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  • I want to talk about social innovation

    今天我想講的是社會創新

  • and social entrepreneurship.

    和公益創業

  • I happen to have triplets.

    我碰巧有三胞胎

  • They're little. They're five years old.

    他們還小,他們五歲

  • Sometimes I tell people I have triplets.

    有時候我告訴人家我有三胞胎

  • They say, "Really? How many?"

    他們說﹐ "真的嗎? 幾個?"

  • Here's a picture of the kids.

    這是他們的照片

  • That's Sage and Annalisa and Rider.

    那時Sage, Annalisa, 和Rider

  • Now, I also happen to be gay.

    我同時也是同性戀者

  • Being gay and fathering triplets is by far

    同時身為同性戀者和三胞胎的爸爸

  • the most socially innovative, socially entrepreneurial thing

    應該是我做過

  • I have ever done.

    最有創意和最大膽的事

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑) (掌聲)

  • The real social innovation I want to talk about

    我真正要談的公益創新是

  • involves charity.

    關於慈善

  • I want to talk about how the things we've been taught to think

    我想講的是我們從小怎樣被灌輸

  • about giving and about charity

    對於幫助別人﹐慈善

  • and about the nonprofit sector

    和非牟利團體的看法

  • are actually undermining the causes we love

    其實它們潛意識破壞我們所愛護的

  • and our profound yearning to change the world.

    以及我們潛在去改變世界的渴望

  • But before I do that, I want to ask if we even believe

    我說這個以前﹐我想問一下我們其實相不相信

  • that the nonprofit sector has any serious role to play

    非牟利組織擔任著

  • in changing the world.

    改變世界的重要角色

  • A lot of people say now that business will lift up the developing economies,

    很多人說既然一般的企業幫助促進發展中的經濟體

  • and social business will take care of the rest.

    那麼就由社會型企業來負責餘下的那部分

  • And I do believe that business will move

    我相信企業會帶動

  • the great mass of humanity forward.

    很大部份的人性前進

  • But it always leaves behind that 10 percent or more

    但同時, 它亦會放棄10%或以上的

  • that is most disadvantaged or unlucky.

    那些最不幸﹐最弱勢的人群

  • And social business needs markets,

    社會型企業需要市場

  • and there are some issues for which you just can't develop

    而它們亦沒有那些龐大的資金

  • the kind of money measures that you need for a market.

    去拓展它們想開發的市場

  • I sit on the board of a center for the developmentally disabled,

    我是一個專門針對成長發展障礙的中心的董事

  • and these people want laughter

    他們需要的是笑容

  • and compassion and they want love.

    關懷﹐他們需要愛

  • How do you monetize that?

    你如何把它們金錢化?

  • And that's where the nonprofit sector

    非牟利團體和慈善事業

  • and philanthropy come in.

    便是在這時上場

  • Philanthropy is the market for love.

    慈善工作是一個愛的市場

  • It is the market for all those people

    為了那些沒有其他市場

  • for whom there is no other market coming.

    來幫助他們的人們

  • And so if we really want, like Buckminster Fuller said,

    所以,尤如Buckminster Fuller (美國哲學家、建築師及發明家)說的

  • a world that works for everyone,

    如果我們想要一個服務於所有人

  • with no one and nothing left out,

    不遺漏一個人的世界

  • then the nonprofit sector has to be

    非牟利團體必定

  • a serious part of the conversation.

    要是很重要的一方

  • But it doesn't seem to be working.

    但這似乎不是太順利﹐

  • Why have our breast cancer charities

    為什麼我們的乳癌組織

  • not come close to finding a cure for breast cancer,

    還沒有找到根治乳癌的方法

  • or our homeless charities not come close

    或救助流浪兒團體

  • to ending homelessness in any major city?

    還未解決大城市中無家可歸的問題?

  • Why has poverty remained stuck at 12 percent

    為什麼美國四十年來

  • of the U.S. population for 40 years?

    貧乏人口的比例還是停留在12%?

  • And the answer is, these social problems

    答案是﹐這些社會問題

  • are massive in scale,

    其實很大

  • our organizations are tiny up against them,

    我們的團體相比之下猶如螳臂當車

  • and we have a belief system that keeps them tiny.

