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  • I want to talk about my investigations

    我想談談我的一些研究

  • into what technology means in our lives --

    有關科技對我們生活的意義

  • not just our immediate life, but in the cosmic sense,

    不光是狹義上我們的生活,而是廣義上的宇宙觀

  • in the kind of long history of the world

    我們世界觀裡的時間

  • and our place in the world:

    跟世界觀裡的空間

  • What is this stuff?

    這是什麼呢?

  • What is the significance?

    對我們重要嗎?

  • And so, I want to kind of go through my

    我想先用一些小故事

  • little story of what I found out.

    來談我所發現的

  • And one of the first things that I started to investigate was

    一開始引起我研究興趣的

  • the history of the name of technology.

    是 "科技" 這一名稱的來源

  • And in the United States there is a State of the Union address

    美國從1790年以後依照慣例

  • given by every president since 1790.

    每位總統會對國會發表施政報告

  • And each one of those is really kind of

    每一次演說

  • summing up the most important things

    都會總結當時對美國

  • for the United States at that time.

    最重要的事情

  • If you search for the word "technology,"

    如果你去追溯 "科技" 這個詞

  • it was not used until 1952.

    直到1952年才開始出現

  • So, technology was sort of absent

    照這麼看來1952年以前

  • from everybody's thinking until 1952, which happened to be the year of my birth.

    還沒有人想到科技, 而我剛好是出生在那一年

  • And obviously, technology

    但很明顯的, 科技

  • had existed before then, but we weren't aware of it,

    早在那以前就存在了, 只是我們沒有察覺而已。

  • and so it was sort of an awakening

    那時就像是當頭棒喝

  • of this force in our life.

    突然發覺我們生活中的這股力量。

  • I actually did research to find out the first

    我實際去研究了

  • use of the word "technology."

    是誰第一個使用了 "科技" 這個詞

  • It was in 1829,

    那是在 1829 年的時候

  • and it was invented by a guy who was starting a curriculum --

    一個傢伙在編教程的時候發明的

  • a course, bringing together all the kinds

    這個課程是要把不同種類的

  • of arts and crafts, and industry --

    藝術、手工藝與工業搞在一起。

  • and he called it "Technology."

    他把這叫做科技

  • And that's the very first use of the word.

    那就是這個名詞的起源

  • So, what is this stuff

    那這個

  • that we're all consumed by,

    我們每天消費的

  • and bothered by?

    為它煩心的東西是什麼?

  • Alan Kay calls it, "Technology is anything

    艾倫 凱 說 "凡是我們出生後

  • that was invented after you were born."

    才發明的東西, 都是科技"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Which is sort of the idea that we normally have about what technology is:

    這就是我們對科技的刻板印象

  • It's all that new stuff.

    就是那些“新玩意”

  • It's not roads, or penicillin,

    不是馬路或盤尼西林

  • or factory tires; it's the new stuff.

    或量產的輪胎 要“新”玩意才算。

  • My friend Danny Hillis says kind of a similar one,

    我的朋友 丹尼 西里斯 提出一個類似的說法

  • he says, "Technology is anything that doesn't work yet."

    他說 "科技就是還不能實用的."

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Which is, again, a sense that it's all new.

    對啊, 意思就是全新的

  • But we know that it's just not new.

    但是我們知道科技不全是是新的

  • It actually goes way back, and what I want to suggest

    我建議大家 從時間軸上往前推

  • is it goes a long way back.

    推到很早很早以前。

  • So, another way to think about technology, what it means,

    另一個思考科技意義的辦法是

  • is to imagine a world without technology.

    去想像沒有科技的世界。

  • If we were to eliminate every single bit of technology in the world today --

    假設我們把今日世界的科技一一去掉

  • and I mean everything,

    真的完全去除乾淨

  • from blades to scrapers to cloth --

    從刀片 掃把 到衣服

  • we as a species would not live very long.

    我們這個物種將無法存活太久。

  • We would die by the billions, and very quickly:

    幾十億的人口將會快速的死去

  • The wolves would get us, we would be defenseless,

    狼會吃掉亳無保護的我們

  • we would be unable to grow enough food, or find enough food.

    我們將無法栽種或找到足夠的食物

  • Even the hunter-gatherers used some elementary tools.

    獵人們至少也用了一些工具吧。

  • And so, they had minimal technology,

    所以他們有了最起碼的科技

  • but they had some technology.

    但他們的科技不止如此

  • And if we study those hunter-gatherer tribes

    如果我們研究形成部落的這些獵人

  • and the Neanderthal, which are very similar to early man,

    像是最早發現的 尼安德塔人

  • we find out a very curious thing about this world without technology,

    在無科技世界裡我們找到令人好奇的東西

  • and this is a kind of a curve of their average age.

