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  • Today I wanted to -- well, this morning --

    今天早上

  • I want to talk about the future of human-driven transportation

    我想來談談人類交通工具的未來

  • about how we can cut congestion, pollution and parking

    以及我們如何透過共乘、減少車量

  • by getting more people into fewer cars

    來解決塞車、污染、和停車問題

  • and how we can do it with the technology that's in our pockets

    以及我們如何利用我們口袋裡的科技來辦到這件事

  • And yes, I'm talking about smartphones ...

    是的,我指的就是智慧型手機⋯⋯

  • not self-driving cars

    不是無人駕駛車

  • But to get started we've got to go back over 100 years.

    首先我們要先回溯到一百年前

  • Because it turns out there was an Uber way before Uber.

    因為早在 Uber 出現前就已經有 Uber 了

  • And if it had survived,

    而他當時若生存下去

  • the future of transportation would probably already be here.

    未來交通或許已經是現在進行式了

  • So let me introduce you to the jitney.

    讓我向各位介紹 jitney(過去小公共汽車)

  • In 1914 it was created or invented

    它源自於1914年

  • by a guy named LP Draper.

    ㄧ位名叫 LP Draper 的發明

  • He was a car salesman from LA, and he had an idea.

    一位來自洛杉磯的汽車業務靈機一動

  • Well, he was cruising around downtown Los Angeles, my hometown,

    他當時在洛杉磯,也就是我的家鄉,的市區徘徊

  • and he saw trolleys with long lines of people

    看到電車的乘客大排長龍

  • trying to get to where they wanted to go.

    等著要被載到目的地

  • He said, well, why don't I just put a sign on my car

    他想我何不在我的車上放個告示

  • that takes people wherever they want to go

    招攬乘客

  • for a jitney -- that was slang for a nickel.

    而且只要五塊錢,當時五塊錢的俗稱正是 jitney

  • And so people jumped on board,

    乘客就搭上我的車

  • and not just in Los Angeles but across the country.

    而且不僅限於洛杉磯而是整個國家

  • And within one year, by 1915,

    就在一年內,1915年

  • there were 50,000 rides per day in Seattle,

    西雅圖的乘載數是每日50,000

  • 45,000 rides per day in Kansas

    堪薩斯州的乘載數是每日45,000

  • and 150,000 rides per day in Los Angeles.

    而洛杉磯則是每日150,000

  • To give you some perspective,

    給大家一點概念

  • Uber in Los Angeles

    Uber 在洛杉磯

  • is doing 157,000 rides per day,

    的乘載數是每日157,000

  • today ... 100 years later

    這是今天的數字,也就是一百年後的今天

  • And so these are the trolley guys,

    他們就是電車男孩

  • the existing transportation monopoly at the time.

    電車當時壟斷交通市場

  • They were clearly not happy about the jitney juggernaut.

    因此對小公共汽車的崛起相當不滿

  • And so they got to work

    所以他們開始動作

  • and they went to cities across the country

    從一個城市到另一個城市

  • and got regulations put in place

    爭取交通條例

  • to slow down the growth of the jitney.

    阻礙小公共汽車的發展

  • And there were all kinds of regulations.

    所以就有各式各樣的規定條例

  • There were licenses -- often they were pricey.

    像是昂貴的駕照

  • In some cities, if you were a jitney driver,

    在一些城市中,如果你是小公共汽車的駕駛

  • you were required to be in the jitney for 16 hours a day.

    你會被規定要一天在車內16小時

  • In other cities, they required two jitney drivers for one jitney.

    也有其他城市會規定一台公共汽車中必須有兩位駕駛

  • But there was a really interesting regulation

    其中最有趣的條例是

  • which was they had to put a backseat light --

    必須在車內裝置後座燈

  • install it in every Jitney --

    每一輛小公共汽車都要

  • to stop a new pernicious innovation which they called spooning.

    來杜絕當時男女交歡的新風氣

  • All right. So what happened?

    沒錯。所以接下來呢?

  • Well, within a year this thing had taken off.

    一年之內這個玩意兒快速發展

  • But the jitney, by 1919,

    而小公共汽車的企劃,在1919年

  • was regulated completely out of existence.

    就被規定完全消失了

  • That's unfortunate ...

    真的很不幸

  • because, well, when you can't share a car,

    因為當你無法共享一台車時

  • then you have to own one.

    你就必須擁有一台車

  • And car ownership skyrocketed

    也因此車主的人數猛然上漲

  • and it's no wonder that by 2007,

    也不意外的在2007年

  • there was a car for every man, woman and child in the United States.

    所有的美國人不論男女老幼,都擁有一台車

  • And that phenomenon had gone global.