    而且我們有一套信仰體系讓它們顯得更渺小

  • We have two rulebooks.

    我們有兩套規章制度

  • We have one for the nonprofit sector

    一套是對非牟利團體

  • and one for the rest of the economic world.

    另一套是對趨利的世界

  • It's an apartheid, and it discriminates

    這就是種族歧視

  • against the [nonprofit] sector in five different areas,

    它在五個方面歧視了非牟利團體

  • the first being compensation.

    第一是回報

  • So in the for-profit sector, the more value you produce,

    你在非牟利團體裡面製造的價值越多

  • the more money you can make.

    你賺的錢越多

  • But we don't like nonprofits to use money

    但我們不喜歡非牟利團體花錢

  • to incentivize people to produce more in social service.

    激勵人們在公益服務上創造更多

  • We have a visceral reaction to the idea that anyone

    我們對某些人通過幫助別人而獲利良多

  • would make very much money helping other people.

    這個想法有本能的厭惡

  • Interesting that we don't have a visceral reaction

    但有趣的是我們對於那些賺賺得盆滿缽溢

  • to the notion that people would make a lot of money not helping other people.

    而又不去幫助別人的人又不厭惡

  • You know, you want to make 50 million dollars

    要是你想靠售賣暴力電腦游戲

  • selling violent video games to kids, go for it.

    賺五千萬﹐去吧﹗

  • We'll put you on the cover of Wired magazine.

    我們會讓你登上Wired 雜誌的封面

  • But you want to make half a million dollars

    但如果你想靠治好患瘧疾的小孩

  • trying to cure kids of malaria,

    賺取五十萬

  • and you're considered a parasite yourself. (Applause)

    你自己就會被看作一條寄生蟲

  • And we think of this as our system of ethics,

    我們都以為這是道德觀念

  • but what we don't realize is that this system

    但我們不知道的其實這套觀念

  • has a powerful side effect, which is,

    有一個非常顯著的弊病

  • it gives a really stark, mutually exclusive choice

    它給出了一個非此即彼的選擇

  • between doing very well for yourself and your family

    要麼最好的給予自己和家人

  • or doing good for the world

    要麼為世界作出貢獻

  • to the brightest minds coming out of our best universities,

    讓精英雲集的頂尖大學

  • and sends tens of thousands of people

    可以每年把數以千計能影響世界的人們

  • who could make a huge difference in the nonprofit sector

    送進非牟利機構裡

  • marching every year directly into the for-profit sector

    就像數以千計直接送到牟利企業的人們一樣

  • because they're not willing to make that kind of lifelong economic sacrifice.

    因為他們並不願意放棄經濟上的長期損失

  • Businessweek did a survey, looked at the compensation packages

    《商業週刊》雜誌做了一項調查

  • for MBAs 10 years of business school,

    把不同工商管理碩士(MBAs)的收入進行統計

  • and the median compensation for a Stanford MBA,

    斯坦福大學的MBA,在三十八歲時的收入中位數

  • with bonus, at the age of 38, was 400,000 dollars.

    加上紅利,是四十萬美元

  • Meanwhile, for the same year, the average salary

    同時,一家資產為五百萬以上的美國醫療慈善機構的

  • for the CEO of a $5 million-plus medical charity in the U.S.

    行政總裁平均收入是二十三萬美元

  • was 232,000 dollars, and for a hunger charity, 84,000 dollars.

    而一家致力解決飢饉問題的慈善機構的總裁收入是八萬四千美元

  • Now, there's no way you're going to get a lot of people

    要很多有能力去賺四十萬的人

  • with $400,000 talent to make a $316,000 sacrifice

    現在放棄三十一萬六, 而當一家飢饉救助會的總裁

  • every year to become the CEO of a hunger charity.

    簡直是天方夜談

  • Some people say, "Well, that's just because those MBA types are greedy."

    有些人會說, "都是因為那些MBA貪婪"

  • Not necessarily. They might be smart.

