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in this lesson we're going to continue to talk
about the environmental analysis part of market
sensing. specifically we're going focus on discussing
the social, cultural, demographic
and global aspects of environmental analysis.
previously
we have reviewed in greater detail
the aspect of competition, economic,
regulatory legal and political,
technological and natural environmental
aspect of the marketing environment. again today we're going to focus on the
social, cultural, demographic, and global
aspects the marketing environment.
let's start by defining what we mean by the term
demographic. and demographics simply means that when we look
at a population -- or the people that live in an area --
we look at the characteristics of that populations
such as their age,
their gender, their marital status,
their ethnic background, their race, their income,
where they live. basically we do this
because, from a marketing perspective, people might buy
different deodorants, for example, based upon their gender.
they might shop at different stores based upon whether or not they're married or
not
or their age. and this allows us to better understand
who our customer is. one major source of demographic
information is the United States Census Bureau.
and i'd like to right now look
at this brief video from the Census Bureau
as soon as it loads for us....
my take just a minute here...
the results from the 2010 census provide us with the unique
look in the population broken down by race ethnicity
age sex and housing status of our country the newest feature on our website
is an interactive population map which allows you to explore these demographic
as they pertain to various geographical levels
starting at a national level and continuing all the way down to the
neighborhood level.
city and town planners health agencies
the business community local and state governments
community organizers and many others use the information provided on this map
to help them make informed decisions. let's take a look at how the map work.
first go to 2010 census dot gove
and click on the see more arrow. here we are on
interactive maps home page where we can see the nation's population
see the most populated places and gain
easy access in the interactive map by clicking on any of the xxx located along
the right hand side of the screen
you will be prompted to enter your city and state. once inside the map you will
find a range of geographical levels.
these levels are provided at the comprehensive way to break the
statistics down into separate usable category.
the interactive map also displays the total population color-coded by
size starting from the least populated states in the lightest colors
and moving through the most populated in the darkest colors.
another unique feature ofthe interactive population Map
is that you can compare the total population from state to state.
simply click the compare button within the state box
and then click at another location located on the upper right hand side.
from here you simply click up on another location
and then click compare. you can continue to compare
up to five locations by clicking add another location.
you can easily share this comparison chart by embedding it in your website by
clicking embed
on the bottom of the display screen. this feature allows you to share relevant
statistical information with members have your online community.
soas you can see the Census Bureau
interactive population map is a comprehensive way
for you to gather current demographic and statistical information
on a variety of levels. the census bureau
measuring people, places, and our economy.
for more information visit our website.
so..
I hope that just gave me a little bit of perspective of demographics and what kind
of information
you can find from the Census Bureau. what I'd like to do now
is to talk to you about what are some
the changing demographics of the US population.
and we're going to get this information from the
US Census Bureau demographic trends in the 20th century
report. and so first we want tolook just purely at the size of the population
and where people are living. so let's look at some statistics. again this is
the source
that we're using. the US population
more than tripled in the last 100 years.
so the US population is growing. but
in the last 100 years the center
of the US population moved West
and south. so we're not only seeing
growth in population but a shift
in where people are living. the South
and West accounted for nearly two-thirds of the US population
increase from 1900 to 2000
in the last 100 years.
in 1950 the US
population became predominately
metropolitan and it's become increasingly more metropolitan
each subsequent decade. in other words we are no longer seen population growth
in rural areas but we're seeing shifts
to metropolitan areas. interestingly enough
that metropolitan
growth is mostly in the suburbs
of the major cities with little change
in the population living in central city.
so again what is this matter to marketing?
well the more people that live in your potential
area where you want to sell, the more potential people you have to buy.
and if you're located in an area that has few
people. you're going to have fewer potential
customers.
so again from this US Census Bureau demographic trends in the 20th century
report, we're gonna look this time
at what's happening to the age and gender
composition of the US population. so
let's look at. it in at the beginning in this century -- in the nineteen hundreds,
half the population was less than 23
basically years old. but by the century's
end, half of the population was more than 35 years
old. that's the country's highest
median age ever so we're seeing
the age of the population shift higher.
