Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • For as long as I can remember,

    記憶中,

  • I have felt a very deep connection

    我一直感覺自己和動物及海洋

  • to animals and to the ocean.

    有很深切的連結。

  • And at this age,

    在這個年紀,

  • my personal idol

    我個人的玩具

  • was Flipper the dolphin.

    是海豚飛寶。

  • And when I first learned about endangered species,

    當我首度得知瀕臨絶種物種的訊息,

  • I was truly distressed to know

    我十分難過地發現

  • that every day animals were being wiped off the face of this Earth forever.

    每天有動物會永遠從地球消失。

  • And I wanted to do something to help,

    我想為牠們做些事情,

  • but I always wondered,

    但我總是疑惑,

  • what could one person possibly do to make a difference?

    一個人能做些什麼來改變事情的發展?

  • And it would be 30 years,

    三十年了,

  • but I would eventually get the answer to that question.

    我終究得到問題的答案。

  • When these heartbreaking images of oiled birds

    這些鳥群慘遭石油毒害的驚心動魄景象

  • finally began to emerge from the Gulf of Mexico last year

    最終暴光──去年發生在墨西哥灣,

  • during the horrific BP oil spill,

    十分嚴重的BP(國際石油公司)漏油事件──

  • a German biologist by the name of Silvia Gaus

    一位德國生物學家名為Silvia Gaus

  • was quoted as saying,

    說過這樣的話,

  • "We should just euthanize all oiled birds

    「我們應讓所有的『油鳥』安樂死

  • because studies have shown

    因研究顯示

  • that fewer than one percent of them

    釋放牠們重返自然後,低於百分之一的

  • survive after being released."

    『油鳥』能存活下來。」

  • And I could not disagree more.

    我非常不同意這個說法。

  • And in addition, I believe that every oiled animal

    此外,我相信每隻『油鳥』

  • deserves a second chance at life.

    值得有第二次生存機會。

  • And I want to tell you

    我要告訴你們

  • why I feel so strongly about this.

    為何我對這件事有強烈的感受。

  • On June 23rd, 2000,

    2000年6月23日,

  • a ship named the Treasure

    一艘叫『寶藏』(Treasure)的運輸船

  • sank off the coast of Cape Town, South Africa,

    沈入南非開普敦(Capetown)沿海海域,

  • spilling 1,300 tons of fuel,

    1,300噸燃料外洩,

  • which polluted the habitats

    污染了

  • of nearly half the entire world population

    幾乎大半個

  • of African penguins.

    全球南非企鵝棲息地。

  • Now the ship sank between Robben Island to the south

    那艘船沈沒在海中,就在南往羅本島(Robben Island)

  • and Dassen Island to the north.

    和北往Dassen Island的航行路線途中。

  • And these are two of the penguins' main breeding islands.

    這兩個島是企鵝主要繁殖地。

  • And exactly six years and three days earlier,

    正好6年又零3天前,

  • on June 20th, 1994,

    即1994年6月20日,

  • a ship named the Apollo Sea sank near Dassen Island,

    一艘叫『阿波羅海』(Apollo Sea)鐵礦運輸船沈入Dassen Island附近海域,

  • oiling 10,000 penguins --

    油害一萬隻企鵝──

  • half of which died.

    半數企鵝死了。

  • Now when the Treasure sank in 2000,

    當『寶藏』在2000年沈入大海時,

  • it was the height of the best breeding season

    正值繁殖季節高峰,

  • scientists had ever recorded for the African penguin --

    科學家曾為南非企鵝紀錄──

  • which at the time, was listed as a threatened species.

    在那時,牠們被列為生存受威脅的物種。

  • And soon, nearly 20,000 penguins

    不久,近兩萬隻企鵝

  • were covered with this toxic oil.

    遭油污附著。

  • And the local seabird rescue center, named SANCCOB,

    當地海鳥營救中心「SANCCOB」(The Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds)

  • immediately launched a massive rescue operation --

    立即發起一個大規模的救援行動──

  • and this soon would become

    而且很快地成為

  • the largest animal rescue ever undertaken.

    有始以來最大規模的搶救動物行動。

  • Now at the time, I was working down the street.

    嗯,當時我在陸地下工作。

  • I was a penguin aquarist at the New England Aquarium.

    在新英格蘭海生館時,我是企鵝館館長。

  • And exactly 11 years ago yesterday,

    從昨天算起正好11年前,

  • the phone rang in the penguin office.

    我辦公室電話響起。

  • And with that call, my life would change forever.

    因那通電話,我的生活從而改變了。

  • It was Estelle van der Meer calling from SANCCOB,

    是海鳥營救中心 Estelle van der Meer 打來的電話

  • saying, "Please come help.