    其實不然,他們是聰明

  • It's cheaper for that person to donate

    一個人每年

  • 100,000 dollars every year to the hunger charity,

    捐給飢饉救助會十萬元

  • save 50,000 dollars on their taxes,

    從而少交五萬元的稅是比較便宜的

  • so still be roughly 270,000 dollars a year ahead of the game,

    即使這樣他們還是比救助會的總裁要多賺二十七萬美元

  • now be called a philanthropist because they donated

    又會因為捐了十萬塊錢

  • 100,000 dollars to charity,

    被稱做大慈善家

  • probably sit on the board of the hunger charity,

    有時還會出席飢饉慈善的董事會

  • indeed, probably supervise the poor SOB

    監管那些不知死活

  • who decided to become the CEO of the hunger charity,

    非要當飢饉救助會的行政總裁

  • and have a lifetime of this kind of power and influence

    還能終生保有這些勢力和影響力

  • and popular praise still ahead of them.

    並廣受讚譽

  • The second area of discrimination is advertising and marketing.

    第二方面的歧視來自宣傳跟廣告

  • So we tell the for-profit sector, "Spend, spend, spend on advertising

    我們告訴牟利機構,"花,花,把錢都花在廣告上

  • until the last dollar no longer produces a penny of value."

    直到榨乾最後一滴價值"

  • But we don't like to see our donations spent on advertising in charity.

    但我們偏不喜歡看到我們的捐款被花在為慈善做廣告上

  • Our attitude is, "Well, look, if you can get the advertising donated,

    我們的態度是,"聽著,如是你真的要做那件事情

  • you know, at four o'clock in the morning, I'm okay with that.

    你在清晨四點鐘做,我沒意見。

  • But I don't want my donations spent on advertising.

    但我真的不想看到我的捐款用在廣告上

  • I want it go to the needy."

    我是想它用在有需要的人身上啊。"

  • As if the money invested in advertising

    誰說投資在廣告上

  • could not bring in dramatically greater sums of money

    就不能帶來巨大的收益

  • to serve the needy.

    去幫助有需要的人

  • In the 1990s, my company created

    1990 年,我的公司開辦了

  • the long distance AIDSRide bicycle journeys

    AIDSRide長途單車之旅

  • and the 60-mile-long breast cancer three-day walks,

    和三天六十英哩長的乳癌步行活動

  • and over the course of nine years,

    經過九年的時間

  • we had 182,000 ordinary heroes participate,

    我們有18萬2千名平凡的勇士參與

  • and they raised a total of 581 million dollars.

    一共籌得五億八千一百萬美元的善款

  • They raised more money more quickly for these causes

    他們為了這些目標籌得的錢

  • than any events in history,

    比以往任何活動籌得還要多還要快

  • all based on the idea that people are weary

    因為他們曉得人們厭煩被要求做這些

  • of being asked to do the least they can possibly do.

    起碼他們能夠做到的

  • People are yearning to measure

    人們渴望瞭解自己在所關注的事業上

  • the full distance of their potential

    在所關注的事業上

  • on behalf of the causes that they care about deeply.

    盡力得到的結果。

  • But they have to be asked.

    但得有人邀請他們

  • We got that many people to participate

    我們之所以有那麼多參賽者

  • by buying full-page ads in The New York Times,

    全靠放在紐約時代雜誌

  • in The Boston Globe, in primetime radio and TV advertising.

    波士頓環球報的整版廣告,還有電台,電視黃金時段的廣告

  • Do you know how many people we would have gotten

    你知道如果我們把宣傳放在自助洗衣店門口

  • if we put up flyers in the laundromat?

    會有多少人參加嗎?

  • Charitable giving has remained stuck, in the U.S.,

    慈善捐助在美國一直停滯不前

  • at two percent of GDP ever since we started measuring it in the 1970s.

    從1970年至今一直維持在國内生產總值的2%

  • That's an important fact, because it tells us

    這個告訴我們很重要的一個事情

  • that in 40 years, the nonprofit sector

    就是四十年來,非牟利行業

  • has not been able to wrestle any market share

    到現在還有從牟利行業那處

  • away from the for-profit sector.

