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  • Most of the time, art and science stare at each other

    大部分的時間,

  • across a gulf of mutual incomprehension.

    藝術和科學格格不入.

  • There is great confusion when the two look at each other.

    如果硬要相提並論那麼就會造成很多疑惑.

  • Art, of course, looks at the world through the psyche,

    藝術當然著眼於內在心靈,情感的世界

  • the emotions -- the unconscious at times -- and of course the aesthetic.

    有時甚至是潛在意識的--還有當然是審美觀念。

  • Science tends to look at the world through the rational, the quantitative --

    科學的世界趨向理性,量化--

  • things that can be measured and described --

    東西可以衡量和描述--

  • but it gives art a terrific context of understanding.

    但也因此它給了藝術的一個很好的環境被理解和明白

  • In the Extreme Ice Survey,

    在我們極度冰川調查中,

  • we're dedicated to bringing those two parts of human understanding together,

    我們致力於將人類認識的藝術和科學

  • to merging the art and science

    融合一起,

  • to the end of helping us understand nature

    最終幫助我們更加了解

  • and humanity's relationship with nature better.

    自然和人類的關係.

  • Specifically, I as a person

    更具體來說,

  • who's been a professional nature photographer my whole adult life,

    成長後我的專業一直是自然風景攝影師,

  • am firmly of the belief that photography, video, film

    我堅信攝影,錄像和電影

  • have tremendous powers for helping us understand

    有強大的力量來幫助我們理解,

  • and shape the way we think about nature

    雕塑我們對自然的思維方式

  • and about ourselves in relationship to nature.

    和我們跟自然的關係.

  • In this project, we're specifically interested, of course, in ice.

    在這個計劃中,我們特別感興趣的當然是冰。

  • I'm fascinated by the beauty of it, the mutability of it,

    我迷上了它的美麗,它的千變萬化性,

  • the malleability of it,

    它的延展性,

  • and the fabulous shapes in which it can carve itself.

    及它自己可以雕刻本身成各種神奇的形狀。

  • These first images are from Greenland.

    第一批的這些圖片是從格陵蘭照的。

  • But ice has another meaning.

    但冰有另外的含義。

  • Ice is the canary in the global coal mine.

    冰提供地球發生危機的先兆( 像礦坑中的金絲雀作用一樣)

  • It's the place where we can see and touch and hear and feel climate change in action.

    在冰川這地方,我們可以用五官去看,觸摸,聽到,和感覺到氣候變化的現象.

  • Climate change is a really abstract thing in most of the world.

    對世界上大多數人來說氣候變化是一個非常抽象的東西。

  • Whether or not you believe in it is based on your sense of

    不管你是否根據您自己感覺

  • is it raining more or is it raining less?

    有否下雨較多還是下雨變少了.

  • Is it getting hotter or is it getting colder?

    或是氣溫越來越熱或是越來越冷.

  • What do the computer models say about this, that and the other thing?

    或是根據電腦模式計算,還有其他計算方法

  • All of that, strip it away. In the world of the arctic and alpine environments,

    把這一切方法,都放一邊吧! 在北極和高地氣候的環境中,

  • where the ice is, it's real and it's present.

    冰是指標,[氣候變化]是真真的而且是在當下

  • The changes are happening. They're very visible.

    這些現時發生的變化。是非常明顯,

  • They're photographable. They're measurable.

    可用照相檔案來衡量的.

  • 95 percent of the glaciers in the world are retreating or shrinking.

    世界上百分之95的冰川正在縮退或變小.

  • That's outside Antarctica.

    這是南極洲之外圍(照片).

  • 95 percent of the glaciers in the world are retreating or shrinking,

    世界上百分之95的冰川正在退縮或變小,

  • and that's because the precipitation patterns and the temperature patterns are changing.

    因為降雨量和溫度模式改變.

  • There is no significant scientific dispute about that.

    對此科學上並沒有重大爭議,

  • It's been observed, it's measured, it's bomb-proof information.

    它是已被觀察到,已被測量出,這是鐵證如山的証明.