    說:「請來協助我們。

  • We have thousands of oiled penguins

    我們有成千上萬隻『油企鵝』

  • and thousands of willing,

    和成千上萬個熱心,

  • but completely inexperienced, volunteers.

    但完全沒有經驗的自願者。

  • And we need penguin experts to come train and supervise them."

    我們需要企鵝專家來訓練並管理他們。」

  • So two days later,

    於是兩天後,

  • I was on a plane headed for Cape Town

    我在一架前往開普頓的飛機上,

  • with a team of penguin specialists.

    同行的還有企鵝專家團隊。

  • And the scene inside of this building

    大樓內的景象

  • was devastating and surreal.

    令人震驚又難以置信。

  • In fact, many people compared it to a war zone.

    事實上,很多人稱其可與戰場相比擬。

  • And last week, a 10 year-old girl asked me,

    上週,一個十歲的女孩問:

  • "What did it feel like

    「那是怎樣的感覺,

  • when you first walked into that building

    當妳首次走入那棟大樓

  • and saw so many oiled penguins?"

    看到那樣多的『油企鵝』?」

  • And this is what happened.

    情形是這樣:

  • I was instantly transported

    我當下彷彿回到

  • back to that moment in time.

    那個時刻。

  • Penguins are very vocal birds

    企鵝是「很愛說話」的鳥類,

  • and really, really noisy.

    真的真的很吵。

  • And so I expected to walk into this building

    所以我料定走進這座大樓

  • and be met with this cacophony

    會聽到這樣的嘈雜聲

  • of honking and braying and squawking,

    喋喋咻咻、嘎嘎作響,

  • but instead,

    可是

  • when we stepped through those doors and into the building,

    當我踏入大樓,進入一道道的門

  • it was eerily silent.

    取而代之的是,怪異的沈默寂靜

  • So it was very clear

    由此可知

  • these were stressed, sick, traumatized birds.

    這些是焦慮、生病、受創的企鵝。

  • The other thing that was so striking

    另一件令人震撼的事是

  • was the sheer number of volunteers.

    自願參與救援的人數眾多,

  • Up to 1,000 people a day

    一天多達一千人

  • came to the rescue center,

    到營救中心。

  • and eventually, over the course of this rescue,

    在整個救援的過程中

  • more than 12 and a half thousand volunteers

    超過一萬二千五百多人

  • came from all over the world to Cape Town

    自世界各地來到開普頓

  • to help save these birds.

    協助拯救這些雀鳥。

  • And the amazing thing

    令人動容的是

  • was that not one of them had to be there --

    他們任何人都沒必要這麼做,

  • yet they were.

    然而他們來了。

  • So for the few of us that were there in a professional capacity,

    看在我們──在那裡是少數的專業人員──的眼中,

  • this extraordinary volunteer response

    這個非凡的自願行動

  • to this animal crisis

    ──對動物危機的回響──

  • was profoundly moving and awe-inspiring.

    令人十分敬佩又感動萬分。

  • So the day after we arrived,

    話說回來,我們抵達隔天

  • two of us from the aquarium were put in charge of room two,

    來自海生館的我們兩人負責2號室。

  • and room two had more than 4,000 oiled penguins in it.

    2號室有超過四千隻『油企鵝』。

  • Now mind you, three days earlier,

    你要知道, 開始的前三天,

  • we had 60 penguins under our care,

    我們照料六十隻企鵝。

  • so we were definitely overwhelmed

    哦! 我們真的忙得人仰馬翻

  • and just a bit terrified -- at least I was.

    而且有點惶恐──至少我是這樣。

  • Personally, I really didn't know

    個人而言,我真不知道

  • if I was capable of handling

    我是否有能力應付

  • such a monstrous task.

    場面如此殘酷難堪的任務。

  • And collectively,

    就全體而言,

  • we really didn't know if we could pull this off.

    我們真的不確定挽救行動能否奏效。

  • Because we all knew

    因為大家都知道

  • that just six years earlier,

    早在六年前,

  • half as many penguins had been oiled and rescued

    遭油害後,有半數企鵝獲救,

  • and only half of them had survived.

    其中僅半數存活。

  • So would it be humanly possible

    這麼說吧,人力能挽救

  • to save this many oiled penguins?

    多少『油企鵝』?

  • We just did not know.

    我們當下真不知道。

  • But what gave us hope

    但讓我們點燃希望的是

  • were these incredibly dedicated and brave volunteers --

    這些全力以赴、奮不顧身的自願者──

  • three of whom here are force-feeding penguins.

    這三個自願者得強迫餵食企鵝。

  • And you may notice they're wearing very thick gloves.

    你可能注意到了,他們戴著非常厚的手套。

  • And what you should know about African penguins

    你知道的,非洲企鵝

  • is that they have razor-sharp beaks.

