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  • Get your tissues ready, because spring has sprung!

    準報好你的面紙,因為春天要來了!

  • - Hey guys, Tara here for Dnews - and it is

    嘿,各位,Tara在這為你播報D新聞

  • officially that time of year! The birds are chirping, the flowers are blooming, and if

    一年中的這個時候到了!鳥兒在吱吱喳喳的叫,花兒爭相的綻放

  • you're anything like me - your nose is a disgusting faucet of neverending liquids.

    還有…如果你像我一樣的話,你的鼻子正是個不斷流出鼻涕的噁心水龍頭

  • BUT- before you go blaming pollen for those pesky seasonal allergies - remember, you have

    但,在你為了這個討厭的季節性過敏而責怪花粉前,記得

  • no one to blame but yourself.

    你只能責備你自己

  • So, what's happening inside your body, when you experience allergies?

    那麼,在你過敏的時候,你的身體裡究竟發生了些什麼事呢?

  • Well, it's basically one giant misunderstanding. The first time you're exposed to an allergen

    基本上,這裡會有一個很大的誤解。第一次你接觸到過敏原時

  • - your immune system investigates that allergen and produces specific antibodies for it, which

    你的免疫系統偵測到這個過敏原,並製造特定的抗體

  • are special cells designed to detect and stop foreign invasion.

    這個抗體是為了偵測和阻止陌生的入侵者,所產生的特殊細胞

  • Typically, this is a good thing. It's what prevents you from getting sick. But in the

    通常,這是一件好事。這是預防你生病的系統

  • case of allergies, your immune system mistakes innocuous things like pollen and cat dander

    但說到過敏,你的免疫系統將無害的東西,例如,花粉、貓皮屑誤認為是嚴重的威脅

  • - for a serious threat. And in response to that threat, your plasma cells release a flood

    而為了對付這個威脅,你的漿細胞釋放出

  • of these antibodies that attach to the surface of your mast cells, causing them to burst

    一堆抗體,附著於你的肥大細胞表面,讓它們

  • open and release a flood of histamine. Histamine is what causes the swelling that leads to

    爆裂以釋出許多組織胺

  • various allergy-like symptoms, like runny nose, sneezing, or hives.

    組織胺就是造成腫脹,進一步產生各種過敏症狀,如:徵兆、流鼻涕、打噴嚏或蕁麻疹

  • But why do some people have such bad allergies, and others not at all? There's no cut-and-dry

    但為何有些人有嚴重的過敏,其他人卻不會有呢?

  • answer to that question, but genetics and environment seem to play the two biggest roles.

    這個問題沒有任何解答,但遺傳和環境似乎占了很重要的地位

  • Research, for example, has shown that children with one allergic parent have a 33% chance

    例如,有研究顯示,有一位家長有過敏的孩童,有33%的機率有過敏

  • of developing allergies; and with two allergic parents, that number goes up to 70%. Genetics

    而兩位家長都有過敏症狀的,小孩的機率提升到70%

  • are also the reason African-American children experience three times as much sensitivity

    非裔美國人和白人小孩相比,有三倍之多的機率對食物有過敏,其原因也來自於遺傳

  • to food allergens, as Caucasian children. In science, we're always taught that early

    以學科來說,我們總是被教導

  • development is the most crucial stage of life - and early exposure to allergens is no different.

    及早開發是一生中最重要的一個階段,而及早接觸過敏原也是

  • Research from Henry Ford Hospital shows that having a pet in the house during your child's

    根據亨利·福特醫院做的研究顯示,在你的小孩出生第一年裡

  • first year of life may protect him or her from developing allergies.

    在家中飼養寵物可以讓他或她免於過敏困擾

  • That same group also found that babies born via c-section were six times more likely to

    同樣的同隊也發現,嬰兒透過剖腹產出生的

  • be sensitive to dust mite allergens, than babies born via natural birth. Presumably,

    和自然產的小孩相比,有六倍之高的機率對細塵過敏

  • because they're not exposed to the microbiome of bacteria present in the mother's birth

    推測的原因是因為,他們沒有接觸到媽媽產道中

  • canal, which teaches their immune system the difference between good and bad bacteria.

