Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • I'm afraid I'm one of those speakers

    我很擔心我是一個

  • you hope you're not going to meet at TED.

    你不想在 TED 碰上的演講者

  • First, I don't have a mobile,

    首先,我沒有手機

  • so I'm on the safe side.

    所以我比較安全

  • Secondly, a political theorist

    其次,一個政治理論家

  • who's going to talk about the crisis of democracy

    即將談論關於民主危機

  • is probably not the most exciting topic you can think about.

    可能是你能想到最枯燥的題目

  • And plus, I'm not going to give you any answers.

    況且,我不打算給你答案

  • I'm much more trying to add to some of the questions we're talking about.

    我會盡可能地在我們談論的問題中,提出更多質疑

  • And one of the things that I want to question

    並且,我想質疑的問題之一

  • is this very popular hope these days

    是最近廣受矚目

  • that transparency and openness

    透過公開和透明

  • can restore the trust in democratic institutions.

    能夠在民主體制中重新建立信任

  • There is one more reason for you to be suspicious about me.

    這也給各位多一個質疑我的理由

  • You people, the Church of TED, are a very optimistic community.

    你們這些 TED 教派的人,是非常樂觀的團體

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Basically you believe in complexity, but not in ambiguity.

    基本上你們相信複雜性,但不愛模稜兩可的結局

  • As you have been told, I'm Bulgarian.

    如同你們所知,我是保加利亞人

  • And according to the surveys,

    根據調查

  • we are marked the most pessimistic people in the world.

    我們被認為是世界上最悲觀的人

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • The Economist magazine recently wrote an article

    經濟學人雜誌最近發表一篇文章

  • covering one of the recent studies on happiness,

    報導關於幸福的研究

  • and the title was "The Happy, the Unhappy and the Bulgarians."

    標題是

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • So now when you know what to expect,

    現在,你們知道要期待些甚麼了

  • let's give you the story.

    說個故事給你們聽

  • And this is a rainy election day in a small country --

    發生在一個小國家的一個下雨的投票日

  • that can be my country, but could be also your country.

    這可能是我的國家,有可能是你的國家

  • And because of the rain until four o'clock in the afternoon,

    由於下雨的緣故,直到下午 4 點

  • nobody went to the polling stations.

    都沒人前往投票所

  • But then the rain stopped,

    當雨一停

  • people went to vote.

    人們就前往投票

  • And when the votes had been counted,

    當選票開出

  • three-fourths of the people have voted with a blank ballot.

    4 分之 3 的選票是空白的

  • The government and the opposition,

    執政黨和反對黨

  • they have been simply paralyzed.

    他們都嚇呆了

  • Because you know what to do about the protests.

    因為大家都知道如何對付抗議者

  • You know who to arrest, who to negotiate with.

    知道去逮捕誰,去和誰談判

  • But what to do about people who are voting with a blank ballot?

    但是如何面對投空白選票的選民?

  • So the government decided to have the elections once again.

    所以政府決定重選一次

  • And this time even a greater number,

    這一次,卻有更多的

  • 83 percent of the people, voted with blank ballots.

    83% 的選民,投下空白票

  • Basically they went to the ballot boxes

    基本上,他們前往投票所

  • to tell that they have nobody to vote for.

    去表明沒有適當的人選

  • This is the opening of a beautiful novel by Jose Saramago

    這是 Jose Saramago 寫的一本出色的小說的開頭

  • called "Seeing."

    書名叫做《看見》

  • But in my view it very well captures

    但是我認為它很切確地捕捉到

  • part of the problem that we have with democracy in Europe these days.

    最近歐洲民主的一些問題

  • On one level nobody's questioning

    某程度來說沒人質疑

  • that democracy is the best form of government.

    民主是最好的政府形式

  • Democracy is the only game in town.

    民主是政治領域中唯一的規則

  • The problem is that many people start to believe

    問題是許多人開始相信

  • that it is not a game worth playing.

    民主不是一個值得遵循的規則

  • For the last 30 years, political scientists have observed

    過去 30 年來,政治學家觀察到

  • that there is a constant decline in electoral turnout,

    投票人數持續下降

  • and the people who are least interested to vote

    那些對於投票最冷感的民眾

  • are the people whom you expect are going to gain most out of voting.

    就是那群你們認為可以從投票中得利的人

  • I mean the unemployed, the under-privileged.

