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字幕列表 影片播放

  • What I'm going to show you

    我要向各位展示

  • are the astonishing molecular machines

    驚人的分子機器

  • that create the living fabric of your body.

    這些分子在你體內形成活的組織。

  • Now molecules are really, really tiny.

    分子非常、非常的小

  • And by tiny,

    說它小,

  • I mean really.

    我是指真的很小。

  • They're smaller than a wavelength of light,

    他們比光的波長還小,

  • so we have no way to directly observe them.

    因此我們無法以肉眼直接觀察它們。

  • But through science, we do have a fairly good idea

    但透過科學,我們的確對身體

  • of what's going on down at the molecular scale.

    在分子層級上正在發生的事,有一定程度的了解。

  • So what we can do is actually tell you about the molecules,

    我們雖能直接告訴你有關這些分子的種種,

  • but we don't really have a direct way of showing you the molecules.

    但我們真的沒有辦法直接把分子拿給你看。

  • One way around this is to draw pictures.

    畫圖是一個解決的方法。

  • And this idea is actually nothing new.

    而這也不是什麼新鮮的想法。

  • Scientists have always created pictures

    科學家一向都以圖片

  • as part of their thinking and discovery process.

    來闡釋他們的思考及發現新知的過程。

  • They draw pictures of what they're observing with their eyes,

    他們以圖畫來呈現他們透過肉眼

  • through technology like telescopes and microscopes,

    或透過望遠鏡及顯微鏡等科技觀察到的東西,

  • and also what they're thinking about in their minds.

    以及他們在腦海裡思索的事物。

  • I picked two well-known examples,

    我舉兩個很有名的例子,

  • because they're very well-known for expressing science through art.

    因為他們在以藝術表達科學這方面很有名。

  • And I start with Galileo

    首先是伽利略

  • who used the world's first telescope

    他用世界首座望遠鏡

  • to look at the Moon.

    來觀察月亮,

  • And he transformed our understanding of the Moon.

    他改變了我們對月亮的了解。

  • The perception in the 17th century

    在十七世紀時的概念裡

  • was the Moon was a perfect heavenly sphere.

    月亮是完美無缺的球體。

  • But what Galileo saw was a rocky, barren world,

    但伽利略所看到的卻是一個坑坑洞洞的貧瘠世界,

  • which he expressed through his watercolor painting.

    他以水彩畫出他的觀察。

  • Another scientist with very big ideas,

    另外一位很有想法的科學家,

  • the superstar of biology, is Charles Darwin.

    就是生物學的超級名星查爾斯.達爾文。

  • And with this famous entry in his notebook,

    在他的筆記裡,這張有名的插圖

  • he begins in the top left-hand corner with, "I think,"

    以在左上角寫著「我認為」開始

  • and then sketches out the first tree of life,

    然後畫出歷史上第一個演化樹。

  • which is his perception

    這是他對世上

  • of how all the species, all living things on Earth,

    所有的物種、所有的生物

  • are connected through evolutionary history --

    如何被演化的歷史串連的觀點,

  • the origin of species through natural selection

    亦即物種如何經過天擇源起,

  • and divergence from an ancestral population.

    並由始祖群體分支出新物種。

  • Even as a scientist,

    即使像我身為科學家

  • I used to go to lectures by molecular biologists

    以前聽分子生物學家演講時,

  • and find them completely incomprehensible,

    我仍然不能完全了解

  • with all the fancy technical language and jargon

    那些科學家在描述他們的研究時

  • that they would use in describing their work,

    所使用的專有名詞及行話。

  • until I encountered the artworks of David Goodsell,

    直到我看到大衛‧顧塞爾的作品,

  • who is a molecular biologist at the Scripps Institute.

    他是美國斯克利浦斯研究所的分子生物學家。

  • And his pictures,

    他所畫的圖

  • everything's accurate and it's all to scale.

    每一樣都畫的很正確且按著比例

  • And his work illuminated for me

    他的作品使我了解

  • what the molecular world inside us is like.

    我們體內的分子世界是什麼樣子。

  • So this is a transection through blood.

    這是血液組織橫切面圖。

  • In the top left-hand corner, you've got this yellow-green area.

    圖片左上方有一塊黃綠色的地方,

  • The yellow-green area is the fluids of blood, which is mostly water,

    這塊黃綠色的地方是血漿,絕大部份是水,

  • but it's also antibodies, sugars,

    但也有抗體、糖、

  • hormones, that kind of thing.