    教導他們的免疫系統,區別好的細菌和不好的細菌的微生物

  • This goes hand in hand with something called the Hygiene Hypothesis, which aims to explain

    這和名為衛生假說的是一起的

  • why allergies are more prevalent in wealthy, industrialized nations, than developing countries.

    目的在於解釋,為什麼和發展中國家相比,過敏較盛行於富有的、工業化後的國家

  • Again, the idea is that a lack of early exposure to parasites and bacteria typically found

    再一次申明,這個主意在於說明,因為沒有早期接觸通常在發展中國家會遇到的寄生蟲和細菌

  • in developing nations - prevents our bodies from being able to develop the appropriate

    因此,我們的身體無法發展出適當的免疫系統來應對它們

  • immune response to them. So in the event we're actually exposed to dangerous agents, our

    所以,萬一我們真正遇到了危險的因子

  • bodies simply don't know how to deal with it.

    我們的身體會不知道該如何處理

  • So, what can we do about seasonal allergies, if our bodies just refuse to cooperate?

    如果我們的身體不願意配合,那麼我們可以在遇到季節性的過敏時做些什麼呢?

  • Anti-histamines can alleviate the symptoms - but they're not gonna make you any less

    抗組織胺可以減緩症狀,但它們無法讓你不過敏

  • allergic to a substance you're already allergic to. Some studies tout alternative remedies

    有些研究指出可選擇的方法

  • - like acupuncture, or eating locally grown honey - but most of those have anecdotal effects.

    像是針灸或是吃當地生產的蜂蜜,但大多數都沒有實質的效用

  • The only proven treatment for respiratory allergies - is immunotherapy, where you receive

    對於呼吸過敏,唯一被證實的治療方法為血清療法

  • increasing doses of whatever allergen you're sensitive to, either orally - or via injection.

    這個療法是:讓你透過口服或是注射,得到更多劑量會使你過敏的過敏原

  • That slow build-up of allergens, allows your body to acclimate to them, which in turn,

    慢慢建立起的過敏原,會使你的身體適應,接著

  • improves your long-term tolerance. Not only is this an expensive option - if

    改善你的長期容忍力。這不但是個花費高的選擇

  • you don't have insurance - it's also a time-consuming process, that can take months or even years

    如果你沒有保障,這也是一個花費時間的過程,有可能花費幾個月,或甚至於幾年的時間

  • to build up a sufficient tolerance. In the most extreme cases, people with severe

    來建立起足夠的容忍力。在最極端的案例中

  • allergies can resort to rush immunotherapy - which is the same thing, but on a much tighter

    有著嚴重過敏症狀的患者,可以使用倉促性的血清療法,而這也是一樣的東西

  • timeline. So instead of spreading out your doses over several months or years, you receive

    但是是在更緊迫的時間裡。因此,與其將你的劑量以多個月或年散布出去

  • all of them. In a week. One long, miserable, neverending week.

    你將它們全數接收。在一個星期內,非常悲慘的、永不結束的一個星期

  • Still better than a lifetime of sneezing, though - that much I can tell you. I got tested

    仍然比一生的打噴嚏還要好。這是我可以告訴你的訊息。

  • for allergies my first year of college - and discovered I was allergic to all 71 allergens

    我在進入大學的第一年測試我的過敏,發現,我對於自己接受測試的71種過敏原都過敏

  • they tested me for, including both American and German cockroaches. So, yeah. I'm pretty

    包含美國和德國蟑螂

  • wordly. I know there's weirder stuff out there, though

    所以,是的。我非常的世俗化。我知道那裏有更奇異的工作人員在那

  • - so let us know what YOU'RE allergic to, in the comments down below - or hit us up

    在下面的建議欄裡,讓我們知道你對什麼過敏

  • on Twitter at @Dnews.

    或是在Twitter的@Dnews尋找我們

Get your tissues ready, because spring has sprung!

準報好你的面紙,因為春天要來了!

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 過敏原 免疫 抗體 機率 症狀 療法

為什麼我們會過敏 (Why Do We Get Allergies?)

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    陳叔華 發佈於 2016 年 07 月 22 日
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