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  • How do you feed a city?

    如何餵飽一個城市的所有居民?

  • It's one of the great questions of our time.

    這是現代一個大問題。

  • Yet it's one that's rarely asked.

    但很少被提起

  • We take it for granted that if we go into a shop

    就是很自然地, 當我們去商店

  • or restaurant, or indeed into this theater's foyer in about an hour's time,

    餐廳,或一小時以後到戲院大廳

  • there is going to be food there waiting for us,

    總有食物等待著我們

  • having magically come from somewhere.

    神奇地出現

  • But when you think that every day for a city the size of London,

    試想像倫敦這麽大的城市每天

  • enough food has to be produced,

    要有足夠的食物被製造

  • transported, bought and sold,

    運輸、買、賣

  • cooked, eaten, disposed of,

    煮、吃、處置

  • and that something similar has to happen every day

    同樣的事,日復一日

  • for every city on earth,

    發生在每個城市裏

  • it's remarkable that cities get fed at all.

    餵飽一座城市是相當不容易的

  • We live in places like this as if

    對住在城市的我們

  • they're the most natural things in the world,

    卻是稀鬆平常

  • forgetting that because we're animals

    忘了我們也是動物

  • and that we need to eat,

    我們也需要進食

  • we're actually as dependent on the natural world

    我們還是依賴大自然而生

  • as our ancient ancestors were.

    就跟我們老祖宗一樣

  • And as more of us move into cities,

    隨著更多人遷入城市

  • more of that natural world is being

    越來越多原始的大自然

  • transformed into extraordinary landscapes like the one behind me --

    被開發成這樣壯觀的景色

  • it's soybean fields in Mato Grosso in Brazil --

    這是在巴西馬托格羅索的大豆田

  • in order to feed us.

    就為了餵飽我們

  • These are extraordinary landscapes,

    這是十分壯觀的景色

  • but few of us ever get to see them.

    但少有人見識過

  • And increasingly these landscapes

    越來越廣大的田

  • are not just feeding us either.

    卻不只用來餵飽我們

  • As more of us move into cities,

    住城市的人越多

  • more of us are eating meat,

    吃肉的人也越多

  • so that a third of the annual grain crop globally

    每年全球的農作物有三分之一

  • now gets fed to animals

    是拿去餵家畜

  • rather than to us human animals.

    而不是直接給人吃

  • And given that it takes three times as much grain --

    我們需要三倍的穀物

  • actually ten times as much grain --

    事實上是十倍的穀物

  • to feed a human if it's passed through an animal first,

    如果用家畜來餵飽人類的話

  • that's not a very efficient way of feeding us.

    這是沒有效率的

  • And it's an escalating problem too.

    而且是個日趨嚴峻的問題

  • By 2050, it's estimated that twice the number

    到2050年住在城市的人

  • of us are going to be living in cities.

    將是現在的兩倍

  • And it's also estimated that there is going to be twice as much

    我們消費的肉與乳製品

  • meat and dairy consumed.

    估計也會變兩倍

  • So meat and urbanism are rising hand in hand.

    都市化和肉的消費量是共同增長的

  • And that's going to pose an enormous problem.

    這將是個龐雜的問題

  • Six billion hungry carnivores to feed,

    要餵飽六十億個肉食性動物

  • by 2050.

    到2050年。

  • That's a big problem. And actually if we carry on as we are,

    這是個大問題。如果我們不做改變

  • it's a problem we're very unlikely to be able to solve.

    這個問題將會是無解

  • Nineteen million hectares of rainforest are lost every year

    每年有一千九百萬公頃的熱帶雨林消失

  • to create new arable land.

    被開發成農地

  • Although at the same time we're losing an equivalent amount

    同時我們也失去同樣面積的可耕地

  • of existing arables to salinization and erosion.

    因爲土地的鹽化和水土流失

  • We're very hungry for fossil fuels too.

    再加上對石化燃料的索求無度

  • It takes about 10 calories to produce every calorie

    在西方每製造一卡路里的食物

  • of food that we consume in the West.

    要耗去十卡路里的能量

  • And even though there is food that we are producing at great cost,

    雖然付出高昂的代價

  • we don't actually value it.

    我們卻不珍惜

  • Half the food produced in the USA is currently thrown away.

    半數在美國生產的食品是會被丟掉的

  • And to end all of this, at the end of this long process,

    甚至,在這一長串過程的最後

  • we're not even managing to feed the planet properly.

    我們也無法適當的分配食物

  • A billion of us are obese, while a further billion starve.

    在地球上有十億人過胖,卻也有十億人吃不飽

  • None of it makes very much sense.