  • And the great irony and tragedy of our time

    對我們這個時代而言最諷刺和最可悲的是

  • is that a lot of the general public thinks that science is still arguing about that.

    很多人還在認為,科學家們仍在爭論(氣候不正常變化)這一點.

  • Science is not arguing about that.

    其實科學已完全接受這一點.

  • In these images we see ice from enormous glaciers,

    由這些圖像,我們看到

  • ice sheets that are hundreds of thousands of years old

    幾千萬年的冰塊從廣大的冰川上

  • breaking up into chunks, and chunk by chunk by chunk,

    分解成一塊,和一塊,一塊塊的,變成一座座冰山,

  • iceberg by iceberg, turning into global sea level rise.

    而這些冰山把全球海平面提高上升。

  • So, having seen all of this in the course of a 30-year career,

    雖經過30年的職業生涯的浸淫,

  • I was still a skeptic about climate change until about 10 years ago,

    直到大約10年前,我仍然對氣候變化持懷疑態度

  • because I thought the story of climate change was based on computer models.

    因為我覺得這個是根據電腦程式而計算的氣候變化模型.

  • I hadn't realized it was based on concrete measurements

    我沒有意識到它是根據確實的歷史氣候測量數據—

  • of what the paleoclimates -- the ancient climates -- were,

    就是paleo 氣候-—古代氣候 --

  • as recorded in the ice sheets, as recorded in deep ocean sediments,

    它們被記錄在冰床中,被記錄在深海沉積物中,

  • as recorded in lake sediments, tree rings,

    被記錄在湖泊沉積物中,樹木年輪

  • and a lot of other ways of measuring temperature.

    和很多測量溫度其他方式裡.

  • When I realized that climate change was real, and it was not based on computer models,

    當我意識到氣候變化是真實的,它不是基於電腦程式模型,

  • I decided that one day I would do a project

    我決定有一天我會

  • looking at trying to manifest climate change photographically.

    運用攝影來展現氣候變化.

  • And that led me to this project.

    然後我就組織這個計劃團隊.

  • Initially, I was working on a National Geographic assignment --

    最初,我的工作是一項有關國家地理雜誌的計劃,

  • conventional, single frame, still photography.

    很傳統的,單一的框架的攝影.

  • And one crazy day, I got the idea that I should --

    但有一天,我有一個瘋狂的主意.我應該—

  • after that assignment was finished --

    當這工作完成之後--

  • I got the idea that I should shoot in time-lapse photography,

    我應該拍攝自動定時照片.

  • that I should station a camera or two at a glacier

    我應該安裝一,兩台照相機對著冰川,

  • and let it shoot every 15 minutes, or every hour or whatever

    讓它每15分鐘,或者每隔一小時或不同間隔拍攝一次,

  • and watch the progression of the landscape over time.

    看冰川的風景隨著時間的推移而轉變的情形.

  • Well, within about three weeks,

    在大約三個星期內,

  • I incautiously turned that idea of a couple of time-lapse cameras

    我不知不覺把定時照相機從兩台

  • into 25 time-lapse cameras.

    增加成25台.

  • And the next six months of my life were the hardest time in my career,

    於是接下去的六個月,是我職業生涯中最困難的時候,

  • trying to design, build and deploy out in the field these 25 time-lapse cameras.

    我試圖設計,建造和部署了這25台定時照相機.

  • They are powered by the sun. Solar panels power them.

    它們都採用了太陽能充電,

  • Power goes into a battery. There is a custom made computer

    然後電源進入電池內儲存.用一種特製的電腦,

  • that tells the camera when to fire.

    來監控定時照相機的開闢.

  • And these cameras are positioned on rocks on the sides of the glaciers,

    這些照相機被安裝在冰川邊的岩石上

  • and they look in on the glacier from permanent, bedrock positions,

    然後從穩定的岩床位子

  • and they watch the evolution of the landscape.

    記錄觀察冰川不斷的演變.

  • We just had a number of cameras out on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    我們剛在格陵蘭冰床設放幾台照相機.