children under the age of five
represented the largest five-year age group
in nineteen hundred we had a boomlet
the baby boom again in nineteen fifty
and but by 2000 the largest
five-year age group were 35 to 39 years old
and 40- 44 years old which
we hear a lot about the baby boom generation those people moving
through. so again in terms
age we're seeing people be
an more older demographic. during this centure between 1900 and 2000 the
population people age 65 in
older increased 10 fold.
it declined for the first time
in the 1990s due partly to the relatively
low number births in the late 1920s and early 1930s
but we will see rapid growth
of the population age 65 older will begin again
in 2011 when the first of the baby boom generation
reaches age 65 and will continue to grow
for many years. so we're seeing a population shift --
products then that are targeted to older people
will have more people to sell to. let's think
about the gender
or age. the composition shifted from a majority of
male population to a majority
female population around mid century
around 1950.
the males per females has declined every decade
from 1910 to 1980 and then
increase again in the eighties and nineties so we are
no longer a predominantly male
population. we've shifted to
a majority female population. again
what we can look at is other types of demographics
that might affect demand for products and services.
and now let's look at race
and Hispanic origin and what's happening to the US population
there. again we're referencing the same demographic trends report.
from 1900 to 2000
the number of non southern States
with populations of at least 10 percent races
other than white increased from
20 to 26 so we're seeing
much diversity in terms of racial diversity
spread across the country.
in the northeast, the midwest, and the south
blacks constituted the largest share of population
of races other than white in every decade in the 20th century.
but in the West each of the races
other than white represented the largest share
during the twentieth century. so again
where in the United States --
if you're marketing a product
targeted to a specific race
or Hispanic origin -- where will these people be living?
look at the number of
Hispanic of any race between 1980 and 2000. in the United States it
more than doubled. in just 20 years
the number of Hispanices in the United States have doubled.
by the end of the century
three-state --California Hawaii
New Mexico-- had a
majority minority populations. in other words the majority
population previously was considered
a minority but now when you look at all the minorities
together the states have more
minority populations than
non-minority populations so we're seeing a huge shift
in racial diversity beyond
white throughout the country.
let's look at what's happening to American households. again, the
same source of information.
in 1902 -- 100 years or more ago --
the most common household contained seven or more people.
from 1940 to 2000
it contains two people. so one of the things we're seeing is
fewer people living in household together.
again this affects the way products and services are marketed.
I think in grocery stores you see increasing numbers of
single-serving packages.
in 1900 nearly half the US population lived in households of
6 more people. by 2000, more than half
lived in households of one, two or three people.
so we're seeing smaller household size. let's look at what happens to the type of
people
living in those households. between 1950
and 2000, married couple
household declined from more than
3/4 our household -- 78 percent all households
in 1950 comprised of a married couple.
and in 2000 just over one
half of all households were comprised of
a married couple.
in 1950 people
living alone represented one of every 10 households.
by 2000 people living
alone -- one-person households -- were one
of every four households. again we're seeing
shift towards smaller numbers of people
living in households and even increasing numbers
of one person households.
between1960 to 2000 women
age 65 and over accounted for 27
to 33 percent of one-person household
but just five to six percent of the total population.
so we're seeing that older people living alone
tend to be female.
female householders were 1 every 5
in 1970. by 2000, female householder
are 36 percent -- 1 of every 3.
its interesting too
that male family householders with no wife present
became increasingly likely to have children present in their household -- the
mister mom concept.
so again what we're looking at here
is how demographic data --
data about the age, gender,
geographic distribution, race,
household data can affect volume of
people living in an area and therefore
the market size
for particular products and services.
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市場洞悉:人口結構的影響 (Market Sensing: Demographic Influences)

522 分類 收藏
羅紹桀 發佈於 2016 年 6 月 17 日    Alvin He 翻譯    Mandy Lin 審核
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