    這一切都很不合理

  • And when you think that 80 percent of global trade in food now

    試想全球百分之八十的食物交易

  • is controlled by just five multinational corporations,

    只掌握在五大跨國公司的手上時

  • it's a grim picture.

    這是可怕的情景

  • As we're moving into cities, the world is also embracing a Western diet.

    當人們搬到城市住時,大家也接受了西方的飲食習慣

  • And if we look to the future,

    如果我們想一想未來

  • it's an unsustainable diet.

    這絕不是長久之計

  • So how did we get here?

    那麽,我們是如何走到這一步的?

  • And more importantly, what are we going to do about it?

    而更重要的是,下一步該怎麽走?

  • Well, to answer the slightly easier question first,

    第一個問題稍微容易一些

  • about 10,000 years ago, I would say,

    大概一萬年前,我想

  • is the beginning of this process

    是這個演變的開始

  • in the ancient Near East,

    在古老的近東

  • known as the Fertile Crescent.

    又稱作“新月沃土”的地區

  • Because, as you can see, it was crescent shaped.

    你可以看這像一輪新月的形狀

  • And it was also fertile.

    這地區的土壤肥沃

  • And it was here, about 10,000 years ago,

    大約在一萬年前,在這裡

  • that two extraordinary inventions,

    有兩項非凡的發明

  • agriculture and urbanism, happened

    農業以及城市的產生

  • roughly in the same place and at the same time.

    大約在同一地點同一時間

  • This is no accident,

    這並非偶然

  • because agriculture and cities are bound together. They need each other.

    因爲城市和農業是分不開的。他們互相需要

  • Because it was discovery of grain

    這起因於我們的祖先

  • by our ancient ancestors for the first time

    第一次認識到穀物

  • that produced a food source that was large enough

    可以產生足量又供給穩定的食物

  • and stable enough to support permanent settlements.

    去支撐一個永久聚落

  • And if we look at what those settlements were like,

    我們看看一些當時的聚落

  • we see they were compact.

    他們的結構是緊密的

  • They were surrounded by productive farm land

    他們的周圍有農田

  • and dominated by large temple complexes

    並以一大型神殿為中心

  • like this one at Ur,

    例如這一個在烏爾的神殿

  • that were, in fact, effectively,

    在當時

  • spiritualized, central food distribution centers.

    是神聖化的中央食物分配中心

  • Because it was the temples that organized the harvest,

    因爲是神殿安排農作收割

  • gathered in the grain, offered it to the gods,

    收集穀物獻給諸神

  • and then offered the grain that the gods didn't eat back to the people.

    再把諸神沒吃的穀物發還給人們

  • So, if you like,

    你可以這麽說

  • the whole spiritual and physical life of these cities

    這些城市的精神及實體生活

  • was dominated by the grain and the harvest

    是由他們賴以爲生的穀物和收成

  • that sustained them.

    所支配

  • And in fact, that's true of every ancient city.

    事實上,這對每一個古代的城市而言皆如此

  • But of course not all of them were that small.

    當然,不是每一個城市都這麽小

  • Famously, Rome had about a million citizens

    眾所皆知,在西元一世紀時

  • by the first century A.D.

    羅馬就有將近一百萬的居民

  • So how did a city like this feed itself?

    像這麽大的城市如何餵飽所有的居民?

  • The answer is what I call "ancient food miles."

    答案就在我所謂的“古代食物道路”

  • Basically, Rome had access to the sea,

    基本上,羅馬靠近海

  • which made it possible for it to import food from a very long way away.

    所以食物可以從很遠的地方運來

  • This is the only way it was possible to do this in the ancient world,

    這在古代非得透過海運才行

  • because it was very difficult to transport food over roads,

    因為用陸運運輸是很困難的

  • which were rough.

    路況很差

  • And the food obviously went off very quickly.

    而且食物很快就壞掉

  • So Rome effectively waged war

    所以羅馬有效地攻擊

  • on places like Carthage and Egypt

    伽太基和埃及

  • just to get its paws on their grain reserves.

    就爲了取得他們的存糧

  • And, in fact, you could say that the expansion of the Empire

    事實上,整個羅馬帝國的擴張

  • was really sort of one long, drawn out

    可說是一個長期有計劃的

  • militarized shopping spree, really.

    軍事化的瘋狂大採購

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • In fact -- I love the fact, I just have to mention this:

    事實上,我喜歡這個事實,我要指出

  • Rome in fact used to import oysters from London,

    羅馬還曾經[從英國輸入牡蠣]

  • at one stage. I think that's extraordinary.

    我覺得這就挺不簡單的

  • So Rome shaped its hinterland

    可以說羅馬領土的形狀

  • through its appetite.

    是由它的食欲來決定

  • But the interesting thing is that the other thing also

    有趣的還有其他的事

  • happened in the pre-industrial world.