    我指的是那些失業的和沒有特權的人

  • And this is a major issue.

    這就是問題之所在

  • Because especially now with the economic crisis,

    特別在這經濟危機中

  • you can see that the trust in politics,

    你們能看到人們對政治的信賴

  • that the trust in democratic institutions,

    民主體制的信任

  • was really destroyed.

    已經完全被摧毀了

  • According to the latest survey being done by the European Commission,

    根據歐盟委員會最新的調查

  • 89 percent of the citizens of Europe believe that there is a growing gap

    歐洲 89% 的公民相信在政策制定者和民眾的看法之間

  • between the opinion of the policy-makers and the opinion of the public.

    存有一道越來越寬的鴻溝

  • Only 18 percent of Italians and 15 percent of Greeks

    只有 18% 的義大利人和 15% 的希臘人

  • believe that their vote matters.

    相信他們的選票是有用的

  • Basically people start to understand that they can change governments,

    基本上,民眾開始了解他們能更換執政者

  • but they cannot change policies.

    但無法改變政策

  • And the question which I want to ask is the following:

    我要問的問題是:

  • How did it happen that we are living in societies

    發生了甚麼事了?我們所居住的社會

  • which are much freer than ever before --

    比以往擁有更多的自由

  • we have more rights, we can travel easier,

    我們有更多權力,更容易旅遊

  • we have access to more information --

    更有管道取得資訊

  • at the same time that trust in our democratic institutions

    但同時,在民主體制中的信任

  • basically has collapsed?

    卻已經崩潰

  • So basically I want to ask:

    我想問的是:

  • What went right and what went wrong in these 50 years

    這 50 年來,當我們討論民主時

  • when we talk about democracy?

    甚麼是對的?甚麼是錯的?

  • And I'll start with what went right.

    我將從做對了甚麼談起

  • And the first thing that went right was, of course,

    做對的第一件事,當然

  • these five revolutions which, in my view,

    在我看來,是這五場革命

  • very much changed the way we're living and deepened our democratic experience.

    深深改變了我們的生活方式和提升我們的民主經驗

  • And the first was the cultural and social revolution of 1968 and 1970s,

    首先是 1968 年和 70 年代的文化與社會革命

  • which put the individual at the center of politics.

    把個人推向政治中心

  • It was the human rights moment.

    這是人權的里程碑

  • Basically this was also a major outbreak, a culture of dissent,

    基本上這也是一個主要的突破,形成一種異議文化

  • a culture of basically non-conformism,

    一種原則上不盲從的文化

  • which was not known before.

    這是以往不為人知的

  • So I do believe that even things like that

    所以我的確相信即使事情就是如此

  • are very much the children of '68 --

    像是 68 年的孩子們 --

  • nevertheless that most of us had been even not born then.

    然而,我們大多數當時都還未出生

  • But after that you have the market revolution of the 1980s.

    之後,我們經歷了 80 年代的市場革命

  • And nevertheless that many people on the left try to hate it,

    儘管許多左派人士排斥它

  • the truth is that it was very much the market revolution that sent the message:

    市場革命仍然傳遞出一個訊息:

  • "The government does not know better."

    「政府懂的並沒有比較多。」

  • And you have more choice-driven societies.

    於是你們有更多可選擇的社會模式

  • And of course, you have 1989 -- the end of Communism, the end of the Cold War.

    當然,你們經歷了 1989 年,共產主義和冷戰的結束

  • And it was the birth of the global world.

    世界村從此誕生

  • And you have the Internet.

    你們有網際網路

  • And this is not the audience to which I'm going to preach

    我想我不需對這裡的觀眾鼓吹

  • to what extent the Internet empowered people.

    網路對人們的影響力

  • It has changed the way we are communicating

    它已經改變了我們的溝通方式

  • and basically we are viewing politics.

    以及觀察政治的方式

  • The very idea of political community totally has changed.

    政治團體的觀念已全然改觀

  • And I'm going to name one more revolution,

    我再提出一種革命

  • and this is the revolution in brain sciences,

    這是大腦科學的革命

  • which totally changed the way

    完全改變我們原本以為的

  • we understand how people are making decisions.

    人們如何做決定的方式

  • So this is what went right.

    以上是做對的部分

  • But if we're going to see what went wrong,

    但是如果我們去看做錯的部分

  • we're going to end up with the same five revolutions.

