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  • I'm going to talk about a very fundamental change that is going on

    我要來談一談在現代經濟結構中,

  • in the very fabric of the modern economy.

    一個正在發生且很根本的改變。

  • And to talk about that, I'm going to go back to the beginning,

    要談這個改變就需要從頭說起,

  • because in the beginning were commodities.

    因為在經濟開始時有貨品。

  • Commodities are things that you grow in the ground, raise on the ground or pull out of the ground:

    貨品是你種植和畜養在地上,或從地上挖出來的東西。

  • basically, animal, mineral, vegetable.

    基本上就是動物、礦物、蔬菜,

  • And then you extract them out of the ground,

    你從土地上取出這些東西,

  • and sell them on the open marketplace.

    然後到公開的市場上販賣。

  • Commodities were the basis of the agrarian economy

    貨品是農業經濟的基礎,

  • that lasted for millennia.

    且持續了好幾千年。

  • But then along came the industrial revolution,

    可是,之後發生了工業革命,

  • and then goods became the predominant economic offering,

    商品成了主要的經濟產物,

  • where we used commodities as a raw material

    我們將貨品當作原料,

  • to be able to make or manufacture goods.

    用來製造或生產商品。

  • So, we moved from an agrarian economy to an industrial economy.

    於是,我們從農業經濟轉入工業經濟。

  • Well, what then happened over the last 50 or 60 years,

    而過去50或60年所發生的是

  • is that goods have become commoditized.

    商品變得大眾化了。

  • Commoditized: where they're treated like a commodity,

    大眾化就是對待商品像貨品一樣。

  • where people don't care who makes them.

    人們不關心是由誰製造的。

  • They just care about three things and three things only:

    人們只關心三件事情:

  • price, price and price.

    價格、價格、價格。

  • Now, there's an antidote to commoditization,

    有個對抗商品大眾化的辦法,

  • and that is customization.

    那就是客製化。

  • My first book was called "Mass Customization" --

    我的第一本書叫「大量客製化」,

  • it came up a couple of times yesterday --

    昨天在演講上提過幾次。

  • and how I discovered this progression of economic value

    書中提到我發現經濟價值的演進,

  • was realizing that customizing a good

    是從了解到將商品客製化之後,

  • automatically turned it into a service,

    將自動轉變成服務,

  • because it was done just for a particular person,

    因為這是爲某個特定的人所做的事,

  • because it wasn't inventoried,

    因為這是沒有庫存的。

  • it was delivered on demand to that individual person.

    它是應需求而傳遞給特定的個人。

  • So, we moved from an industrial economy to a service-based economy.

    於是,我們從工業經濟轉移到以服務為基礎的經濟。

  • But over the past 10 or 20 years, what's happened is that

    不過在過去10或20年內,

  • services are being commoditized as well.

    服務竟然也被大眾化了。

  • Long-distance telephone service sold on price, price, price;

    長途電話服務的銷售也只關心價格、價格、價格,

  • fast-food restaurants with all their value pricing;

    速食餐廳提供所有的超值定價,

  • and even the Internet is commoditizing not just goods,

    甚至連網路也不只是將商品大眾化而已,

  • but services as well.

    連服務也大眾化了。

  • What that means is that it's time

    這意味著,

  • to move to a new level of economic value.

    轉移到新一層的經濟價值的時候到了。

  • Time to go beyond the goods and the services,

    超越產品與服務的時候到了,

  • and use, in that same heuristic, what happens when you customize a service?

    應用同樣的法則,當你客製服務後會產生什麼?

  • What happens when you design a service that is so appropriate for a particular person --

    當你為特定的人設計,為當前的消費者提供

  • that's exactly what they need at this moment in time?

    非常合適的服務時會如何呢?

  • Then you can't help but make them go "wow";

    你必須讓他們大聲喊出「哇」!

  • you can't help but turn it into a memorable event --

    你必須使服務變成難忘的活動,

  • you can't help but turn it into an experience.