    而且這個現象蔓延到全球

  • In China by 2011,

    2011年的中國

  • there were more car sales happening in China than in the US.

    汽車業務的人口就高於美國

  • Now, all this private ownership of course had a public cost.

    現在,這些私人擁有權當然造成公共成本

  • In the US, we spend 7 billion hours a year,

    在美國,我們一年浪費七十億小時的時間

  • wasted, sitting in traffic.

    呆坐在車陣中

  • 160 billion dollars in lost productivity,

    同樣的,一千六百億美元的生產力

  • of course also sitting in traffic,

    就這樣被塞車消磨掉了

  • and one-fifth of all of our carbon footprint

    而五分之一的二氧化碳空氣污染

  • is spewed out in the air by those cars that we're sitting in.

    更是被塞車中的汽車排放到空氣之中

  • Now, that's only four percent of our problem though.

    現在,以上只是問題的4%

  • Because if you have to own a car

    因為如果你擁有一台車

  • then that means 96 percent of the time your car is sitting idle.

    代表你的車有96%的時間都是閒置的

  • And so, up to 30 percent of our land and our space

    卻要用上我們土地的30%的平面空間

  • is used storing these hunks of steel.

    來想辦法擱置這一大塊鋼鐵

  • We even have skyscrapers built for cars.

    我們甚至蓋了高樓停車場

  • That's the world we live in today.

    這就是我們的現實世界

  • Now, cities have been dealing with this problem for decades.

    很多城市也被「大眾運輸」的問題困擾多年

  • It's called mass transit.

    很多城市也被「大眾運輸」的問題困擾多年

  • And even in a city like New York City,

    甚至是像紐約市

  • one of the most densely populated in the world

    全球人口最密集的城市之一

  • and one of the most sophisticated tremendous mass transit systems in the world,

    以及全球大眾運輸系統最完善的城市之一

  • there are still 2.5 million cars

    都還有兩百五十萬輛車

  • that go over those bridges every day.

    每天都在通勤

  • Why is that?

    這是為什麼呢?

  • Well, it's because mass transit

    因為大眾運輸

  • hasn't yet figured out how to get to everybody's doorstep.

    無法挨家挨戶的載客

  • And so back in San Francisco, where I live,

    在舊金山,也就是我的居住地

  • the situation's much worse, in fact,

    這個情況更糟,事實上

  • much worse around the world.

    舊金山的情況太糟了

  • And so the beginning of Uber in 2010 was --

    2010年 Uber 剛起步時,

  • well, we just wanted to push a button and get a ride.

    當時的構想純粹是:讓乘車只有一鍵之遙

  • We didn't have any grand ambitions.

    並非什麼雄心壯志

  • But it just turned out that lots of people

    但卻發現很多人

  • wanted to push a button and get a ride,

    都想要按一個按鈕後就可以乘車

  • and ultimately what we started to see

    也讓我們開始發現

  • was a lot of duplicate rides.

    有很多重複的路線

  • We saw a lot of people pushing the same button

    我們看到很多人同時按下按鈕

  • at the same time going essentially to the same place.

    並且有相同的目的地

  • And so we started thinking about, well,

    所以我們開始思考,

  • how do we make those two trips and turn them into one.

    該如何讓兩趟相同的路線合而為一

  • Because if we did,

    因為如果我們辦得到

  • that ride would be a lot cheaper

    那乘車將會更便宜

  • up to 50 percent cheaper

    等於是半價

  • and of course for the city you've got

    而且當然爾,你的城市

  • a lot more people and a lot fewer cars.

    會有更多的人但更少的車子

  • And so the big question for us was: would it work?

    所以關鍵的問題是:這樣行得通嗎?

  • Could you have a cheaper ride

    乘車是否可以更便宜?

  • cheap enough that people would be willing to share it?

    便宜到足以讓人願意與他人共乘?

  • And the answer, fortunately, is a resounding yes.

    幸運地,這個答案是肯定的。

  • In San Francisco, before uberPOOL, we had

    在舊金山,uberPOOL之前,

  • -- well, everybody would take their car wherever the heck they wanted.

    大家愛把車開到哪就開到哪

  • And the bright colors is where we have the most cars.

    顏色越鮮豔車子越多

  • And once we introduced uberPOOL,

    但當我們推出 uberPOOL 後,

  • well, you see there's not as many bright colors.

    我們可以看到顏色鮮豔的部分減少了

  • More people getting around the city in fewer cars,

    表示大家同樣在城市中移動但更少車流量了

  • taking cars off the road.

    車流量減少

  • It looks like uberPOOL is working.

    代表 uberPOOL 是成功的

  • And so we rolled it out in Los Angeles eight months ago.

