中級 美國腔 17195 分類 收藏
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LIGO stands for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory.
LIGO is really two observatories that work in unison, in tandem.
The LIGO interferometer has arms that
are about 2 and 1/2 miles long, 4 kilometers.
We have a laser.
The laser produces the purest light you can possibly make.
It produces light that's so coherent
that it's capable of detecting gravitational waves.
We have these very massive mirrors.
They weigh 40 kilograms, which is about 88 pounds.
They're about this thick.
And they're just the purest material you can imagine.
The NSF, of course, had to be the source
of funding for anything that would be as expensive as this.
This was going to be a very high-risk experiment.
It was from its very inception.
If you think about this in the '70s and '80s,
I'm amazed at how bold it was to do this, and visionary.
It was bold and visionary.
There's no other way to describe it.
NSF management, the National Science Board,
they had to really step up to that.
And they had a lot of discussions,
brought in a lot of experts.
There was great debate going on.
But in the end, the people who thought it could be done
won the day.
And they went after it.
Gravitational waves carry the record of cataclysmic events in the universe,
like the Big Bang.
Gravitational waves were predicted by Einstein
about 100 years ago.
And they are dynamical perturbations
in the fabric of spacetime, ripples in spacetime,
if you will.
A ripple in the fabric of space and time the same way
as a ripple on a pond is a ripple
in the shape of the surface of the water.
Nobody really believed that you could ever detect them,
because the size of the effect is so small...
1,000th the diameter of a proton.
Even Einstein himself never thought
a detection would be possible.
I tried to do this back in the 1960s when I was a student.
We couldn't make any progress.
We didn't have the technology.
In 1968, Rainer Weiss of MIT conceived of a device that could detect gravitational waves
The idea was extremely simple.
And it turns out to be the the basis of LIGO.
What the gravitational wave does is it stretches space this way
and compresses space that way.
So you exploit that property.
Put one object here and another object over there.
And let the gravitational wave go through that system.
And it will change the space between these
by contracting that one and extending that one.
And I came to the conclusion that if you
made this long enough, if you didn't make
it a little pipsqueak thing like this, but you made it
sort of kilometer-scale, you could probably
get these extremely precise measurements.
1994, Construction begins
Nobody had ever made something like this before.
So there's a lot of technological challenges
that needed to be overcome.
The precision that was required was just amazing,
mind boggling.
The MIT Group has typically concentrated
on developing new techniques to make the instruments work
and then to work on, also, data analysis algorithms
that are well-informed by the understanding
of the instrument.
September 14, 2015
The first direct detection of gravitational waves in human history
We have observed gravitational waves
from two black holes forming a larger black hole.
Two black holes merging together, literally,
nearly the speed of light to produce a bigger black hole.
How cool is that?
I said, holy mackerel.
This is the beginning of a whole new way
of studying the universe.
It's monumental.
It's like Galileo using the telescope for the first time.
Every time we have pointed a new instrument into the sky,
nature has revealed secrets to us
that we haven't known before.
And so I feel very confident that this is just
the beginning of such an era for gravitational wave
observations, as well.
Who knows what we'll see?
I would love to see Einstein's face
if he could read this article that we just put out.
I mean, he would have been as dumbfounded as we are.
Because it's a wonderful proof that all
of this incredible stuff, the strong-field gravity,
is in his equations.
Just imagine that.
To me, that's a miracle that that happened... man's thinking
and also all the elegance not only in the theory,
but the elegance in the experiment.
I mean, that is a human endeavor that, I think,
everybody in the world should be proud of.
I had to tell you that.
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「重」大科學突破! LIGO發現重力波 (LIGO Detects Gravitational Waves)

17195 分類 收藏
Vanessa Hsieh 發佈於 2016 年 3 月 7 日    Vanessa Hsieh 翻譯    Kristi Yang 審核

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這是科學史上極為光榮的一刻:美國天文觀測團隊 LIGO 發現了距離地球13億光年外,兩個黑洞相撞所產生的時空漣漪,首次直接觀測到重力波,證實愛因斯坦百年前的預言!究竟什麼是重力波?這劃時代的創舉又是怎麼開始的呢?就讓我們來聽 LIGO 團隊成員分享他們精彩的心路歷程吧!