    你不得不使服務變成一種體驗。

  • So we're shifting to an experience economy,

    所以我們現在正轉移到體驗經濟,

  • where experiences are becoming the predominant economic offering.

    體驗逐漸變成主要的經濟產物。

  • Now most places that I talk to,

    在我演講的許多地方,

  • when I talk about experience, I talk about Disney --

    當我提到體驗,我就會講到迪士尼--

  • the world's premier experience-stager.

    世界上首位提供體驗的老手。

  • I talk about theme restaurants, and experiential retail,

    我談論主題餐廳及實驗商店,

  • and boutique hotels, and Las Vegas --

    精品旅館及拉斯維加斯--

  • the experience capital of the world.

    世界的體驗首都。

  • But here, when you think about experiences,

    但是在這裡當你講到體驗,

  • think about Thomas Dolby and his group, playing music.

    你會想到湯瑪斯道比和他的團隊演奏音樂,

  • Think about meaningful places.

    想想別具意義的地方,

  • Think about drinking wine,

    想想喝葡萄酒,

  • about a journey to the Clock of the Long Now.

    或是踏上邁向「萬年鐘」的旅程。

  • Those are all experiences. Think about TED itself.

    這些全部都是體驗。想想TED本身,

  • The experience capital in the world of conferences.

    座談會世界裡的體驗首都,

  • All of these are experiences.

    這全都是體驗。

  • Now, over the last several years I spent a lot of time in Europe,

    過去幾年我花很多的時間在歐洲,

  • and particularly in the Netherlands,

    特別是在荷蘭,

  • and whenever I talk about the experience economy there,

    每當我在那裡談到體驗經濟時,

  • I'm always greeted at the end with one particular question,

    我總是會在演講最後被問到一個問題,

  • almost invariably.

    幾乎每次都一樣。

  • And the question isn't really so much a question

    那問題其實並不是個問題,

  • as an accusation.

    而是一種指責。

  • And the Dutch, when they usually put it,

    荷蘭人通常都會

  • it always starts with the same two words.

    用同一種開頭,

  • You know the words I mean?

    你知道我指的是什麼嗎?

  • You Americans.

    “你們美國人”

  • They say, you Americans.

    荷蘭人會說:你們美國人,

  • You like your fantasy environments,

    你們喜歡自己夢幻的世界,

  • your fake, your Disneyland experiences.

    你們假象的迪士尼樂園體驗。

  • They say, we Dutch, we like real,

    他們又說:我們荷蘭人喜歡實質的、

  • natural, authentic experiences.

    自然、真實的體驗。

  • So much has that happened that I've developed a fairly praticed response,

    這問題出現的次數,多到讓我發展出一套標準答案。

  • which is: I point out that first of all,

    那就是:首先我想指出,

  • you have to understand that there is no such thing

    大家必須了解,

  • as an inauthentic experience.

    “非真實的體驗” 並不存在。

  • Why? Because the experience happens inside of us.

    爲什麼呢?因為體驗發生在我們體內,

  • It's our reaction to the events that are staged in front of us.

    是我們對眼前舞台上的活動所產生的反應,

  • So, as long as we are in any sense authentic human beings,

    所以,只要我們是真實的人類,

  • then every experience we have is authentic.

    那麼我們所擁有的每個體驗都是真實的。

  • Now, there may be more or less natural or artificial

    也許體驗中或多或少有些是,

  • stimuli for the experience,

    自然或人工的刺激。

  • but even that is a matter of degree, not kind.

    但那也只是程度的差異而不是種類的差別。

  • And there's no such thing as a 100 percent natural experience.

    而且,百分之百自然的體驗也不存在,

  • Even if you go for a walk in the proverbial woods,

    即使你是到聞名的森林裡去散步,

  • there is a company that manufactured the car

    還是有公司製造了車子,

  • that delivered you to the edge of the woods;

    載你到森林的入口處去;

  • there's a company that manufactured the shoes that you have

    也有公司製造了你所穿的鞋子,

  • to protect yourself from the ground of the woods.