    因此,八個月後我們在洛杉磯推出該專案

  • And since then, we've taken 7.9 million miles off the roads

    自此,我們省下七百九十萬哩路

  • and we've taken 1.4 thousand metric tons of CO2 out of the air.

    並且減少空氣中1400公噸的二氧化碳污染

  • But the part that I'm really --

    但我最喜歡的部份是

  • But my favorite statistic

    數據

  • remember, I'm from LA,

    記得,我來自洛杉磯

  • I spent years of my life

    我花了好多年

  • sitting behind the wheel,

    坐在車上思考

  • going, "How do we fix this?"

    「我們該如何解決這個問題呢?」

  • my favorite part is that eight months later,

    我最開心的是在八個月後,

  • we have added 100,000 new people that are carpooling every week.

    我們帶動100,000位新人加入

  • Now, in China everything is supersized,

    現在,在中國所有的事情都是大量的

  • and so we're doing 15 million uberPOOL trips per month,

    我們 uberPOOL 在中國已經達到每月一千五百萬乘車數

  • that's 500,000 per day.

    也就是一天五十萬

  • And of course we're seeing that exponential growth happen.

    我們見證了這樣的成長

  • In fact, we're seeing it in LA, too.

    而洛杉磯的成長抑是有目共睹

  • And when I talk to my team,

    但我和我的團隊

  • we don't talk about,

    我們不會說

  • "Hey, well, 100,000 people carpooling every week...

    「嘿,現在每週有100,000參與 uberPOOL⋯⋯

  • and we're done."

    我們完成目標了。」

  • How do we get that to a million?

    而是說「我們接下來要如何達到一百萬?」

  • And in China,

    以中國來說

  • well, that could be several million.

    這數字甚至會成長為好幾百萬

  • And so uberPOOL

    所以 uberPOOL

  • is a very great solution for urban carpooling.

    對城市共乘來說是個很好的解決方法。

  • But what about the suburbs?

    那郊區呢?

  • This is the street where I grew up in Los Angeles,

    這是我在洛杉磯長大的巷弄

  • it's actually a suburb called Northridge, California,

    這裡是郊區,是加州的北嶺

  • and, well -- look, those mailboxes,

    看看這排信箱

  • they kind of just go on forever.

    他們看起來永無止盡

  • And every morning at about the same time,

    每天早上固定的時間

  • cars roll of out their driveway,

    車子會從車庫中駛出

  • most of them, one person in the car,

    幾乎都是一人開一台車

  • and they go to work,

    大家趕著上班

  • they go to their place of work.

    開著車要去公司

  • So the question for us is:

    我們要思考的問題是:

  • well, how do we turn all of these commuter cars --

    我們要如何讓這些通勤的車

  • and literally there's tens of millions of them --

    —我這裡指的車子是成千上百萬台車 —

  • how do we turn all these commuter cars into shared cars?

    我們要如何把通勤的車變成共乘的車?

  • Well, we have something for this that

    是的,為此

  • we recently launched called uberCOMMUTE.

    我們最近推出了 uberCOMMUTE

  • You get up in the morning,

    你早上起床

  • get ready for work,

    準備上班

  • get your coffee,

    泡了杯咖啡

  • go to your car and you light up the Uber app,

    準備開車出門時點開 Uber 的應用程式

  • and all of a sudden,

    就這樣

  • you become an Uber driver.

    你就成為了 Uber 司機

  • And we'll match you up with one of your neighbors on your way to work

    而我們會替你配一位鄰居乘客一起上班

  • and it's a really great thing

    這是一件很美好的事情

  • There's just one hitch ... it's called regulation.

    但現在被法規侷限了

  • So 54 cents a mile, what is that?

    一英里54塊錢,這是什麼?

  • Well, that is what the US government

    這是美國政府

  • has determined that the cost of owning a car is per mile.

    制定一輛車開駛一英里的成本價

  • You can pick up anybody in the United States

    你可以在美國載任何人

  • and take them wherever they want to go at a moment's notice,

    到任何他們想去的地方

  • for 54 cents a mile or less.

    並收取一英里少於$54塊的費用

  • But if you charge 60 cents a mile,

    但是如果你一英里收60塊

  • you're a criminal.

    你就犯法了

  • But what if for 60 cents a mile

    但要是一英里收60塊錢

  • we could get half a million more people carpooling in Los Angeles?

    可以讓洛杉磯多五十萬人共乘

  • And what if at 60 cents a mile

    然後要是一英里收60塊錢

  • we could get 50 million people carpooling in the United States?

    可以讓美國多5千萬共乘

  • If we could, it's obviously something we should do.

    如果這是可行的,那我們當然勢在必行

  • And so it goes back to the lesson of the jitney.

