Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • You probably guessed I'm not Sir Ken.

    你們大概猜到我不是 Sir Ken

  • Although I do share a similar lack of hair to Ken.

    不過我跟 Ken 一樣頭髮很少

  • We do have Ken's daughter in the house as well, which is great,

    今天好棒 Ken 的女兒也在現場

  • but I'm not going to humiliate her by bringing her up on stage,

    但我不會故意要她上台讓她難堪

  • because that wouldn't be fair.

    那樣不公平

  • What I'm going to do instead is basically talk to you about Ken.

    我現在要跟你們說說 Ken 的事

  • Sadly, Ken wasn't able to join us today.

    很遺憾 他今天無法來到現場

  • He lives in L.A. You may or may not know.

    你可能知道他住在洛杉磯

  • But we thought it was appropriate, as he's the officially...

    因為他 2006 和 2010 年的演講

  • the most watched TED speaker ever, with his 2006 and 2010 talks

    讓他成為有史以來點閱率最高的演講人

  • being watched 200 million times in 150 countries,

    在一百五十個國家 累積了兩億的點閱次數

  • we thought it was appropriate that he did the intro to the event.

    我們認為讓他做這次活動的開場 是至為恰當的

  • Sir Ken has also been working with us curating this event,

    Sir Ken 也是這次活動的策劃者之一

  • so he's really integral to it.

    他非常的重要

  • So, I'd like to introduce to you Ken Robinson.

    所以 我想跟你們介紹 Ken Robinson

  • [Applause]

    [掌聲]

  • Good morning and welcome to TEDxLondon and the Education Revolution.

    早安 歡迎來到 TEDxLondon 教育改革系列

  • I'm Ken Robinson and firstly let me say

    我是 Ken Robinson 容我先說

  • I'm sorry not to be with you today at the Roundhouse.

    我很抱歉今天無法跟你們 在 Roundhouse 會面

  • I would love to have been there.

    我真希望我能在現場

  • I have a great affection for the Roundhouse and for London.

    我非常愛 Roundhouse 和倫敦

  • Unfortunately, I have to be in Los Angeles,

    很可惜 我必須待在洛杉磯

  • which of course has its own benefits.

    當然這也是有好處

  • This event has been organised by TEDxLondon,

    這個活動是由 TEDxLondon 策劃

  • and I wanted to thank all the people who've put it together

    我要感謝所有讓他實現的人

  • and have worked so hard over the past few months

    過去幾個月他們都非常辛努

  • to make it work as an event in its own right.

    讓它能成功舉辦

  • But I also wanted to say a couple of word of thanks,

    不過我還要感謝他們

  • because the event, to some extent, has been triggered

    因為這個活動某種程度是

  • by the second talk that I gave at TED in Long Beach.

    是受我在長灘市的TED演講所引發的

  • I spoke at TED originally in 2006 and talked about creativity,

    2006年 我第一次在TED發表 有關創造力的演講

  • and Chris Anderson asked me to go back and talk again four years later

    四年後 Chris Anderson 再次邀請我去演說

  • and I thought of that really as the sequel

    而我把那當作是續集

  • and I called then for our efforts to be redoubled

    當時我說我們要加倍努力

  • to revolutionise education.

    來改革教育

  • So, today is an opportunity to develop some of those ideas

    所以 今天是我們透過所有即將上台的演講者

  • through all the speakers that you'll be hearing

    來發揚那些點子

  • and in the conversations you'll be having between the sessions.

    在中場休息間 你們會有對話

  • So I wanted just to give a few thoughts about the direction

    所以我想先給你們

  • in which these conversations might go and why I thought it was important

    接下來談話的方向

  • to talk about the need for revolution in education in the first place.

    和為甚麼我認為教育改革很重要

  • It's actually very appropriate that you should be meeting at the Roundhouse.

    你們相聚在 Roundhouse 是再適合不過的

  • The Roundhouse, if you've not been there before,

    如果你不曾來過或知道 有關 Roundhouse

  • has a long history in cultural policy and agitation.

    其實它在文化政策與融合有源遠歷史

  • It was a centre for Arnold Wesker, Centre 42,

    這是個Arnold Wesker的一家中心 第四十二號中心

  • which was named after a proposition that the trades unions put together

    是行業工會命名的

  • to promote cultural access and cultural equity.

    主要提倡文化交流與文化平權

  • I also saw a lot of productions at the Roundhouse in the '60s and '70s.

    我在六七十年代也曾看過很多 Roundhouse 的作品

  • That would be the 1960s, by the way, and 1970s.

    那是1960 與1970年代之間

  • And one of them was by Peter Brook, and I'm going to come back to that,

    其中之一是 Peter Brook 的作品 我晚點會再提到

  • just before I wrap these comments up.

    在我總結這個故事前

  • But I wanted to, firstly, congratulate and welcome the other speakers.