    也發生在工業化前的世界

  • If we look at a map of London in the 17th century,

    我們看這十七世紀的倫敦地圖

  • we can see that its grain, which is coming in from the Thames,

    我們可以看到,穀物是從泰晤士河運入

  • along the bottom of this map.

    在這張圖的下方

  • So the grain markets were to the south of the city.

    所以穀物市場都是在市區的南方

  • And the roads leading up from them

    這些路從穀物市場直指

  • to Cheapside, which was the main market,

    到區普塞得,在當時是主要的市場

  • were also grain markets.

    沿途也都是穀物市場

  • And if you look at the name of one of those streets,

    你要是看這些道路的名字

  • Bread Street, you can tell

    麵包街,你可以看出

  • what was going on there 300 years ago.

    三百年前人們在這裡做什麽

  • And the same of course was true for fish.

    漁獲的運輸也同理可證

  • Fish was, of course, coming in by river as well. Same thing.

    魚當然是從河裏運來的

  • And of course Billingsgate, famously, was London's fish market,

    比林斯門是過去倫敦有名的魚市場

  • operating on-site here until the mid-1980s.

    一直到1980年代中期都還在使用

  • Which is extraordinary, really, when you think about it.

    那真是很不可思議,真的,想像一下

  • Everybody else was wandering around

    每個路人手裡

  • with mobile phones that looked like bricks

    拿著磚頭大的大哥大

  • and sort of smelly fish happening down on the port.

    還依稀聞到港口的魚腥味

  • This is another thing about food in cities:

    這是另一個與城市、食物有關的事實

  • Once its roots into the city are established,

    一旦運輸的進城路線被建立

  • they very rarely move.

    就幾乎不會再改變

  • Meat is a very different story

    肉類產品則是另外一回事

  • because, of course, animals could walk into the city.

    因爲,動物們可以自己走進市内

  • So much of London's meat

    所以倫敦的大部分肉品

  • was coming from the northwest,

    是從西北方來的

  • from Scotland and Wales.

    從蘇格蘭及威爾斯

  • So it was coming in, and arriving at the city at the northwest,

    最後到達倫敦的西北方

  • which is why Smithfield,

    那裡是史密斯菲爾德

  • London's very famous meat market, was located up there.

    倫敦著名的肉市場, 便在那裏

  • Poultry was coming in from East Anglia and so on, to the northeast.

    家禽類從東安格利亞進入倫敦的東北方

  • I feel a bit like a weather woman doing this. Anyway,

    講到這裡我覺得好像在作氣象預報....

  • and so the birds were coming in

    禽鳥類也這樣被運進來

  • with their feet protected with little canvas shoes.

    腳上都套著帆布保護套

  • And then when they hit the eastern end

    當牠們抵達區普塞得東邊時

  • of Cheapside, that's where they were sold,

    就會被賣掉

  • which is why it's called Poultry.

    所以這個地方就叫做“家禽區”

  • And, in fact, if you look at the map of any city

    如果你細看任一城市地圖

  • built before the industrial age,

    如果它在工業化前就存在

  • you can trace food coming in to it.

    你就能追溯食物的道路

  • You can actually see how it was physically shaped by food,

    切實地看出城市是如何被食物所改變

  • both by reading the names of the streets, which give you a lot of clues.

    看一看街道的名稱,就可以給你很多線索

  • Friday Street, in a previous life,

    星期五街,在以前

  • is where you went to buy your fish on a Friday.

    是你在星期五去買魚的地方

  • But also you have to imagine it full of food.

    想像街裏擠滿了食物

  • Because the streets and the public spaces

    因爲在街上和公共空間

  • were the only places where food was bought and sold.

    是買賣食物唯一的場所

  • And if we look at an image of Smithfield in 1830

    看看1830年史密斯菲爾德當時的街景

  • you can see that it would have been very difficult to live in a city like this

    你可以想見,住在這裡你很難不知道

  • and be unaware of where your food came from.

    你的食物從哪裏來

  • In fact, if you were having Sunday lunch,

    事實上,當你在吃禮拜日午餐時

  • the chances were it was mooing or bleating outside your window

    你吃的牛或羊,可能三天前

  • about three days earlier.

    還在你的窗外咩咩叫

  • So this was obviously an organic city,

    所以這是一個有機的城市

  • part of an organic cycle.

    是有機循環的一部分

  • And then 10 years later everything changed.

    而十年後一切都改變了

  • This is an image of the Great Western in 1840.

    這是1840年大西部鐵路的畫像

  • And as you can see, some of the earliest train passengers

    你可以看到,最早的鐵路旅客中

  • were pigs and sheep.

    有一些是豬和羊

  • So all of a sudden, these animals are no longer walking into market.