    這帶我們回到過去小公共汽車的教訓

  • If by 1915 this thing was taking off,

    如果1915年這玩意兒順利發展

  • imagine without the regulations that happened,

    設想當時法規沒有局限它的發展

  • if that thing could just keep going.

    要是這個交通工具繼續發展

  • How would our cities be different today?

    我們今天的城市會有何不同?

  • Would we have parks in the place of parking lots?

    公園是否將會取代停車場?

  • Well, we lost that chance.

    雖然我們已失去一次機會

  • But technology has given us another opportunity.

    但科技再度給我們另一個機會

  • Now, I'm as excited as anybody else

    我跟所有人一樣引頸期盼

  • about self-driving cars

    無人駕駛車

  • but do we have to really wait

    但我們真的要再空等

  • five, 10 or even 20 years to make our new cities a reality?

    五年十年甚至是二十年來讓更好的城市成真嗎?

  • With the technology in our pockets today,

    今天,只要靠我們口袋裡的科技

  • and a little smart regulation,

    以及一點智慧規範

  • we can turn every car into a shared car,

    我們就能把所有的車變成共乘車

  • and we can reclaim our cities starting today.

    我們今天就能開始改變城市

  • Thank you.

    謝謝大家

  • Travis, thank you.

    崔維斯,謝謝你

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

  • You know --

    你知道嗎

  • I mean the company you've built

    你的企業

  • is absolutely astounding.

    真是太不可思議了

  • You only just talked about a small part of it here

    當然你今天只分享了 Uber 的一小部分

  • a powerful part

    很強大的一部分

  • the idea of turning cars into public transport like that,

    像是將汽車變成大眾交通工具的想法

  • it's cool.

    太酷了

  • But I've got a couple of questions

    但我有一些問題想請教

  • because I know they're out there on people's minds.

    因為我知道大家心中都很好奇

  • So first of all, last week I think it was,

    首先,上個禮拜

  • I switched on my phone and tried to book an Uber

    我用手機想使用 Uber 乘車時

  • and I couldn't find the app.

    竟然找不到應用程式

  • You had this very radical, very bold, brave redesign.

    因為你們有這前衛且大膽的重新設計

  • Sure.

    是的

  • How did it go?

    這評價如何呢?

  • Did you notice other people not finding the app that day?

    你有發現當天有其他人也找不到應用程式嗎?

  • Are you going to win people over for this redesign?

    你是否會以這新的設計擄獲眾人?

  • Well, first I should probably just say,

    首先我想先談談

  • well, what we were trying to accomplish.

    我們心目中的目標

  • And I think if you know a little bit about our history,

    如果你了解我們的成立背景

  • it makes a lot more sense.

    就比較好理解

  • Which is, when we first got started,

    那就是,我們剛起步的時候

  • it was just black cars.

    只有黑色轎車

  • It was literally you push a button and get an S-Class.

    就是只要按下按鍵就有豪華轎車接送

  • And so what we did was almost what I would call

    所以我們當時在做的比較像是

  • an immature version of a luxury brand

    尚未成熟版本的奢侈品牌

  • that looked like a badge on a luxury car.

    Uber 當時像是豪華轎車的徽章

  • And as we've gone worldwide

    向全球發展後

  • and gone from S-Classes to auto rickshaws in India,

    我們在印度一手包辦從豪華轎車至成人力車

  • it became something that was important for us to go

    我們開始更重視

  • to be more accessible,

    如何更容易取得

  • to be more hyperlocal,

    如何更加本地化

  • to be about the cities we were in

    如何和所處的城市連結

  • and that's what you see with the patterns and colors.

    這就是現在圖案和顏色的設計緣由

  • And to be more iconic,

    我們也想要更具指標性

  • because a U doesn't mean anything in Sanskrit,

    因為 U 在梵文不具任何意義

  • and a U doesn't mean anything in Mandarin.

    U 在中文也不具任何意義

  • And so that was a little bit what it was about.

    這是大致上的概念

  • Now, when you first roll out something like that,

    初試啼聲時

  • I mean, your hands are sweating, you've got --

    我們手冒冷汗

  • you know, you're a little worried.

    因為我們很擔心

  • What we saw is a lot of people --

    我們看到很多人

  • actually, at the beginning,

    實際上,一開始

  • we saw a lot more people opening the app

    我們看到很多人打開應用程式

  • because they were curious what they would find

    因為他們對此感到好奇

  • when they opened it.

    當他們打開後,

  • And our numbers were

    數據結果

  • slightly up from what we expected.

    出乎意料之外

  • OK, that's cool.

    好的,我懂了

  • Now, so you, yourself,

    恩,你現在是

  • are something of an enigma, I would say.

    一種傳奇

  • Your supporters and investors,

    你的支持者和投資者

  • who have been with you the whole way,

    一路跟隨著你