    賀爾蒙等這些東西。

  • And the red region is a slice into a red blood cell.

    而紅色的區域為紅血球切面。

  • And those red molecules are hemoglobin.

    那些紅色的分子昰血紅素。

  • They are actually red; that's what gives blood its color.

    他們真的是紅色的,血液因此呈現紅色。

  • And hemoglobin acts as a molecular sponge

    血紅素扮演分子海綿的角色,

  • to soak up the oxygen in your lungs

    吸收肺所吸進的氧氣

  • and then carry it to other parts of the body.

    然後帶到身體其它部位。

  • I was very much inspired by this image many years ago,

    許多年前,我從這張圖片得到許多靈感。

  • and I wondered whether we could use computer graphics

    我思索著如何以電腦製圖

  • to represent the molecular world.

    來呈現分子世界。

  • What would it look like?

    它會是什麼樣子呢?

  • And that's how I really began. So let's begin.

    我就是這樣開始畫作的。現在就來看吧。

  • This is DNA in its classic double helix form.

    這是DNA典型的雙股螺旋結構,

  • And it's from X-ray crystallography,

    因為是從X光晶體結構圖看到的

  • so it's an accurate model of DNA.

    所以這是正確的DNA模型。

  • If we unwind the double helix and unzip the two strands,

    如果我們把雙股螺旋伸展拉直,如拉鍊拉開,

  • you see these things that look like teeth.

    這看起來像牙齒的東西

  • Those are the letters of genetic code,

    是遺傳密碼的字母,

  • the 25,000 genes you've got written in your DNA.

    構成你的DNA中二萬五千個基因。

  • This is what they typically talk about --

    這是老生常談了

  • the genetic code -- this is what they're talking about.

    遺傳密碼,非常普遍的話題。

  • But I want to talk about a different aspect of DNA science,

    但是我想從另一方面來談DNA,

  • and that is the physical nature of DNA.

    就是DNA的物理性質。

  • It's these two strands that run in opposite directions

    這兩鏈互以相反方向排列,

  • for reasons I can't go into right now.

    我現在先不解釋為什麼,

  • But they physically run in opposite directions,

    但是這兩鏈以相反方向排列

  • which creates a number of complications for your living cells,

    使得你的活細胞變的很複雜

  • as you're about to see,

    --你馬上會看到--

  • most particularly when DNA is being copied.

    特別是在DNA複製的時候。

  • And so what I'm about to show you

    我即將播放的影片

  • is an accurate representation

    很準確地畫出了

  • of the actual DNA replication machine that's occurring right now inside your body,

    在你體內運行中的DNA複製機制,

  • at least 2002 biology.

    這圖是基於2002年生物學所畫的。

  • So DNA's entering the production line from the left-hand side,

    所以DNA從左手邊進入生產線

  • and it hits this collection, these miniature biochemical machines,

    碰到這個組合物,這些小型生化機器

  • that are pulling apart the DNA strand and making an exact copy.

    把DNA雙股分開並複製完全相同的副本。

  • So DNA comes in

    所以DNA進來

  • and hits this blue, doughnut-shaped structure

    碰到這個藍色甜甜圈形狀的結構體,

  • and it's ripped apart into its two strands.

    這個結構體把兩股長鏈分離。

  • One strand can be copied directly,

    其中一股可以直接複製,

  • and you can see these things spooling off to the bottom there.

    你可以看到複製品從底下合成出來,

  • But things aren't so simple for the other strand

    但對於另外一鏈事情就沒這麼簡單了,

  • because it must be copied backwards.

    因為它必須反向複製。

  • So it's thrown out repeatedly in these loops

    所以這些複製品不斷地從這些圈圈裡丟出來,

  • and copied one section at a time,

    一次複製一段,

  • creating two new DNA molecules.

    創造出兩個新的DNA分子。

  • Now you have billions of this machine

    在你的身體裡有無數個這種機器,

  • right now working away inside you,

    現在就在你體內工作,

  • copying your DNA with exquisite fidelity.

    以最精緻的保真度複製你的DNA。

  • It's an accurate representation,

    這個影片畫的很正確,

  • and it's pretty much at the correct speed for what is occurring inside you.

    並與你體內複製的速度極為相近。

  • I've left out error correction and a bunch of other things.

    我沒有畫出細胞的校正機制及其他的東西。

  • This was work from a number of years ago.

    這是好多年前的作品。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • This is work from a number of years ago,

    這是好多年前的作品,

  • but what I'll show you next is updated science, it's updated technology.