    這是他們平均壽命的曲線

  • There are no Neanderthal fossils that are older than 40 years old

    在尼安德塔人的骨骸中

  • that we've ever found,

    沒有超過40歲的

  • and the average age of most of these

    這些獵人部落的年齡大部份

  • hunter-gatherer tribes is 20 to 30.

    是在 20 到 30 之間

  • There are very few young infants

    小嬰孩是很罕見的

  • because they die -- high mortality rate -- and there's very few old people.

    因為嬰兒死亡率很高。老人也不多見

  • And so the profile is sort of for your average San Francisco neighborhood:

    所以總體來說會像是舊金山附近的人口結構

  • a lot of young people.

    一大堆年青人

  • And if you go there, you say, "Hey, everybody's really healthy."

    如果你去那裡你會說 "哇, 每個人都很健康"

  • Well, that's because they're all young.

    那是因為他們都很年青啊

  • And the same thing with the hunter-gatherer tribes and early man

    同樣的在原始人類的獵人部落裡

  • is that you didn't live beyond the age of 30.

    人活不過 30 歲

  • So, it was a world without grandparents.

    所以那是沒有祖父母的世界。

  • And grandparents are very important,

    祖父母是很重要的

  • because they are the transmitter of cultural evolution and information.

    因為他們是文化演進與資訊的轉化器

  • Imagine a world and basically everybody was 20 to 30 years old.

    想像一下每個人都只有20到30歲的世界

  • How much learning can you do?

    他們能學習到怎樣的程度?

  • You can't do very much learning in your own life,

    你在自己的生命中真的學不到很多

  • it's so short,

    因為那太短暫了

  • and there's nobody to pass on what you do learn.

    而且你所學的又傳不下去。

  • So, that's one aspect.

    這只是一個觀點

  • It was a very short life. But at the same time

    不只人生苦短 同時

  • anthropologists know

    人類學家們知道

  • that most hunter-gatherer tribes of the world,

    在原始獵人聚集部落的世界

  • with that very little technology, actually did not spend

    用的科技不多, 他們並沒有花

  • a very long time gathering the food that they needed:

    很長的時間蒐集維生的食物

  • three to six hours a day.

    一天大概 3 到 6 小時。

  • Some anthropologists call that the original affluent society.

    有些人類學家稱之為原初豐裕社會

  • Because they had banker hours basically.

    因為他們那時候已經有了 "半天班"

  • So, it was possible to get enough food.

    而且在當時是有可能得到足夠食物的。

  • But when the scarcity came

    不過當食物短缺時

  • when the highs and lows and the droughts came,

    像是多雨或乾旱來臨時

  • then people went into starvation.

    人們還是會餓死。

  • And that's why they didn't live very long.

    這就是為什麼他們活不長。

  • So, what technology brought,

    所以科技帶來的小工具

  • through the very simple tools like these stone tools here --

    像這裡這些石器工具

  • even something as small as this --

    即使是這麼小的一個

  • the early bands of humans were actually able

    就可以讓原始人類有能力可以

  • to eliminate to extinction

    在進化上超越並消滅

  • about 250 megafauna animals

    一萬年前在北美洲的

  • in North America when they first arrived 10,000 years ago.

    大約250種的巨型動物群。

  • So, long before the industrial age

    所以遠早於工業時代

  • we've been affecting the planet on a global scale,

    我們已經對這個星球有了全面性的影響

  • with just a small amount of technology.

    那只是用了一點小科技。

  • The other thing that the early man invented was fire.

    另一個原始人的發明是 火。

  • And fire was used to clear out, and again,

    火最早是用來清除草地

  • affected the ecology of grass and whole continents,

    而這影響到草原生態與整個大陸

  • and was used in cooking.

    火並且用來烹煮食物

  • It enabled us to actually eat all kinds of things.

    有了火我們可以無所不吃

  • It was sort of, in a certain sense, in a McLuhan sense,

    這就好像 麥克魯漢 所謂的

  • an external stomach,

    “體外的胃”

  • in the sense that it was cooking food that we could not eat otherwise.

    意思是沒煮過的我們也消化不了

  • And if we don't have fire, we actually could not live.

    如果沒有火的話我們很難活下去

  • Our bodies have adapted to these new diets.

    我們的身體早已調適到這些新的飲食

  • Our bodies have changed in the last 10,000 years.

    過去一萬年以來我們的身體已經改變。

  • So, with that little bit of technology,

    看, 這小小的一點科技

  • humans went from a small band of 10,000 or so --

    讓人類從約一萬人左右的一小群

  • the same number as Neanderthals everywhere --

    約略是各地的原始人總數

  • and we suddenly exploded. With the invention of language

    然後隨著語言的發明

  • around 50,000 years ago,

    大約五萬年以前

  • the number of humans exploded,

    人口突然暴增

  • and very quickly became the dominant species on the planet.