    來保護你的腳不受到傷害。

  • There's a company that provides a cell phone service you have

    還有公司提供你所擁有的手機服務,

  • in case you get lost in the woods.

    萬一你在森林裡迷路了可以用。

  • Right? All of those are man-made,

    對吧!這些都是你帶進森林裡的人工產物,

  • artificiality brought into the woods by you,

    單單是在那裡就非純自然的了。

  • and by the very nature of being there.

    而我總是在結尾時,

  • And then I always finish off

    提到這個問題,

  • by talking about -- the thing that amazes me the most about this question,

    讓我覺得不可思議的地方,

  • particularly coming from the Dutch,

    尤其是來自荷蘭人口中,

  • is that the Netherlands

    那就是荷蘭

  • is every bit as manufactured as Disneyland.

    跟迪士尼樂園一樣是人工的。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And the Dutch, they always go ...

    最後荷蘭人總是會嘆息,

  • and they realize, I'm right!

    然後明白我說的是對的。

  • There isn't a square meter of ground in the entire country

    在荷蘭沒有一平方公尺的地,

  • that hasn't been reclaimed from the sea,

    不是用填海造地的。

  • or otherwise moved, modified and manicured

    要不然就是經過搬動改造及整修,

  • to look as if it had always been there.

    好讓土地看起來就像有史以來就在那兒一樣。

  • It's the only place you ever go for a walk in the woods and all the trees are lined up in rows.

    荷蘭是唯一一個地方你到森林去散步,會看見排列整齊的樹。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But nonetheless, not just the Dutch,

    無論如何不只是荷蘭人,

  • but everyone has this desire for the authentic.

    但是,每個人都渴望擁有最真實的體驗。

  • And authenticity is therefore

    於是真實性

  • becoming the new consumer sensibility --

    就變成了新的消費感知力--

  • the buying criteria by which consumers

    成為決定消費者

  • are choosing who are they going to buy from,

    選擇在哪裡購買,

  • and what they're going to buy.

    以及購買什麼的條件。

  • Becoming the basis of the economy.

    成為經濟結構的基礎。

  • In fact, you can look at how each of these economies developed,

    事實上,你可以看見每個經濟是如何演進的,

  • that each one has their own business imperative,

    每個經濟結構都有自己的商業模式,

  • matched with a consumer sensibility.

    結合某種消費感知力。

  • We're the agrarian economy, and we're supplying commodities.

    在農業經濟我們供應貨品,

  • It's about supply and availability.

    關係到供應與可得性。

  • Getting the commodities to market.

    將貨品送到市場上,

  • With the industrial economy, it is about controlling costs --

    工業經濟則關心成本的掌控--

  • getting the costs down as low as possible

    儘可能將成本降到最低,

  • so we can offer them to the masses.

    好讓我們可以提供給大眾。

  • With the service economy, it is about

    服務經濟則關係到

  • improving quality.

    品質的改進。

  • That has -- the whole quality movement has risen

    過去20或30年來,

  • with the service economy over the past 20 or 30 years.

    服務經濟帶動了整個品質運動。

  • And now, with the experience economy,

    而現在的體驗經濟,

  • it's about rendering authenticity.

    則關係到呈現真實性。

  • Rendering authenticity -- and the keyword is "rendering."

    呈現真實性關鍵字是呈現。

  • Right? Rendering, because you have to get your consumers --

    因為身為商人你必須讓你的消費者--

  • as business people --

    像商人一樣,

  • to percieve your offerings as authentic.

    覺得你所提供的是真實的東西。

  • Because there is a basic paradox:

    因為這裡有個基本的迷思:

  • no one can have an inauthentic experience,

    沒有人可以擁有非真實性的體驗,

  • but no business can supply one.