    有像剃刀那般鋒利的鳥喙。

  • And before long,

    不久前,

  • our bodies were covered head to toe

    我們遍體鱗傷,

  • with these nasty wounds

    這些傷口是

  • inflicted by the terrified penguins.

    飽受驚嚇的企鵝留下的。

  • Now the day after we arrived,

    就在我們抵達隔天

  • a new crisis began to unfold.

    一個新的危機呈現,

  • The oil slick was now moving north towards Dassen Island,

    浮油漸漸朝北方,向Dassen Island流動,

  • and the rescuers despaired,

    救難人員感到絶望,

  • because they knew if the oil hit,

    因為他們曉得若油水抵達

  • it would not be possible to rescue any more oiled birds.

    就不可能搭救任何『油鳥』了。

  • And there really were no good solutions.

    當時真的沒有好辦法了。

  • But then finally,

    但後來,

  • one of the researchers threw out this crazy idea.

    有個研究人員抛出一個瘋狂的點子。

  • He said, "Okay, why don't we try and collect

    他說:「雖然有油侵身的風險,我們何不試著

  • the birds at the greatest risk of getting oiled" --

    就在油水中打撈這些鳥!」

  • they collected 20,000 --

    營救團隊搜獲兩萬隻企鵝──

  • "and we'll ship them 500 miles up the coast

    我們裝載這些企鵝沿海岸行駛長達500英哩(804.65公里)

  • to Port Elizabeth in these open air trucks

    以後車廂開放式卡車將他們帶至依莉莎白港

  • and release them into the clean waters there

    放入未受油污、乾淨的海域

  • and let them swim back home."

    讓他們游回家。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • So three of those penguins -- Peter, Pamela and Percy --

    這樣說吧,三隻企鵝──彼得、潘蜜拉、波西──

  • wore satellite tags,

    戴著衛星標識裝置;

  • and the researchers crossed their fingers and hoped

    研究人員祈禱並希望

  • that by the time they got back home,

    他們回到家園時,

  • the oil would be cleaned up from their islands.

    在那個島及其海域的油能被清除掉。

  • And luckily, the day they arrived,

    還好,他們到達當天

  • it was.

    油被清光了。

  • So it had been a huge gamble, but it had paid off.

    這是一個巨大的賭注,但是這個策略奏效了。

  • And so they know now

    因此救援團隊現在知道

  • that they can use this strategy

    可以採取這個策略

  • in future oil spills.

    若未來有石油外漏的話。

  • So in wildlife rescue, as in life,

    正如救助生命;野生救援也一樣,

  • we learn from each previous experience,

    我們有前車之鑑,

  • and we learn from both our successes

    從成功救援中學習,

  • and our failures.

    當然也從失敗救援中獲得教訓。

  • And the main thing learned

    最重要的事是知道

  • during the Apollo Sea rescue in '94

    ──在1994年『阿波羅海』營救行動──

  • was that most of those penguins had died

    大多數的『油企鵝』死於

  • due to the unwitting use

    未事先察覺而使用

  • of poorly ventilated

    通風不良的

  • transport boxes and trucks --

    運送箱和貨車--

  • because they just had not been prepared

    由於營救團隊的準備不足以

  • to deal with so many oiled penguins at once.

    應付為數眾多的『油企鵝』。

  • So in these six years between these two oil spills,

    因而在兩次石油外漏的六年間,

  • they built thousands of these well-ventilated boxes,

    營救團隊建造成千上萬個通風良好的箱子。

  • and as a result, during the Treasure rescue,

    因此,在執行『寶藏』營救行動時

  • just 160 penguins died

    在運輸過程中,

  • during the transport process,

    有160隻企鵝暴斃

  • as opposed to 5,000.

    而能有5,000隻存活下來。

  • So this alone was a huge victory.

    所以就此而論,是一場空前的勝戰。

  • Something else learned during the Apollo rescue

    其他從『阿波羅』營救行動中獲得的經驗

  • was how to train the penguins

    是如何訓練企鵝、

  • to take fish freely from their hands,

    如何使用這些訓練箱

  • using these training boxes.

    從餵食人員手中順利地取得魚。

  • And we used this technique again

    我們再度使用這些手法

  • during the Treasure rescue.

    在『寶藏』營救行動中,

  • But an interesting thing was noted

    我們在訓練過程中

  • during the training process.

    注意到一件有趣的事。

  • The first penguins

    第一批

  • to make that transition to free feeding

    撐過變遷而能自由進食的企鵝

  • were the ones that had a metal band on their wing

    是有金屬帶在翅膀的、

  • from the Apollo Sea spill six years earlier.