    很快的人類成為稱霸地球的生物

  • And they migrated into the rest of the world at two kilometers per year

    其擴展版圖的速度是每年兩公里

  • until, within several tens of thousands of years,

    直到最近幾萬年

  • we occupied every single watershed on the planet

    人已經漫佈到全球各地

  • and became the most dominant species,

    成為獨霸的生物種類

  • with a very small amount of technology.

    這都是拜小小的科技所賜

  • And even at that time, with the introduction of agriculture,

    甚至在八千到一萬年前

  • 8,000, 10,000 years ago

    農業才剛發明的時候

  • we started to see climate change.

    氣候變遷開始出現了。

  • So, climate change is not a new thing.

    氣候變遷並不是新東西

  • What's new is just the degree of it. Even during

    不一樣的只是程度上的差別。

  • the agricultural age there was climate change.

    在農業時期就有氣候變遷了。

  • And so, already small amounts of technology

    同樣極少量的科技

  • were transforming the world.

    也轉化了整個世界。

  • And what this means, and where I'm going, is that

    我想要表達的重點是

  • technology has become the most powerful force in the world.

    科技己經變成世界上最強大的力量。

  • All the things that we see today

    我們今天看到的所有東西

  • that are changing our lives, we can always trace back

    只要能改變我們生活方式的

  • to the introduction of some new technology.

    都可以回溯到某些科技的發明。

  • So, it's a force that is the most powerful force

    這就是力量 一種從這個地球上

  • that has been unleashed on this planet,

    曾爆發的最強大力量。

  • and in such a degree that I think

    我認為在某種程度上

  • that it's become our -- who we are.

    這是因為我們的本質 "人性"

  • In fact, our humanity, and everything that we think about ourselves

    包括我們認為有關自己的一切

  • is something that we've invented.

    實際上是我們發明的。

  • So, we've invented ourselves. Of all the animals that we have domesticated,

    我們創造了我們自己! 所有我們餋養

  • the most important animal that we've domesticated

    的動物裡最重要的

  • has been us. Okay?

    就是我們 對吧?

  • So, humanity is our greatest invention.

    因此人性是我們最偉大的發明

  • But of course we're not done yet.

    當然這件事還沒完呢

  • We're still inventing, and this is what technology is allowing us to do --

    科技讓我們還持續的發明著

  • it's continually to reinvent ourselves.

    這是不斷的重新創造我們自己

  • It's a very, very strong force.

    是一股巨大無比的力量。

  • I call this entire thing -- us humans as our technology,

    我把這一整個事情 包括人與科技

  • everything that we've made, gadgets in our lives --

    所有我們創造的 生活中的小東西

  • we call that the technium. That's this world.

    統稱為科技育成 (Technium),也就是這世界。

  • My working definition of technology

    我對科技的新定義是

  • is "anything useful that a human mind makes."

    任何人類所製造出的有用東西

  • It's not just hammers and gadgets, like laptops.

    不只是鐵鎚、筆電或酷炫的3C產品

  • But it's also law. And of course cities are ways to make

    還包括法律。 當然 "城市" 也讓

  • things more useful to us.

    很多東西變得有用。

  • While this is something that comes from our mind,

    這些從我們的心念而來的

  • it also has its roots deeply

    其根源卻同樣來自

  • into the cosmos.

    宇宙。

  • It goes back. The origins and roots of technology

    回到科技的最初起源

  • go back to the Big Bang,

    再回到大爆炸

  • in this way, in that they are part of this

    從這一路看 這些心念

  • self-organizing thread

    是自我形成的次序

  • that starts at the Big Bang

    然後從大爆炸開始

  • and goes through galaxies and stars,

    經過不同的星系與無數的星星

  • into life, into us.

    來到我們的生命中。

  • And the three major phases of the early universe

    在宇宙形成早期的三個主要階段

  • was energy, when the dominant force was energy;

    一開始是能量 主導力量是 "能量"。

  • then it became, the dominant force, as it cooled, became matter;

    然後冷卻以後 主導力量變成 "物質"

  • and then, with the invention of life, four billion years ago,

    再來 生命起源 在40億年前

  • the dominant force in our neighborhood became information.

    我們週遭的主導力量變成 "資訊"。

  • That's what life is: It's an information process

    這就是生命。 它是資訊重組與

  • that was restructuring and making new order.

    建立新秩序的過程。

  • So, those energy, matter Einstein show

    所以在愛因斯坦發現 質M 與 能E

  • were equivalent, and now new sciences

    是相同的 而現在新的

  • of quantum computing show that entropy

    量子計算機裡的不可控制能量(熵)

  • and information and matter and energy

    跟資訊 跟物質 跟能量

  • are all interrelated, so it's one long continuum.

