這個詞在小說中出現了179次。

  • Also, even sixty years later, Holden’s voice still sounds authentic,

    另外,即使六十年後的今天,霍頓的聲音聽起來依然很真實。

  • which is a function of grammar and word choice.

    這是文法和選詞的功能。

  • After Stradlater asks the expelled Holden to write a composition for him

    在斯特拉德拉特要求被開除的霍爾登為他寫一篇作文之後。

  • because he quotedoesn’t know where to put the commas,” Holden writes,

    因為他引用 "不知道該把逗號放在哪裡",霍爾登寫道。

  • "That’s something else that gives me a royal pain. I mean if

    "這是另一種讓我感到皇家痛苦的東西。我的意思是,如果

  • youre good at writing compositions and somebody starts talking about commas.

    你擅長寫作文,卻有人開始談論逗號。

  • Stradlater was always doing that.

    Stradlater總是這樣做。

  • He wanted you to think that the only reason HE was lousy at

    他想讓你認為,他不擅長的唯一原因是... ...

  • writing compositions was because he stuck all the commas in the wrong places.

    寫作文是因為他把所有的逗號卡在了錯誤的地方。

  • He was a little bit like Ackley, that way.”

    他有點像阿克雷,那樣。"

  • You see what Holden did there?

    你看到霍頓做了什麼嗎?

  • He stuck a comma in the wrong place;

    他把逗號卡在了錯誤的地方。

  • there shouldn’t technically be a comma beforethat way,” but it sounds right.

    嚴格來說,"那樣 "前面不應該有逗號,但聽起來是對的。

  • [also suffer with comma vomit, a bit]

    [還患有逗號嘔吐症,有點]

  • But Holden’s greatest gift as a narrator is that all these techniques

    但霍爾登作為一個敘述者最大的天賦是,所有這些技術

  • of creating distance only make it easier to empathize with him,

    的製造距離,只會讓人更容易與他產生共鳴。

  • especially when his defenses finally break down.

    尤其是當他的防線終於崩潰的時候。

  • I mean, look, for instance,

    我的意思是,你看,例如。

  • at this passage where he’s talking about his brother Allie’s baseball glove:

    在這段話中,他說到了他哥哥Allie的棒球手套。

  • He had poems written all over the fingers and the pocket and everywhere.

    "他的手指上、口袋裡,到處都寫滿了詩。

  • In green ink. He wrote them on it so that he’d have

    用綠墨水寫的他把它們寫在上面,這樣他就會有。

  • something to read when he was in the field and nobody was up at bat. He’s dead now.”

    當他在場上,沒有人上場擊球的時候,可以讀一些東西。他現在已經死了。"

  • The gutpunch of those last three words is brilliant

    最後這三個字的腸穿肚爛,非常精彩--。

  • a present tense sentence in a past tense novel.

    過去式小說中的現在式句子。

  • We go from imagining a kid standing in the outfield reading poetry from his glove

    我們從想象一個孩子站在外野讀詩的手套裡

  • to knowing that this kid is deadnot that he died or that he passed away

    知道這個孩子已經死了,而不是說他死了,或者說他去世了

  • but that he IS dead now.

    但他現在已經死了。

  • The tense reminds us that the dead don’t stop being dead;

    時態提醒我們,死人是不會停止死亡的。

  • that they remain dead, and that is how they haunt us.

    他們仍然死了,這就是他們如何困擾我們。

  • Or another example, look at the use of the word listen in this novel.

    或者再舉個例子,看看這篇小說中聽這個詞的用法。

  • Over and over again, charactersbut especially Holden

    一遍又一遍,人物--尤其是霍爾登--。

  • begin sentences with LISTEN.

    以LISTEN開始句子。

  • Listen, do you feel like playing canasta?” Holden asks Ackley.

    "聽著,你想玩卡納斯塔嗎?"霍爾登問阿克雷。

  • Ackley doesn’t.

    Ackley沒有

  • To Luce he says, “Listen, hey, Luce.

    他對盧斯說:"聽著,嘿,盧斯。

  • Youre one of those intellectual guys. I need your advice. I’m in a terrific—”

    你是那些知識分子之一。我需要你的建議。我在一個了不起的..."

  • and then Luce cuts him off, unable to listen even to the end of the sentence.

    然後盧斯就把他截住了,連話都聽不下去了。

  • But at the end of the novel, Holden says to Phoebe,

    但在小說的最後,霍爾登對菲比說。

  • Listen, do you want to go for a walk?”

    "聽著,你要不要出去走走?"

  • It takes her a whilethey start out walking on opposite sides of the street

    她花了點時間--他們開始走在街道的兩邊--。

  • but they do go for a walk. Holden finally does get listened to.

    但他們確實去散步了。霍頓終於得到了傾聽。

  • Maybe you realize that as youre reading

    也許你在閱讀的時候就意識到了

  • or maybe you don’t, but it works on you unconsciously regardless.

    也許你不知道,但無論如何,它都會無意識地作用於你。

  • And so, moments later, you feel something welling up inside of you as Holden writes,

    所以,片刻之後,你就會感覺到霍爾登寫的東西在你心裡湧動。

  • "I felt so damn happy all of a sudden,

    "我一下子覺得自己太他媽幸福了。

  • the way old Phoebe kept going around and around. I was damn near bawling,

    老Phoebe不停地繞來繞去的方式。我都快嚎啕大哭了

  • I felt so damn happy, if you want to know the truth.

    如果你想知道真相的話,我覺得很開心。

  • I don't know why. It was just that she looked so damn nice,

    我不知道為什麼