  • We actually drilled holes into the ice, way deep down below the thawing level,

    實際上,我們在冰床鑽孔,一直深入到不會被融化的那層冰為止,

  • and had some cameras out there for the past month and a half or so.

    然後把相機架好在那兒一個月或半月等等.

  • Actually, there's still a camera out there right now.

    現在我們仍有一台正在那兒拍照呢!

  • In any case, the cameras shoot roughly every hour.

    定時拍照的時間間隔是大約一小時,

  • Some of them shoot every half hour, every 15 minutes, every five minutes.

    有些半小時,15分鐘或5分鐘不等.

  • Here's a time lapse of one of the time-lapse units being made.

    這是定時拍攝的相片展示一台定時照相機的製造過程.

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I personally obsessed about every nut, bolt and washer in these crazy things.

    我個人瘋狂熱衷的用每一個螺母,螺栓和墊圈去組成這些定時照相機.

  • I spent half my life at our local hardware store

    當我們最初興建這些相機時,

  • during the months when we built these units originally.

    我一半的生命是花費了在附近的五金店.

  • We're working in most of the major glaciated regions of the northern hemisphere.

    我們工作研究的地方主要是北半球的大多數冰川地區,

  • Our time-lapse units are in Alaska, the Rockies, Greenland and Iceland,

    我們把定時攝影器材設立在阿拉斯加,落基山脈,格陵蘭,冰島,

  • and we have repeat photography positions,

    我們會在同一地方重複攝影,

  • that is places we just visit on an annual basis,

    這些地區我們每年都會去.

  • in British Columbia, the Alps and Bolivia.

    像是不列顛哥倫比亞省,阿爾卑斯山和玻利維亞。

  • It's a big undertaking. I stand here before you tonight

    這是一個艱鉅的任務。今晚我站在這裡,

  • as an ambassador for my whole team.

    在你面前代表整個團隊。

  • There's a lot of people working on this right now.

    有很多人現在都在做這項工作。

  • We've got 33 cameras out this moment.

    在這一刻我們有33個照相機在外。

  • We just had 33 cameras shoot about half an hour ago

    半小時前我們有33相機拍攝完成,

  • all across the northern hemisphere, watching what's happened.

    在北半球記錄冰川的差別.

  • And we've spent a lot of time in the field. It's been a fantastic amount of work.

    我們花了很多時間在冰川那裡.也得到大量且驚人的照片。

  • We've been out for two and a half years,

    我們已經進行了兩年半了,

  • and we've got about another two and a half years yet to go.

    我們大概還會再繼續另外兩年半的時間.

  • That's only half our job.

    這只是我們一半的工作。

  • The other half of our job is to tell the story to the global public.

    我們另一半的工作是告訴全球公眾冰川變化的故事。

  • You know, scientists have collected this kind of information

    你知道嗎,科學家斷斷續續

  • off and on over the years, but a lot of it stays within the science community.

    已經收集這類信息多年,但很多資訊只停留在科學界。

  • Similarly, a lot of art projects stay in the art community,

    同樣,很多藝術作品只有藝術界知道,

  • and I feel very much a responsibility through mechanisms like TED,

    我感到非常有責任通過各種機制像TED,

  • and like our relationship with the Obama White House,

    像我們與奧巴馬白宮與參議院的關係,

  • with the Senate, with John Kerry, to influence policy

    與約翰克里辦公室的交情,

  • as much as possible with these pictures as well.

    用這些照片去盡量影響法律政策.

  • We've done films. We've done books. We have more coming.

    我們已經完成電影,出版有關書籍。未來我們會做更多。

  • We have a site on Google Earth

    我們甚至有一個網站在谷歌地球(Google Earth),

  • that Google Earth was generous enough to give us,

    這是谷歌慷慨免費給我們的-

  • and so forth, because we feel very much the need to tell this story,

    所有的一切,是因為我們感到非常有必要告訴大家這件事,

  • because it is such an immediate evidence of ongoing climate change right now.