    但也沒有商人可以提供絕對真實的體驗。

  • Because all businesses are man-made objects; all business is involved with money;

    因為所有的商業都是人造的物質;所有的商業都跟錢有關;

  • all business is a matter of using machinery,

    所有的商業都使用機器,

  • and all those things make something inauthentic.

    而這些都會讓東西變成非真實的。

  • So, how do you render authenticity,

    所以你如何呈現真實性

  • is the question.

    就是一個問題。

  • Are you rendering authenticity?

    你在呈現真實性嗎?

  • When you think about that, let me go back to

    在你思考這個問題的同時,讓我回到

  • what Lionel Trilling, in his seminal book on authenticity,

    萊諾.崔凌探討真實性的學術著作,

  • "Sincerity and Authenticity" -- came out in 1960 --

    1960年寫的「誠意與真實性」,

  • points to as the seminal point

    被當成是學術重點,

  • at which authenticity entered the lexicon,

    你可以當作是將真實性

  • if you will.

    編入了詞典。

  • And that is, to no surprise, in Shakespeare,

    自然也出現在莎士比亞

  • and in his play, Hamlet.

    劇作哈姆雷特當中,

  • And there is one part in this play, Hamlet,

    在哈姆雷特當中的某場戲,

  • where the most fake of all the characters in Hamlet, Polonius,

    劇中最虛假的波龍尼,

  • says something profoundly real.

    道出了極度真實的事情。

  • At the end of a laundry list of advice

    在一連串給他兒子

  • he's giving to his son, Laertes,

    雷阿提斯的建議的末端,

  • he says this:

    他說:

  • And this above all: to thine own self be true.

    最重要的是忠於自我。

  • And it doth follow, as night the day,

    如夜之繼日般奉行,

  • that thou canst not then be false to any man.

    也不致對人虛假,

  • And those three verses are the core of authenticity.

    而這三句話就是真實性的核心。

  • There are two dimensions to authenticity:

    真實性有兩面,

  • one, being true to yourself, which is very self-directed.

    其一是忠於自我,非常自我導向,

  • Two, is other-directed:

    其二則是他人導向:

  • being what you say you are to others.

    對外界忠於你所說的。

  • And I don't know about you, but whenever I encounter two dimensions,

    我不知道你怎麼做,但每當我遇到兩個面向時,

  • I immediately go, ahh, two-by-two!

    我就馬上想到啊! 二乘以二!

  • All right? Anybody else like that, no?

    有沒有人跟我一樣啊?沒有嗎?

  • Well, if you think about that, you do, in fact, get

    當你這麼想的時候,事實上,你就會得到

  • a two-by-two.

    二乘以二。

  • Where, on one dimension it's a matter of being true to yourself.

    一方面你得忠於自我。

  • As businesses, are the economic offerings you are providing --

    在商場上,你所提供的經濟產物,

  • are they true to themselves?

    本身是否忠於自我呢?

  • And the other dimension is:

    另一方面:

  • are they what they say they are to others?

    它們在別人看來是否如描述的一樣呢?

  • If not, you have,

    如果不是,結果就會變成,

  • "is not true to itself," and "is not what it says it is,"

    不忠於自我以及並非如你所說的一樣,

  • yielding a two-by-two matrix.

    產生一個二乘以二的矩陣圖

  • And of course, if you are both true to yourself,

    當然如果你忠於自我,

  • and are what you say you are, then you're real real!

    也真如你所說的那樣,那麼你就是真真!

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The opposite, of course, is -- fake fake.

    相反的當然就是假假。

  • All right, now, there is value for fake.

    虛假其實還是有價值的。

  • There will always be companies around to supply the fake,

    總是會有公司提供假的東西,

  • because there will always be desire for the fake.

    因為總是會有對假貨的渴望存在。

  • Fact is, there's a general rule: if you don't like it, it's fake;

    事實上,這有個原則:如果你不喜歡那就是假的;

  • if you do like it, it's faux.