    首先我要恭喜並歡迎其他的演講者

  • I know of their work.

    我知道他們的成就

  • I particularly wanted to mention Jude Kelly, who'll be speaking shortly.

    我特別想說的是 Jude Kelly 他很快就會上台來演講

  • Jude and I have worked together for a very long time,

    Jude 是我長時間合作的夥伴

  • Jude does wonderful work at the Southbank Centre,

    Jude 在 Southbank Centre 做得很棒

  • but we also worked together 10 years ago on a report for the British Government

    十年前 我們也為英國政府共同研究過

  • called "All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture, and Education"

    一個叫做 “我們的未來:創造力, 文化和教育” 的研究

  • and Jude's work, like mine, crosses over

    而 Jude 的工作跟我一樣

  • from the professional arts into education and beyond.

    由專業藝術橫跨到教育甚至更廣

  • So, I wanted to say that you're in good company today for this conversation

    你們今天的同伴都很棒

  • and there's great expertise in the audience.

    而觀眾群中也有許多專家

  • The reason I think we need a revolution is really captured

    我認為我們需要改革的重點

  • in a phrase you hear politicians often misuse.

    是一句常備政治家誤用的話

  • They talk about the need to "get back to basics" in education,

    他們說需要把“教育帶回基礎”

  • and I think we should.

    我認為那是對的

  • The problem, I think, is that many politicians,

    問題是,我認為,那麼多的政治家中

  • when they say "get back to basics,"

    當他們說回到基礎

  • seem to believe the basics are a group of subjects

    他們似乎相信基礎是指一些

  • that they did when they were at school,

    他們讀書時所學的科目

  • and in particular, they tend to emphasise

    通常,它們涵蓋

  • literacy and numeracy and science.

    文學和數學和科學

  • Well, of course, they're fantastically important,

    當然,這些相當重要

  • but the basics of education are not a group of subjects.

    但教育的基礎並非一些科目

  • The basics in education are fundamental purposes

    而是教育的最根本目的

  • and I'd hope that you'd bear these purposes in mind

    我希望你能把這些記在心裡

  • during the day's conversations and the debates and issues,

    在今天的對話和辯論和議題中

  • which I hope will flow from today.

    我希望在今天以後還會繼續

  • There are three basics, as I see it.

    我將它們分為三個基本目的

  • Not in particular order of priority,

    不分先後次序

  • though I have a reason for putting them in this sequence.

    不過我有這樣排序的理由

  • The first of them is economic.

    第一是經濟

  • Education has powerful roles in economic growth,

    教育在經濟增長、發展和永續性上

  • development, and sustainability

    都扮演了相當重要的角色

  • and any conversation about education that doesn't take account of the economy

    所以任何沒有考慮到 經濟因素的教育對話

  • is really in some respects detached and naive from the world that we live in.

    都在某層面上是與現實世界脫節和天真

  • The problem is that the economies that we are now generating around the world

    問題在現在全世界的經濟體

  • are quite unlike the economies in which people,

    與人們特別是我的世代

  • certainly of my generation, grew up in,

    從小認識的經濟體相當不一樣

  • and completely unlike the ones in which public education was conceived.

    更與全民教育構想的經濟體大為不同

  • The economies of the 21st century demand that we develop our skills

    21世紀的經濟發展需要我們

  • of creativity and innovation and a great multiplicity of human talents.

    開發創意、革新還有多元的技能

  • Our education systems don't do that.

    我們的教育體制 卻沒做到這些技能的開發

  • So, one of the reasons for a revolution is to meet economic purposes.

    所以,教育改革的一大目的 是為了符合經濟需求

  • But the second is cultural.

    但第二個目的是文化

  • Education has fundamental roles in enabling our students,

    教育有基本的角色是教導學生

  • at whatever age they happen to be,

    不論年紀

  • to understand their own cultural backgrounds,

    都能理解自己的文化背景

  • their own histories and traditions,

    自己國家的歷史和傳統

  • their own identity and what shaped and formed it,

    自己的角色和這個身份的價值

  • but it has equal responsibilities to encourage them

    並且鼓勵他們去理解別人的文化

  • to understand other people's cultures.

    也是同樣重要的

  • The great challenges that we face on the planet just now

    我們當今面世界臨的最大挑戰

  • are partly environmental, but they're also partly cultural.

    部分是環境因素但 也有部分是文化所造成的

  • The great conflicts around the world

    世界上最大的衝突

  • are born out of cultural mistrust and misunderstanding.

    都是因為文化間的不信任和誤解產生

  • So, the cultural roles of education are fundamental

    所以,文化是教育的根本

  • and that has real implications for the curriculum.

    它對學校課綱具影響力

  • But the thirdand I come to it last because it's, to me,

    但第三,我把它放到最後

  • the bridge into everything that matters to me

    因為對我來說 它是通往一切意義的橋樑

  • in education, as we start to build for the future

    教育,當我們開始建設未來

  • the third of them is personal.