    所以這一長串的 都是互相關聯的。

  • You put energy into the right kind of system

    你把能量放入一個系統

  • and out comes wasted heat, entropy

    會產出無法控制隨機的熱(熵 entrory)

  • and extropy, which is order.

    跟可以控制有用的部份(extropy)。

  • It's the increased order.

    可掌控部份是有增加的。

  • Where does this order come from? Its roots go way back.

    這部份是從何而來呢? 追根究底

  • We actually don't know.

    其實上我們不知道。

  • But we do know that the self-organization trend

    但是我們很早就從宇宙得知

  • throughout the universe is long,

    這自我組織的趨勢由來已久

  • and it began with things like galaxies;

    從像星系這樣的東西開始

  • they maintained their order for billions of years.

    它們維持自己的秩序有數十億年之久

  • Stars are basically nuclear fusion machines

    星球基本上就是原子能融合機器

  • that self-organize and self-sustain themselves for billions of years,

    它可以自我組織支撐到數十億年。

  • this order against the entropy of the world.

    這種秩序可以對抗無用的浪費。

  • And flowers and plants are the same thing, extended,

    而花草樹木也是同一件事的擴展

  • and technology is basically an extension of life.

    科技基本上也是生命的延伸。

  • One trend that we notice in all those things is that

    所以從這些東西上面我們發現一個趨勢:

  • the amount of energy per gram per second

    每一公克 每秒鐘能流過

  • that flows through this, is actually increasing.

    這裡的能量實際上是遞增的。

  • The amount of energy is increasing through this little sequence.

    通過這個小小通道的能量是一直增加的。

  • And that the amount of energy per gram per second that flows through life

    而流過我們生命的能量以每克每秒算來

  • is actually greater than a star --

    是比一顆星星還多的

  • because of the star's long lifespan,

    因為星星的壽命很長使得

  • the energy density in life is actually higher than a star.

    我們生命的能量密度高於星星。

  • And the energy density that we see in the greatest

    而我們所能見到能量密度最高的

  • of anywhere in the universe is actually in a PC chip.

    實際上是在個人電腦裡的晶片。

  • There is more energy flowing through, per gram per second,

    它有非常高的能量流過

  • than anything that we have any other experience with.

    超越一切我們所能見識到的。

  • What I would suggest is that if you want to see

    所以我建議你如果你想看到

  • where technology is going, we continue that trajectory,

    科技的未來何去何從

  • and we say "Well what's going to become more energy-dense,

    往更高的能量密度走這是很篤定的

  • that's where it's going." And so what I've done

    這是未來的趨勢。 我所做的是

  • is, I've taken the same kinds of things

    我把這些同類的東西

  • and looked at other aspects

    用不同的觀點去看

  • of evolutionary life and say,

    進化性生命的大致走向。

  • "What are the general trends in evolutionary life?"

    進化性生命的

  • And there are things moving towards

    大致趨勢是往

  • greater complexity, moving towards greater diversity,

    更複雜 更多元化

  • moving towards greater specialization,

    更專業化 具洞察力

  • sentience, ubiquity and most important, evolvability:

    無所不及 與最重要的 適者生存律。

  • Those very same things are also present in technology.

    這些生物上的特性也可以在科技中發現。

  • That's where technology is going.

    這也是科技的走向。

  • In fact, technology is accelerating

    事實上科技是在加速

  • all the aspects of life,

    生命中的各個面向。

  • and we can see that happening; just as there's diversity in life,

    這些例子比比皆是。 正如生命的多樣性

  • there's more diversity in things we make.

    我們製造出來的東西越來越多樣化了。

  • Things in life start out being general cell,

    生命是由通用細胞開始

  • and they become specialized: You have tissue cells,

    再形成特殊化的組織細胞

  • you have muscle, brain cells. And same things happens with

    然後有了肌肉跟腦細胞。 同樣的事也發生在科技。

  • say, a hammer, which is general at first

    鐵鎚一開始也是通用的

  • and becomes more specific.

    然後變得更精緻。

  • So, I would like to say that while there is six kingdoms of life,

    所以我想說在生物分類學的六界裡

  • we can think of technology basically

    我們可以加入科技

  • as a seventh kingdom of life.

    變成生命的第七界。

  • It's a branching off from the human form.

    是從人類分出來的一支

  • But technology has its own agenda,

    但是科技有它自己的要面對的問題

  • like anything, like life itself.

    就像其他的東西一樣。

  • For instance, right now, three-quarters of the energy that we use

    比如說現在我們有四分之三的能源是用在