    我即將給你看的昰以最新科學及技術所畫的動畫。

  • So again, we begin with DNA.

    所以跟剛剛一樣,我們從DNA開始。

  • And it's jiggling and wiggling there because of the surrounding soup of molecules,

    它在這搖來搖去,因為它被其它分子所包圍。

  • which I've stripped away so you can see something.

    我沒畫出其他分子,這樣才看的清楚。

  • DNA is about two nanometers across,

    DNA約二奈米寬,

  • which is really quite tiny.

    真的非常非常小,

  • But in each one of your cells,

    但是在你的每一個細胞內,

  • each strand of DNA is about 30 to 40 million nanometers long.

    DNA的每一鏈都有三四千萬奈米長。

  • So to keep the DNA organized and regulate access to the genetic code,

    所以為了組織DNA並調控遺傳密碼讀取,

  • it's wrapped around these purple proteins --

    DNA包圍著這些紫色的蛋白質

  • or I've labeled them purple here.

    --或者是說我把它塗成紫色--

  • It's packaged up and bundled up.

    他們捆包起來。

  • All this field of view is a single strand of DNA.

    在這裡看到的都是單鏈DNA。

  • This huge package of DNA is called a chromosome.

    這整捆的DNA叫做染色體。

  • And we'll come back to chromosomes in a minute.

    我們等一下再來談染色體。

  • We're pulling out, we're zooming out,

    我們將鏡頭拉遠、縮小畫面,

  • out through a nuclear pore,

    穿過核孔,

  • which is the gateway to this compartment that holds all the DNA

    核孔是到細胞核的通道,

  • called the nucleus.

    而DNA就在細胞核裡。

  • All of this field of view

    你現在所看到的,

  • is about a semester's worth of biology, and I've got seven minutes.

    要花一整個學期來上課,但我只有七分鐘。

  • So we're not going to be able to do that today?

    所以我們今天能多談一些嗎?

  • No, I'm being told, "No."

    不行,我得到的答案是不。

  • This is the way a living cell looks down a light microscope.

    這是從光學顯微鏡下看到的活細胞,

  • And it's been filmed under time-lapse, which is why you can see it moving.

    以延時技術拍下,所以你可以看到細胞在動。

  • The nuclear envelope breaks down.

    核膜破裂,

  • These sausage-shaped things are the chromosomes, and we'll focus on them.

    這些像香腸形狀的東西就是染色體,這是我們的主題。

  • They go through this very striking motion

    他們進行非常獨特的活動,

  • that is focused on these little red spots.

    被這些紅點拉著走。

  • When the cell feels it's ready to go,

    當細胞準備好要分裂

  • it rips apart the chromosome.

    就把染色體分開。

  • One set of DNA goes to one side,

    一組DNA到這邊,

  • the other side gets the other set of DNA --

    另一組DNA到另外一邊,

  • identical copies of DNA.

    一模一樣的兩組DNA,

  • And then the cell splits down the middle.

    然後細胞從中分開。

  • And again, you have billions of cells

    再說一次,你的體內有無數的細胞

  • undergoing this process right now inside of you.

    現在正在做這樣的事。

  • Now we're going to rewind and just focus on the chromosomes

    現在我們倒帶,特別只看染色體部分,

  • and look at its structure and describe it.

    來講一下它的結構。

  • So again, here we are at that equator moment.

    所以再看一次,在細胞分裂,赤道板形成的時候,

  • The chromosomes line up.

    染色體排列成一直線。

  • And if we isolate just one chromosome,

    如果我們拿出其中一條染色體,

  • we're going to pull it out and have a look at its structure.

    我們把它抽出來看看它的結構。

  • So this is one of the biggest molecular structures that you have,

    這是你體內最大的分子結構,

  • at least as far as we've discovered so far inside of us.

    至少是目前所發現的分子中最大的。

  • So this is a single chromosome.

    這是一條染色體,

  • And you have two strands of DNA in each chromosome.

    每條染色體有兩鏈DNA。

  • One is bundled up into one sausage.

    這一鏈捆綁成一條香腸,

  • The other strand is bundled up into the other sausage.

    另一鏈也捆綁成一條香腸。

  • These things that look like whiskers that are sticking out from either side

    這些看起來像觸鬚的東西從兩端穿出,

  • are the dynamic scaffolding of the cell.

    是細胞的動態鷹架。

  • They're called mircrotubules. That name's not important.