    第三個是個人化

  • Education in the end is about people.

    教育始終是關於人的

  • It's about individuals.

    是關於每一個個別的

  • It's about their hopes and their aspirations.

    是關於每個人的願望和期許

  • It's about their talents and their abilities and their passions.

    有關於他們的才華 他們的能力和所熱衷的

  • A lot of people are dropping out of education,

    很多人在選擇輟學

  • a lot of people are staying in, but detaching from it,

    很多人還待在學校但是與教育脫節

  • and they all have personal reasons for doing that.

    他們都有私人原因做這些決定

  • Education is not a mechanistic process,

    教育不是一個機械化的過程

  • it's a process that depends upon the imaginations

    教育是一個超越你能想像的過程

  • and interests of students being properly engaged.

    學生的興趣需要被重視

  • So, at the root of my call for a revolution

    所以,我所認為的教育改革的最終目的

  • is the need to personalise education,

    是一個個人化的教育

  • and I say it because, particularly over the last 10 or 15 years,

    我這麼說是因為,在過去10至15年間

  • education has in a way become more and more impersonal.

    教育似乎越來越制式化

  • The more the governments have driven to standardise education,

    政府越是規範課程內容

  • the more they've driven education towards a narrow view of conformity,

    越是把教育退向更窄的道路

  • the less personal it's become.

    讓教育更不符合個人需求

  • So, the root of the revolution, to me, is the need to reverse our priorities

    所以,對我來說改革的根本是 我們必須改變優次

  • and focus on the students and the teachers.

    優先重視學生和老師

  • I mentioned Peter Brook. I used to go to the Roundhouse in the '70s

    我先前提到 Peter Brook 70年代我常去 Roundhouse

  • and I saw a number of productions by Peter Brook.

    看過無數 Peter Brook 的作品

  • Peter Brook, if you don't know, was a theater director, still is.

    Peter Brook 是一名舞台劇導演

  • He was involved with the National Theatre,

    他曾活躍於國家戲劇院

  • the Royal Shakespeare Theatre,

    和皇家莎士比亞戲劇院

  • and then he moved to Paris to set up a centre for theatre research.

    後來他搬到巴黎 開設了一家戲劇研究中心

  • I remember seeing his production of "The Ik" at the Roundhouse,

    我記得在 Roundhouse 看過他導的"The Ik"

  • when the Roundhouse was a centre for innovative theatre in the '70s.

    '70年代,Roundhouse 是帶領創新劇院的中心

  • Peter Brook wrote a book a number of years ago, called "The Empty Space"

    Peter Brook 多年前寫一本稱 "The Empty Space" 的書

  • and in it, he talks about his interest in making theatre

    書中他談到他的興趣是讓舞台劇

  • the most powerful experience it can be

    變成為最震撼的經驗

  • and his argument really is that a lot of theatre experience

    他的論點是,很多舞台劇其實

  • is not terribly powerful;

    並非都很讓人震撼

  • it passes the evening, but it would have passed anyway,

    它讓我度過了一個黃昏,但時間總是會過的

  • and that theatre has transformative potential.

    舞台劇具有改造潛能

  • So his interest is in plumbing that potential.

    所以他的興趣是尋找改造的空間

  • And he says, to do that, to make theatre the most powerful thing it can be,

    他說要讓戲劇成為最震撼的事

  • we have to focus on what it really is,

    我們必須聚焦在戲劇是什麼

  • and he suggests a kind of thought experiment.

    他提議了一種想法的實驗

  • He said, "if you were to take an average theatre performance,

    他說“如果讓你從普遍的戲劇中

  • what could you take away from it and still have theatre?"

    拿走一些不改變戲劇本質的東西 你要拿走什麼?”

  • This is a way of getting to the irreducible minimum of theatre.

    這是一種最簡化舞台劇的方式

  • "Well," he said, "you can take away the curtains,

    他說“你可以拿走布幕

  • you can take away the scripts –a lot of theatre doesn't have scripts

    你可以拿走劇本(很多舞台劇都沒有劇本)

  • you can certainly get rid of the director –a lot of theatre didn't have directors

    你可以不要導演(很多舞台劇也沒有導演)

  • you could get away with the lighting, as long as you can see it,

    只要你看到甚至可以不要燈光設備

  • actually, even if you can't,

    其實,看不到也沒關係

  • you could get away with the stage crew,

    你可以不需要舞台工作人員

  • you could... in fact, you could get rid of the building."

    你甚至能不要在劇院裡。”

  • He said, "You don't need any of this, really, for theatre.

    他說 “你真的不需要這些

  • What you do need, all you need for theatre,

    你唯一需要的是

  • is an actor in a space and somebody watching.

    一個演員和觀眾