    一夕之間,這些動物不再自己走進市場

  • They're being slaughtered out of sight and mind,

    牠們在眼不見心為淨的情況下被屠宰

  • somewhere in the countryside.

    在鄉下的某處

  • And they're coming into the city by rail.

    再用鐵路運進城市

  • And this changes everything.

    這一來一切都改變了

  • To start off with, it makes it possible

    這是有史以來第一次

  • for the first time to grow cities,

    城市可在任何地方

  • really any size and shape, in any place.

    成長到任何大小和形狀

  • Cities used to be constrained by geography;

    過去城市受限於地理條件

  • they used to have to get their food through very difficult physical means.

    食物必須用艱辛地運送進來

  • All of a sudden they are effectively emancipated from geography.

    突然間城市從地理限制中大解放

  • And as you can see from these maps of London,

    你可以從倫敦的地圖上看出

  • in the 90 years after the trains came,

    在火車通行的九十年後

  • it goes from being a little blob that was quite easy to feed

    倫敦從一個容易餵飽的小點

  • by animals coming in on foot, and so on,

    一個靠動物走進來就能餵飽的小點

  • to a large splurge,

    變成一個龐然大物

  • that would be very, very difficult to feed with anybody on foot,

    步行運輸再也不能餵飽每個人

  • either animals or people.

    對人對動物都一樣

  • And of course that was just the beginning. After the trains came cars,

    這只是個開端。火車之後又來了汽車

  • and really this marks the end of this process.

    這成就了這場變化的終點

  • It's the final emancipation of the city

    這是城市最終的解放

  • from any apparent relationship with nature at all.

    徹底地從大自然的連繫中解放

  • And this is the kind of city that's devoid of smell,

    這些城市的街上聞不到動物的味道

  • devoid of mess, certainly devoid of people,

    不再紊亂,當然也沒有人跡

  • because nobody would have dreamed of walking in such a landscape.

    因為那已是夢裡都夢不到的風景了

  • In fact, what they did to get food was they got in their cars,

    食物的取得變成開車

  • drove to a box somewhere on the outskirts,

    到郊區的大倉儲裏

  • came back with a week's worth of shopping,

    買回一整個星期的庫存

  • and wondered what on earth to do with it.

    再想這些食材該怎麽處理

  • And this really is the moment when our relationship,

    這時候我們跟城市及食物的關係

  • both with food and cities, changes completely.

    已完全改變

  • Here we have food -- that used to be the center,

    過去食物是我們生活的中心

  • the social core of the city -- at the periphery.

    城市的社交重心 -- 現在則是邊緣化

  • It used to be a social event, buying and selling food.

    買賣食物曾是社交活動的一部分

  • Now it's anonymous.

    現在則是隱姓埋名

  • We used to cook; now we just add water,

    我們曾要料理食物,現在只需要加水[到調理包]

  • or a little bit of an egg if you're making a cake or something.

    或者再打個蛋,如果你要做蛋糕的話

  • We don't smell food to see if it's okay to eat.

    你不再先聞聞看東西有沒壞掉

  • We just read the back of a label on a packet.

    你只須讀包裝背後的説明

  • And we don't value food. We don't trust it.

    我們不再珍惜食物。也不再信任它

  • So instead of trusting it, we fear it.

    從信賴轉變成疑懼

  • And instead of valuing it, we throw it away.

    從體會它的價值變成浪費

  • One of the great ironies of modern food systems

    當今食品工業最最諷刺的是

  • is that they've made the very thing they promised

    他們讓生活極致地便利

  • to make easier much harder.

    卻也使得一切更為複雜

  • By making it possible to build cities anywhere and any place,

    因為可以自由地建立新城市

  • they've actually distanced us from our most important relationship,

    我們卻切斷了最重要的連繫

  • which is that of us and nature.

    那就是和大自然的連繫

  • And also they've made us dependent on systems that only they can deliver,

    最後我們只能依賴他們的供給系統

  • that, as we've seen, are unsustainable.

    而我們已經看到,這個系統是不能永久持續的

  • So what are we going to do about that?

    所以,我們該怎麽辦呢?

  • It's not a new question.

    這不是個新的問題

  • 500 years ago it's what Thomas More was asking himself.

    五百年前湯瑪士.摩爾就在問他自己

  • This is the frontispiece of his book "Utopia."

    這是他的著作“烏托邦”的卷頭插圖

  • And it was a series of semi-independent city-states,

    裏面是幾個半自給自足的城邦

  • if that sounds remotely familiar,

    聼起來挺熟悉的

  • a day's walk from one another where everyone was basically farming-mad,

    幾乎每個人都有種田的狂熱

  • and grew vegetables in their back gardens,

    在自家的後院種蔬菜