    因為這是一個直接證據可証明現在氣候變化正在進行。

  • Now, one bit of science before we get into the visuals.

    現在,讓我們先討論一點科學數據,然後再看影片

  • If everybody in the developed world understood this graph,

    如果每個先進國家的每個人理解這圖表,

  • and emblazoned it on the inside of their foreheads,

    而且把此圖牢牢的記憶在腦海內

  • there would be no further societal argument about climate change

    那將來群眾就不會有任何對氣候變化的爭論,

  • because this is the story that counts.

    因為事實勝雄辯.

  • Everything else you hear is just propaganda and confusion.

    其他的不同理論只不過是一種宣傳和混亂視聽的手段.

  • Key issues: this is a 400,000 year record.

    關鍵是:這是40萬年來氣象紀錄圖,

  • This exact same pattern is seen going back now

    几乎完全一樣的這種氣象變化模式.

  • almost a million years before our current time.

    已經約有一百萬年了.

  • And several things are important.

    這有幾件事情是很重要的。

  • Number one: temperature and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

    一:溫度和在大氣中的二氧化碳含量

  • go up and down basically in sync.

    基本上是同步上揚或下降.

  • You can see that from the orange line and the blue line.

    這你可從橙色線和藍線中看到。

  • Nature naturally has allowed carbon dioxide to go up to 280 parts per million.

    大自然的自然法則是可容許二氧化碳含量上升到百萬分之280(280ppm)。

  • That's the natural cycle.

    這是自然的循環。

  • Goes up to 280 and then drops

    上升到280然後

  • for various reasons that aren't important to discuss right here.

    由於種種原因就會下跌,這不是今天重點,所以現在不討論。

  • But 280 is the peak.

    但280是其最高點.

  • Right now, if you look at the top right part of that graph,

    現在,如果你看看右上角的圖那部分,

  • we're at 385 parts per million.

    我們正處於385ppm。

  • We are way, way outside the normal, natural variability.

    這大大超過正常,自然的變異範圍.

  • Earth is having a fever.

    地球正在發燒。

  • In the past hundred years, the temperature of the Earth

    在過去的百年裡,地球的溫度

  • has gone up 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit, .75 degrees Celsius,

    已經上升了華氏1.3度,或攝氏0.75度,

  • and it's going to keep going up

    而且這將繼續下去

  • because we keep dumping fossil fuels into the atmosphere.

    因為我們把化石燃料廢氣

  • At the rate of about two and a half parts per million per year.

    以每年2.5ppm的速度持續排放到大氣中。

  • It's been a remorseless, steady increase.

    這現象一直無情堅持不懈,穩步增長。

  • We have to turn that around.

    我們必須要扭轉這種現象,

  • That's the crux, and someday I hope to emblazon that

    這是關鍵所在,有一天我希望有紀念碑

  • across Times Square in New York and a lot of other places.

    橫跨在紐約時代廣場和許多其他地方來提醒我們。

  • But anyway, off to the world of ice.

    但現在,回到冰之世界。

  • We're now at the Columbia Glacier in Alaska.

    我們現在在阿拉斯加的哥倫比亞冰川。

  • This is a view of what's called the calving face.

    這個照片是有關所謂的冰川裂開形成冰山的切面。

  • This is what one of our cameras saw over the course of a few months.

    這是我們的一個照相機在這幾個月中所記錄的。

  • You see the glacier flowing in from the right,

    你瞧瞧冰山從右邊流出,

  • dropping off into the sea, camera shooting every hour.

    落入海中,我們每隔一小時拍攝一次。

  • If you look in the middle background,

    如果你看中間部份的背景,

  • you can see the calving face bobbing up and down like a yo-yo.

    你可以看到形成冰山的切面向上和向下漂浮像溜溜球一樣。

  • That means that glacier's floating and it's unstable,

    這意味著該冰川是浮動的,不穩定的,

  • and you're about to see the consequences of that floating.