    如果你喜歡那就是人造的。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, the other two sides of the coin are:

    硬幣的另外兩面是:

  • being a real fake --

    成為真的假,

  • is what it says it is,

    那就是產品忠於它所說的,

  • but is not true to itself,

    但卻不是忠於自我的,

  • or being a fake real:

    另外就是成為一個假的真:

  • is true to itself, but not what it says it is.

    忠於自我,但卻不是忠於它所說的。

  • You can think about those two -- you know, both of these

    你可以說這兩種

  • better than being fake fake -- not quite as good as being real real.

    都比假假要來得好--雖然還不如真真的好。

  • You can contrast them by thinking about

    你可以拿

  • Universal City Walk versus

    環球影城商店街與

  • Disney World, or Disneyland.

    迪士尼世界或迪士尼樂園做個比較。

  • Universal City Walk is a real fake --

    環球影城商店街是真的虛假--

  • in fact, we got this very term

    事實上,我們是從

  • from Ada Louise Huxtable's book, "The Unreal America."

    賀克斯苔博的書「非真實的美國」當中擷取出這個詞的。

  • A wonderful book, where she talks about Universal City Walk as --

    那是一本好書,描述環球影城商店街是假的。

  • you know, she decries the fake, but she says, at least that's a real fake,

    她譴責假的事物,但是她又說那至少是真的假。

  • right, because you can see behind the facade, right?

    因為你可以看見門面後的東西,對吧?

  • It is what it says it is: It's Universal Studio;

    它如自己所說的它就是環球影城;

  • it's in the city of Los Angeles; you're going to walk a lot.

    在洛杉磯市區而且你需要走很多路。

  • Right? You don't tend to walk a lot in Los Angeles,

    在洛杉磯人們不太走路,

  • well, here's a place where you are going to walk a lot,

    可是在這個地方你可以在戶外走很多路,

  • outside in this city.

    就在城市裡。

  • But is it really true to itself?

    不過它真的忠於自我嗎?

  • Right? Is it really in the city?

    它真的是在城市裡嗎?

  • Is it --

    它是--

  • you can see behind all of it,

    你可以看穿後台的東西,

  • and see what is going on in the facades of it.

    也可以看見前台正在發生的事情,

  • So she calls it a real fake.

    所以賀克斯苔博說環球影城是真的假。

  • Disney World, on the other hand, is a fake real,

    相反的迪士尼世界是假的真,

  • or a fake reality.

    或是一個假的現實。

  • Right? It's not what it says it is. It's not really the magic kingdom.

    它並非如同它所說的不是真的神奇國度。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But it is -- oh, I'm sorry, I didn't mean to --

    噢!抱歉,我並不是故意的,

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • -- sorry.

    --抱歉。

  • We won't talk about Santa Claus then.

    我保證不會再說聖誕老公公。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But Disney World is wonderfully true to itself.

    但是迪士尼世界確實非常忠於自我,

  • Right? Just wonderfully true to itself.

    極度的忠於自我。

  • When you are there you are just immersed

    當你在那裡,整個人就沉浸在

  • in this wonderful environment.

    那美好的世界裡。

  • So, it's a fake real.

    所以它是假的真。

  • Now the easiest way

    要失敗

  • to fall down in this,

    最簡單的方法,

  • and not be real real,

    且不要成為真的真實,

  • right, the easiest way not to be true to yourself

    不要忠於自我最簡單的方法就是

  • is not to understand your heritage,

    不要去了解你自己的傳統,

  • and thereby repudiate that heritage.

    也就是跟你的傳統斷絕關係。

  • Right, the key of being true to yourself is knowing who you are as a business.

    忠於自我的關鍵就是,了解你是什麼樣的商業,

  • Knowing where your heritage is: what you have done in the past.

    了解你的傳統在哪裡你過去做了什麼?

  • And what you have done in the past limits what you can do,

    而你過去所做的事情會