    這些叫微管,名字本身不重要,

  • But what we're going to focus on is this red region -- I've labeled it red here --

    重點是這些紅色的部分,是我把它塗成紅的,

  • and it's the interface

    這個介面,

  • between the dynamic scaffolding and the chromosomes.

    介於細胞鷹架及染色體中間。

  • It is obviously central to the movement of the chromosomes.

    很明顯是染色體移動的中心。

  • We have no idea really as to how it's achieving that movement.

    我們真的不知道它怎麼讓DNA移動。

  • We've been studying this thing they call the kinetochore

    我們一直在研究這個叫動粒的東西,

  • for over a hundred years with intense study,

    一百多年來的緊密研究,

  • and we're still just beginning to discover what it's all about.

    但我們才剛剛開始了解它的功用。

  • It is made up of about 200 different types of proteins,

    它由200種不同的蛋白質組成,

  • thousands of proteins in total.

    總共有數萬個蛋白質。

  • It is a signal broadcasting system.

    它是信號廣播系統,

  • It broadcasts through chemical signals

    透過化學信號來廣播,

  • telling the rest of the cell when it's ready,

    告訴其他的細胞組織,

  • when it feels that everything is aligned and ready to go

    一切都已排列整齊,準備好

  • for the separation of the chromosomes.

    可以讓染色體分離了。

  • It is able to couple onto the growing and shrinking microtubules.

    它能夠與伸長或縮小的微管結合,

  • It's involved with the growing of the microtubules,

    它與微管的生長有關,

  • and it's able to transiently couple onto them.

    並短暫地與微管結合。

  • It's also an attention sensing system.

    它也是一種傳感系統。

  • It's able to feel when the cell is ready,

    它可以感覺到細胞已經準備好了,

  • when the chromosome is correctly positioned.

    就是當染色體排在正確的位置的時候。

  • It's turning green here

    在這裡它變成綠色,

  • because it feels that everything is just right.

    因為它覺得所有的事都恰到好處。

  • And you'll see, there's this one little last bit

    然後你看,這裡還有一個小小的點,

  • that's still remaining red.

    還是呈現紅色。

  • And it's walked away down the microtubules.

    它離開了,順著微管往下走。

  • That is the signal broadcasting system sending out the stop signal.

    這是信號廣播系統告訴大家要停了。

  • And it's walked away. I mean, it's that mechanical.

    它就走開, 真的,就是這麼機械化。

  • It's molecular clockwork.

    它就像分子的發條。

  • This is how you work at the molecular scale.

    你在分子層級上就是這樣就是這樣運作。

  • So with a little bit of molecular eye candy,

    所以利用一些賞心悅目的分子解釋,

  • we've got kinesins, which are the orange ones.

    我們有驅動蛋白,是這些橘色點,

  • They're little molecular courier molecules walking one way.

    他們像是小小的分子信差,單向滑行。

  • And here are the dynein. They're carrying that broadcasting system.

    這些是動力蛋白,運載那個信號廣播系統。

  • And they've got their long legs so they can step around obstacles and so on.

    他們腳很長,所以可以避開障礙物旁走。

  • So again, this is all derived accurately

    這些也是照著科學研究,

  • from the science.

    所畫出的動畫。

  • The problem is we can't show it to you any other way.

    問題在於我們沒辦法用其他的方法呈現。

  • Exploring at the frontier of science,

    在科學發展的最前線,

  • at the frontier of human understanding,

    及在人類知識的極限探索,

  • is mind-blowing.

    昰對思想的震撼。

  • Discovering this stuff

    發現這些東西,

  • is certainly a pleasurable incentive to work in science.

    的確對科學研究帶來愉快的動力。

  • But most medical researchers --

    但是對絕大多數的醫學研究者而言,

  • discovering the stuff

    發現這些東西

  • is simply steps along the path to the big goals,

    只是向更大目標邁進的一小步,

  • which are to eradicate disease,

    就是希望能消滅疾病,

  • to eliminate the suffering and the misery that disease causes

    減少疾病所帶來的痛苦及不幸,

  • and to lift people out of poverty.

    並且將人們帶離貧窮。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

What I'm going to show you

我要向各位展示

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED 分子 染色體 細胞 複製 畫出

TED】德魯-貝瑞:不可見的生物學的動畫(德魯-貝瑞:不可見的生物學的動畫)。 (【TED】Drew Berry: Animations of unseeable biology (Drew Berry: Animations of unseeable biology))

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    何志豐 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字