    也是經歷6年前『阿波羅海』漏油的那批企鵝。

  • So penguins learn

    所以企鵝也從先前的事件

  • from previous experience, too.

    獲得經驗。

  • So all of those penguins

    像這樣,所有『油企鵝』

  • had to have the oil meticulously cleaned from their bodies.

    身體的油污必需被仔細清理;

  • And it would take two people at least an hour

    兩個人至少得花上一小時的時間

  • just to clean one penguin.

    只為清理一隻企鵝。

  • And when you clean a penguin,

    而且清理一隻企鵝時

  • you first have to spray it with a degreaser.

    首先必須噴灑去油劑在牠身上。

  • And this brings me to my favorite story

    我想到我最愛的故事──

  • from the Treasure rescue.

    在『寶藏』救援行動時發生的。

  • About a year prior to this oil spill,

    此石油外漏事件的約一年前,

  • a 17 year-old student

    一名十七歲的學生

  • had invented a degreaser.

    發明了一種去油劑

  • And they'd been using it at SANCCOB with great success,

    海鳥營救中心使用去油劑的成效很棒。

  • so they began using it during the Treasure rescue.

    所以在執行『寶藏』援救行動便開始採用。

  • But part way through, they ran out.

    但過程中,去油劑被用光了

  • So in a panic, Estelle from SANCCOB called the student

    情急之下,海鳥營救中心Estelle打電話給該名學生,

  • and said, "Please, you have to make more."

    說:「請務必製造更多的去油劑。」

  • So he raced to the lab

    所以他飛奔到實驗室

  • and made enough to clean the rest of the birds.

    製造出足以清潔其他企鵝的劑量。

  • So I just think it is the coolest thing

    我認為這是最酷的事

  • that a teenager

    是一名青少年

  • invented a product

    發明了一項產品

  • that helped save the lives

    協助拯救

  • of thousands of animals.

    成千上萬隻動物的生命。

  • So what happened to those 20,000 oiled penguins?

    那麼這兩萬隻『油企鵝』後來怎麼了?

  • And was Silvia Gaus right?

    Silvia Gaus說對了嗎?

  • Should we routinely euthanize

    我們應該讓所有的企鵝沒有餘地

  • all oiled birds

    只能安樂死嗎?

  • because most of them are going to die anyway?

    反正他們大部分還是無法存活下來,是嗎?

  • Well she could not be more wrong.

    嗯,她錯得離譜。

  • After half a million hours

    在五十萬個小時

  • of grueling volunteer labor,

    精疲力竭自願勞動後,

  • more than 90 percent of those oiled penguins

    超過百分之九十的『油企鵝』

  • were successfully returned to the wild.

    被野放成功。

  • And we know from follow-up studies

    我們從後續的研究得知

  • that they have lived just as long

    牠們活得和那些未遭油害的

  • as never-oiled penguins,

    企鵝一般長久,

  • and bred nearly as successfully.

    並且相當成功地繁殖。

  • And in addition, about 3,000 penguin chicks

    還有大約三千隻企鵝寶寶

  • were rescued and hand-raised.

    獲救並且由人工哺育。

  • And again, we know from long-term monitoring

    我們經由長期的觀測得知

  • that more of these hand-raised chicks

    人工哺育的企鵝寶寶

  • survive to adulthood and breeding age

    順利存活至長大成人並達繁殖年齡,

  • than do parent-raised chicks.

    比由其雙親哺育的企鵝寶寶還多。

  • So, armed with this knowledge,

    有了這層了解

  • SANCCOB has a chick-bolstering project.

    海鳥營救中心便策劃出企鵝寶寶保育計劃。

  • And every year they rescue and raise abandoned chicks,

    每年援救並扶養被棄養的企鵝寶寶。

  • and they have a very impressive

    而且成功率高達

  • 80 percent success rate.

    百分之八十。

  • And this is critically important

    這是十分重要,

  • because, one year ago,

    因為一年前

  • the African penguin was declared endangered.

    非洲企鵝被正式宣佈瀕臨絶種。

  • And they could be extinct

    而且不到十年,

  • in less than 10 years,

    若我們現在不採取

  • if we don't do something now to protect them.

    行動保護牠們的話, 牠們可能滅絶。

  • So what did I learn

    這麼說吧,從這個深刻難忘的經驗

  • from this intense and unforgettable experience?

    我們學到什麼?

  • Personally, I learned

    個人而言,我發現

  • that I am capable of handling so much more than I ever dreamed possible.

    自己有能力成就更多,連作夢都難以想像。

  • And I learned that one person

    而且我明白個人力量

  • can make a huge difference.

    能讓情況截然不同──

  • Just look at that 17 year-old.

    瞧!那個十七歲的學生就做到了。

  • And when we come together

    當我們團結在一起