    爭得一點點市場

  • And if you think about it, how could one sector

    試想一下

  • possibly take market share away from another sector

    一個連市場行銷都不被允許的行業

  • if it isn't really allowed to market?

    又如何能夠從另一個行業那裡拿走市場?

  • And if we tell the consumer brands,

    我們會告訴消費品品牌

  • "You may advertise all the benefits of your product,"

    "你該宣傳產品所有的好處"

  • but we tell charities, "You cannot advertise all the good that you do,"

    但那邊,我們告訴慈善機構,"你不能夠宣傳你做過什麼好事"

  • where do we think the consumer dollars are going to flow?

    那你認為消費者的鈔票會落入哪一邊?

  • The third area of discrimination is the taking of risk

    第三樣歧視是為提高收益而創新

  • in pursuit of new ideas for generating revenue.

    所承受的風險

  • So Disney can make a new $200 million movie that flops,

    迪士尼可以虧掉一部二億元的電影

  • and nobody calls the attorney general.

    沒有人會起訴它

  • But you do a little $1 million community fundraiser

    但要是你為了貧困籌了區區一百萬的款項

  • for the poor, and it doesn't produce a 75 percent profit

    而在頭一年

  • to the cause in the first 12 months,

    沒有達到75%的盈餘

  • and your character is called into question.

    你的聲譽就會遭到質疑

  • So nonprofits are really reluctant to attempt any brave,

    所以非牟利機構其實真的對大膽的,銳意進取的

  • daring, giant-scale new fundraising endeavors

    大型的籌款活動卻步

  • for fear that if the thing fails, their reputations

    怕的是一旦失敗

  • will be dragged through the mud.

    它們便會聲名狼藉

  • Well, you and I know when you prohibit failure,

    你該知道禁止失敗

  • you kill innovation.

    我們便會泄氣。

  • If you kill innovation in fundraising, you can't raise more revenue.

    要是在籌款活動上沒有創新,就不會有任何收入提高

  • If you can't raise more revenue, you can't grow.

    要是沒有收入,你便不會發展

  • And if you can't grow, you can't possibly solve large social problems.

    不能夠發展,你便不能夠解決龐大的社會問題

  • The fourth area is time.

    第四點是時間。

  • So Amazon went for six years without returning any profit to investors,

    亞馬遜網站連續六年沒有發盈利給投資者

  • and people had patience.

    人們都還有耐性

  • They knew that there was a long-term objective down the line

    他們知道這是

  • of building market dominance.

    一個在市場中獨佔鰲頭的長線項目

  • But if a nonprofit organization ever had a dream

    但要是公益機構夢想要花六年

  • of building magnificent scale that required that for six years,

    創做一個龐大項目

  • no money was going to go to the needy,

    而這些錢都不會被用在有需要的人上

  • it was all going to be invested in building this scale,

    全部金錢都用在投資在項目上

  • we would expect a crucifixion.

    它一定不會有好日子過

  • And the last area is profit itself.

    最後是盈餘

  • So the for-profit sector can pay people profits

    牟利商業可以靠分紅

  • in order to attract their capital for their new ideas,

    來吸引人們來投資它們的新概念

  • but you can't pay profits in a nonprofit sector,

    但非牟利機構不可以,

  • so the for-profit sector has a lock on the multi-trillion-dollar capital markets,

    牟利能夠獨霸市場

  • and the nonprofit sector is starved for growth

    但非牟利機構得不到成長

  • and risk and idea capital.

    跟機會以及理想的資本

  • Well, you put those five things together -- you can't use money

    你用五根指頭算算,

  • to lure talent away from the for-profit sector,

    你未能把能幹的人從牟利機構中挖過來

  • you can't advertise on anywhere near the scale

    你不能夠像牟利機構般

  • the for-profit sector does for new customers,

    宣傳,賣廣告去吸引新客戶

  • you can't take the kinds of risks in pursuit of those customers

    你沒有牟利機構的能力承受

  • that the for-profit sector takes,

    追求那些客戶的風險

  • you don't have the same amount of time to find them

    你沒有像牟利機構那樣多的時間

  • as the for-profit sector,

    去找那些客戶

  • and you don't have a stock market with which to fund any of this,

    你沒有股票市場去支助你所有這些行為

  • even if you could do it in the first place,

    就算你一開始能這麼做

  • and you've just put the nonprofit sector

    相較於牟利企業非牟利機構已經在

  • at an extreme disadvantage to the for-profit sector

    非牟利機構已經在每個層面上

  • on every level.