1step up to something 1:11
step 若當動詞,是踏的意思,而 step up 就是往前踏一步,意味著「挺身而出」。通常用來表示某人對某件事情的支持或積極行動,或是某人出馬扛起責任,尤其是在情況危急的時候。片語後面常加上 to ,來表示某人支持的事物。
When everyone was against this absurd plan, Vincent stepped up to it and eventually made it work.
在所有人都反對這荒謬的計畫時,文森挺身而出,最後將計畫付諸實現。


step up 也有單純字面上的意思,也就是「前往某處」、「走向某處」,後面接 to,表示某人前往的地方。
Sam stepped up to the counter and paid for the beer.
山姆走到櫃台付啤酒錢。


Step Up 同時也是風靡全球的街舞電影系列,現在已經拍到第五集囉!
A: Hey, have you watched the latest Step Up movie?
B: Twice already.
A:嘿!最新一集的舞力全開,你看了沒?
B:早就看兩遍了。


*同場加映:
【TED】哪裡適合培養世界醫生? (Gail Reed: Where to train the world's doctors?


2go after something1:23
看到喜歡的人想追? 想要不顧一切追尋自己的夢想? go after 就是形容這種大膽、奮不顧身的「追求」情懷。英文常說的 Go after what you want! 就是指勇敢追尋理想的意思。
I never really try to go after girls. I just sit around and wait for them to come into my life.
我很少試著去追女生。我通常只是枯坐在那等待她們走進我的人生。


*補充
跟「追求」同義的字詞
pursue something
chase after something
in the pursuit of something
( pursue 變名詞 pursuit 後,前面會加上介系詞 in ,後面則會加上 of ,表示追求的事物)
The champion thanked her friends and family for supporting her when she was in pursuit of her dream.
這位冠軍得主感謝親朋好友在她追尋夢想時給予的支持。


*同場加映:
為什麼女生該勇敢追愛 (Why Girls Should Ask Guys Out)


3the basis of 2:28
這句片語的意思是,「某事物的基礎」、「某事物的基石」或是「某事物的根據」。
They do business on the basis of mutual trust and equality.
他們在相互信任、平等的基礎上作交易。


*補充
跟「某事物的基礎」有關的字詞
the base of something「某事物的基礎」
be based on something「基於某事物」
on the grounds of something「基於某事物」
the backbone of something 在這邊 backbone 有「支柱」的意思,所以整句片語可翻成 「某事物的支柱」或者是「某事物的主力」
Suzanne is the economic backbone of the house becuase she is the only person who has a job.
蘇珊是家中的經濟支柱,因為她是唯一有在工作的人。


4monumental 4:02
monument 本身作為名詞的意思是紀念碑,這裡變成形容詞 monumental ,表示某件事物「具有紀念價值」、「意義重大」或是單作「巨大」的意思。
The researcher won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his monumental discovery.
這位研究員重大的發現讓他獲得了諾貝爾物理學獎。


*補充
跟「意義重大」類似的字詞
memorable 值得紀念的、難忘的
significant 重要的、顯著的
grand 宏大的、盛大的
historic 具歷史性的
The wedding taking place at 30,000 feet will always remain a memorable experience for the couple.
對這對情侶來說,這場在三萬英呎高空上舉行的婚禮將永生難忘。


*同場加映:
藝術之都 維也納 (Vienna City Video Guide | Expedia)


5dumbfounded 4:32
想要形容那種「目瞪口呆」的吃驚感,想說某件事情實在是誇張的令人「傻眼」?dumbfounded 就是你要找的詞。dumb 本身就是傻的意思,自然很好聯想到「嚇傻」了的意思!下次除了講 stunndedwow 之外,可以試著講講更傳神的 dumbfounded 喔!

*補充
flabbergasted 目瞪口呆、瞠目結舌
speechless 無話可說、驚訝地語無倫次
astounded 驚訝
astonished 驚訝
amazed 驚訝
The magician's tricks make the kids flabbergasted.
魔術師的把戲令孩子們瞠目結舌。


*同場加映:
真的真的!三分鐘就可以搞懂重力波! (Gravitational Waves Explained)


正如講者所說的 "Every time we have pointed a new instrument into the sky, nature has revealed secrets to us that we haven't known before." 每一次我們對浩瀚宇宙有了新的觀照,我們就會發現宇宙中不為人知的奧秘。若想瞭解更多資訊,可上 LIGO 官網
(https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/page/what-are-gw) 深度探索重力波的奧秘喔!

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