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  • In the early 1980s, roughly fifty different companies owned 90% of American media. By 1992, that number had dropped to less than two dozen, and in recent years, that same 90% has fallen to just six major conglomerates.

    1980 年初,大約五十間公司佔據美國九成的媒體,到了 1992 年,只剩下少於十二家的公司掌握這些媒體資源,到了近幾年,掌握百分之九十媒體資源的企業更只剩下六家。

  • Although various mergers and layers of external control make this an inexact number, most of the "Big Six" hold interests in film production, cable and broadcast television, news, sports, music, and online streaming.

    雖然基於各種整併與外部組織的控制,六大巨頭的說法可能不是完全準確,但六巨頭掌握了電影製作、有線與廣播電視、新聞、運動、音樂和線上串流媒體的股權。

  • So, who exactly controls the media?

    所以,我們的媒體實際上是誰把持著呢?

  • As of 2015, the largest media company in the world by revenue is Comcast.

    截至 2015 年止,就營業收入而言,世界最大的媒體公司是康卡斯特。

  • According to the SEC, in 2014, they reportedly made nearly $69 billion dollars. Like the other conglomerates, Comcast owns nearly every step in media production and distribution.

    根據美國證券交易委員會,康卡斯特在 2014 年賺了將近 690 億美金,如同其他媒體巨頭,康卡斯特的股權包括了幾乎所有媒體層級的製作與傳播。

  • In fact, Comcast is the single largest cable provider on earth. Content is created through subsidiaries like NBCUniversal, which is then broadcast over TV and the Internet through Xfinity.

    事實上,康卡斯特是世界最大的有線電視服務供應商,同時也透過如 NBC 環球等子公司產製節目內容,並藉由Xfinity 的電視和網路串流服務來播送。

  • Comcast is also a major internet service provider, covering more than half of all US broadband customers. Even online streaming giant, Hulu, is jointly owned by three of the Big Six.

    康卡斯特同時也是主要的互聯網服務提供商,擁有一半以上的美國寬頻客戶,就連網路串聯媒體巨人 Hulu 也由六大媒體巨頭其中三大共同擁有。

  • The next largest conglomerate is The Walt Disney Company, with reportedly roughly $48 billion dollars in revenue.

    第二大媒體巨頭則是 2014 年賺進 480 億美金的華特迪士尼公司。

  • Disney has holdings in theme parks, movie studios, and diverse television networks, such as ABC, A&E and ESPN.

    迪士尼擁有主題公園、電影製片廠和許多電視聯播網,例如 ABC、 A&E 和 ESPN。

  • They also own a number of legacy companies like Pixar, Marvel Entertainment, and Lucasfilms of the Star Wars franchise.

    他們也擁有許多有豐功偉業的公司,例如皮克斯動畫工作室、漫威娛樂和星際大戰系列電影的盧卡斯影業。

  • The third of the "Big Six" is 21st Century Fox, which emerged in 2013 as a spin off of Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation.

    第三大媒體巨頭則是二十一世紀福斯,此公司於 2013 年從 Rupert Murdoch 的新聞集團獨立出來。

  • Today, Fox makes about $32 billion dollars a year, and is predominantly focused on film and television, including Fox News Channel, which made nearly 800 million dollars in ad revenue in 2014.

    如今,二十一世紀福斯每年賺進 320 億美金,其主要致力於電影和電視產業,包括在 2014 年賺了近八億美金廣告收入的福斯新聞頻道。

  • The last independent conglomerate is Time Warner, with revenues of about $27 billion dollars.

    最後一大獨立集團則是年收入 270 億的時代華納有線電視。

  • In the 1990s they were the largest media company in the world, but an unsuccessful merger with AOL at the peak of the dot-com bubble made them lose nearly $100 billion dollars in 2002.

    在 1990 年代,它們曾是世界上最大的媒體公司,但 2002 年時,因在互聯網泡沫化的高峰期與美國在線整併失敗損失了近千億美金。

  • Since then, AOL and Time Inc, as well as Time Warner’s entire cable division have become separate companies. Because they are now unrelated, Time Warner and Time Warner Cable are the fourth and fifth largest media companies in the world, according to Forbes.

    在那之後,美國在線、時代公司和時代華納的有線電視部門成為三個個別的公司,又因為如今它們已經不再有整併關係,所以根據富比士表示,時代華納和時代華納有線電視,依序為第四與第五大媒體巨頭。

  • Finally, the last two are CBS and Viacom. In 2013 they reported about $14 to $15 billion dollars in revenue each.

    最後兩大巨頭為 CBS 電視網和維亞康姆,兩者分別於 2013 年賺進 140 億與 150 億美金。

  • They used to be a single company controlled by National Amusements, a movie theater chain. Today, although they are individually held, National Amusementsowners have enough stock in both to effectively dictate control.

    它們曾是受控於全美娛樂公司連鎖影院的兩間獨立公司,如今他們的股權各自被全美娛樂公司掌握,而全美娛樂的擁有者擁有兩者足夠的股票而對其有效力的控制權。

  • So, in a way, there aren’t even six conglomerates, but five! Or maybe there are seven?

    所以某種程度上來說,它們並不算第六大媒體巨頭,而是第五大,或第七大?

  • Some, including former Time Warner’s former vice chairman Ted Turner, have said media conglomerates have become oligopolies, and that they stifle innovation.

    有些人,包括時代華納的前副董事長 Ted Turner 表示,媒體巨頭已經形成寡頭壟斷,進而扼殺創意。

  • But others point out that they also can provide a greater global reach for smaller and newer companies.

    但其他人則指出,媒體巨頭可提供小公司或新創公司更大的全球影響力。

  • In fact, I work for one of those newer companies, Fusion, which is partially owned by ABC-Disney.

    事實上,我就任職於其中一個,就是迪士尼 ABC 電視集團旗下的新創公司 Fusion。

  • Check out my mini-documentary about independent citizen journalists in Brazil challenging Rio’s police brutality.

    不妨看看一部我有關巴西獨立公民記者挑戰里約員警暴力的微紀錄片。

  • This complex of favelas was once firmly in the hands of the Red Command, a notorious and narco-trafficking gang, but police have established an occupation force here, part of the government's controversial urban pacification initiative.

    這個複雜的貧民窟曾經牢牢掌握在臭名昭著的販毒集團紅色司令部手中,但警方在這裡建立了一支佔領部隊,這是政府具有爭議的城市和平倡議的一部分。

  • Don’t forget to like and subscribe to TestTube News, and make sure to check out my channel Timcast. Thanks for watching and see ya next time!

    別忘了按讚並訂閱 TestTube News,並看看我的頻道 Timcast,感謝大家收看,下次再見!

In the early 1980s, roughly fifty different companies owned 90% of American media. By 1992, that number had dropped to less than two dozen, and in recent years, that same 90% has fallen to just six major conglomerates.

1980 年初,大約五十間公司佔據美國九成的媒體,到了 1992 年,只剩下少於十二家的公司掌握這些媒體資源,到了近幾年,掌握百分之九十媒體資源的企業更只剩下六家。

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誰把持了媒體? (Who Owns The Media?)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2021 年 09 月 29 日
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