    也是源自於同樣的 5 場革命

  • Because first you have the 1960s and 1970s,

    首先,你們經歷了 1960 和 1970 年代的

  • cultural and social revolution,

    文化及社會革命

  • which in a certain way destroyed the idea of a collective purpose.

    這也完全破壞了集體目標的觀念

  • The very idea, all these collective nouns that we have been taught about --

    這個特有的觀念,像是我們曾經學過的群體名詞 --

  • nation, class, family.

    國家、階級和家庭

  • We start to like divorcing, if we're married at all.

    人們輕易離婚,有些根本不結婚

  • All this was very much under attack.

    這些觀念受到很大的攻擊

  • And it is so difficult to engage people in politics

    而且當民眾相信真正重要的是

  • when they believe that what really matters

    個人支持的立場時

  • is where they personally stand.

    就很難讓民眾因政治團結

  • And you have the market revolution of the 1980s

    80 年代的市場革命

  • and the huge increase of inequality in societies.

    社會同時有產生了巨大的不平等

  • Remember, until the 1970s,

    要記得,直到 1970 年代以前

  • the spread of democracy has always been accompanied

    民主的發展總是伴隨著

  • by the decline of inequality.

    不平等的降低

  • The more democratic our societies have been,

    社會越民主

  • the more equal they have been becoming.

    人民就越平等

  • Now we have the reverse tendency.

    現在的趨勢剛好相反

  • The spread of democracy now is very much accompanied

    民主的發展,伴隨著更多

  • by the increase in inequality.

    不平等的產生

  • And I find this very much disturbing

    我發現這讓我們很無力

  • when we're talking about what's going on right and wrong

    當討論對於這幾年的民主

  • with democracy these days.

    甚麼做對了和甚麼做錯了的時候

  • And if you go to 1989 --

    如果回到 1989 (冷戰結束) --

  • something that basically you don't expect that anybody's going to criticize --

    一個你們認為無可挑剔的事件 --

  • but many are going to tell you, "Listen, it was the end of the Cold War

    還是有許多人會告訴你:「注意,冷戰結束將造成

  • that tore the social contract between the elites and the people in Western Europe."

    西歐的菁英份子和人民之間的社會契約被撕毀。」

  • When the Soviet Union was still there,

    當蘇聯仍在時

  • the rich and the powerful, they needed the people,

    有錢有勢的人,需要民眾支持

  • because they feared them.

    因為他們害怕人民

  • Now the elites basically have been liberated.

    現在,這些菁英已經被解放

  • They're very mobile. You cannot tax them.

    他們可以到處遷移,你們課不到他們的稅

  • And basically they don't fear the people.

    而且他們現在也不再懼怕人民

  • So as a result of it, you have this very strange situation

    結果是,你們面臨這個陌生的情況

  • in which the elites basically got out of the control of the voters.

    這些菁英擺脫了選民的控制

  • So this is not by accident

    因此可意料,選民將不再有興趣去投票

  • that the voters are not interested to vote anymore.

    因此可意料,選民將不再有興趣去投票

  • And when we talk about the Internet,

    並且,當談到網際網路

  • yes, it's true, the Internet connected all of us,

    的確,網路聯繫所有人

  • but we also know that the Internet created these echo chambers and political ghettos

    我們也知道,網路造成空蕩蕩的會議室和少數政客的佔領區

  • in which for all your life you can stay with the political community you belong to.

    在網路上,讓你和所屬的政治團體能廝守終身

  • And it's becoming more and more difficult

    但是,要去了解和你立場不同的人

  • to understand the people who are not like you.

    會變得更困難

  • I know that many people here

    我知道這裡有許多人

  • have been splendidly speaking about the digital world and the possibility for cooperation,

    對於數位世界和合作的可能,有真知灼見

  • but [have you] seen what the digital world has done to American politics these days?

    但是你們可看到這些年來,數位世界對於美國政治的影響?

  • This is also partly a result of the Internet revolution.

    這也是一部份的網路革命

  • This is the other side of the things that we like.

    凡事都有一體兩面

  • And when you go to the brain sciences,

    再看看大腦科學

  • what political consultants learned from the brain scientists

    這些政治智庫從大腦科學家身上學到的是

  • is don't talk to me about ideas anymore,

    不要再和我討論思想