    都處於極端的劣勢

  • If we have any doubts about the effects of this separate rule book,

    要是你對這雙種標準的效果有所質疑

  • this statistic is sobering:

    這些統計數字能叫你醒悟過來

  • From 1970 to 2009,

    從1970年 到2009年

  • the number of nonprofits that really grew,

    真正超越了五百萬年收入大關的

  • that crossed the $50 million annual revenue barrier,

    非牟利機構

  • is 144.

    有144個

  • In the same time, the number of for-profits that crossed it

    如此同時,能夠跨過那收入關卡的牟利機構

  • is 46,136.

    有46,136個

  • So we're dealing with social problems that are massive in scale,

    我們在處理那些龐大的社會問題

  • and our organizations can't generate any scale.

    但我們的機構自己卻無法成長

  • All of the scale goes to Coca-Cola and Burger King.

    全部的規模效益都落入到可口可樂和漢堡王

  • So why do we think this way?

    我們為何會這樣想?

  • Well, like most fanatical dogma in America,

    美國的這些狂熱信條

  • these ideas come from old Puritan beliefs.

    來源于從前的清教徒的教義

  • The Puritans came here for religious reasons, or so they said,

    清教徒們,或者按他們自己的說法,來這裡出於宗教理由

  • but they also came here because they wanted to make a lot of money.

    但他們也是為了賺大錢

  • They were pious people but they were also

    他們是虔誠的教徒

  • really aggressive capitalists,

    也是激進的資本家

  • and they were accused of extreme forms of profit-making tendencies

    比起其他殖民者

  • compared to the other colonists.

    他們被指責使用極端手段來牟利

  • But at the same time, the Puritans were Calvinists,

    但同時﹐清教徒也是加爾文主義者

  • so they were taught literally to hate themselves.

    所以他們被教導要怨恨自己

  • They were taught that self-interest was a raging sea

    他們被教導利己主義是罪惡的源頭

  • that was a sure path to eternal damnation.

    是一條通向永恆詛咒必經的道路

  • Well, this created a real problem for these people, right?

    這樣不就會產生真正的問題?

  • Here they've come all the way across the Atlantic to make all this money.

    他們不辭萬里越洋來賺錢

  • Making all this money will get you sent directly to Hell.

    但賺這些錢又會把你直接推向地獄

  • What were they to do about this?

    他們該怎樣做?

  • Well, charity became their answer.

    慈善公益就是他們的答案

  • It became this economic sanctuary

    這是他們經濟的避難所

  • where they could do penance for their profit-making tendencies

    他們可以繼續

  • at five cents on the dollar.

    每一塊錢裡的五分錢懺悔

  • So of course, how could you make money in charity

    理所當然地﹐要是慈善是你為牟利而懺悔

  • if charity was your penance for making money?

    那你怎樣能夠以它來賺錢?

  • Financial incentive was exiled from the realm of helping others

    在幫助別人的國度裡﹐經濟獎勵是不容許的

  • so that it could thrive in the area of making money for yourself,

    因為那會促使你去為自己賺錢﹐

  • and in 400 years, nothing has intervened

    四百年來﹐從來沒有聲音介入說

  • to say, "That's counterproductive and that's unfair."

    "這只會適得其反﹐這是不公平的"

  • Now this ideology gets policed by this one very dangerous question,

    現在總有一個非常危險的問題縈繞著這種觀念

  • which is, "What percentage of my donation goes to the cause versus overhead?"

    "我的捐款有多少是落到慈善事業?有多少落入慈善機構的營運開銷?"

  • There are a lot of problems with this question.

    這問題漏洞百出

  • I'm going to just focus on two.

    我只說兩個

  • First, it makes us think that overhead is a negative,

    第一﹐ 我們認為開銷是無意義的

  • that it is somehow