    你將看到它浮動後的後果是什麼。

  • To give you a little bit of a sense of scale,

    為了讓您更瞭解它代表的意義我們用數字表示,

  • that calving face in this picture

    這照片中,產生冰山的切面

  • is about 325 feet tall. That's 32 stories.

    大約325英尺高。相當於32層樓房。

  • This is not a little cliff. This is like a major office building in an urban center.

    這不是一個小斷崖。這就像在城市中心一個高大的辦公建築。

  • The calving face is the wall where the visible ice breaks off,

    該切面像面牆,而在此可見到冰斷裂剝離,

  • but in fact, it goes down below sea level another couple thousand feet.

    這切面在低於海平面下還有兩千英尺。

  • So there's a wall of ice a couple thousand feet deep

    所以這個冰牆還要向下兩千英尺深.

  • going down to bedrock if the glacier's grounded on bedrock,

    無論是穩固的冰川或是漂浮的冰山都還要向

  • and floating if it isn't.

    下伸展兩千英尺深.

  • Here's what Columbia's done. This is in south central Alaska.

    以上是發生在哥倫比亞的。接著討論阿拉斯加中南部。

  • This was an aerial picture I did one day in June three years ago.

    這是我三年前在六月的某一天所拍的空中鳥瞰圖。

  • This is an aerial picture we did this year.

    這是我們今年拍的。

  • That's the retreat of this glacier.

    看這冰川主流幹後退的情況.

  • The main stem, the main flow of the glacier is coming from the right

    此照片中冰川主流幹是冰水冰塊快速從右邊

  • and it's going very rapidly up that stem.

    流入湧進主流幹.

  • We're going to be up there in just a few more weeks,

    數星期後,我們還會到那裡.

  • and we expect that it's probably retreated another half a mile,

    我們預估冰川主流幹會再後退半英里,

  • but if I got there and discovered that it had collapsed

    但是如果我們看到一切都瓦解了,

  • and it was five miles further back, I wouldn't be the least bit surprised.

    而冰川主流幹又後退5公里,我一點也不會感到驚訝的.

  • Now it's really hard to grasp the scale of these places,

    這真的很難想像其尺寸規模,

  • because as the glaciers --

    因為這些冰川-

  • one of the things is that places like Alaska and Greenland are huge,

    比如從一方面來說,阿拉斯加和格陵蘭島這些地方的冰川是巨大的,

  • they're not normal landscapes --

    他們不是我們易見的景觀 -

  • but as the glaciers are retreating, they're also deflating,

    但由於冰川一直持續退縮,一直消減,

  • like air is being let out of a balloon.

    像一個氣球裡的空氣一直被釋放出來一樣。

  • And so, there are features on this landscape.

    而且這是個有特色的景觀。

  • There's a ridge right in the middle of the picture, up above where that arrow comes in,

    在這照片的正中有一列山嶺,在箭頭的上方位置,

  • that shows you that a little bit.

    箭頭使你可以更容易找到山嶺些.

  • There's a marker line called the trim line

    有一個標記線稱為修剪線,

  • above our little red illustration there.

    就在我們紅色標誌的上面.

  • This is something no self-respecting photographer would ever do --

    這可不是一個正常高尚攝影師會做的事情-

  • you put some cheesy illustration on your shot, right? --

    -放一些俗氣裝飾插圖在自己的照片中,你說是不是?

  • and yet you have to do it sometimes to narrate these points.

    但有時你必須這樣做,才能正確闡述要表達的重點。

  • But, in any case, the deflation of this glacier since 1984

    但是,不管如何,這個冰川自1984年

  • has been higher than the Eiffel Tower, higher than the Empire State Building.

    以來縮小程度已經超過艾菲爾鐵塔的高度,或帝國大廈的高度。

  • A tremendous amount of ice has been let out of these valleys

    當冰川後退及消失一直退縮回山谷時,

  • as it's retreated and deflated, gone back up valley.

    大量的冰山冰塊也從這些山谷中流失.

  • These changes in the alpine world are accelerating.

    這些變化現象在高山冰寒世界正在加速惡化。

  • It's not static.

    它不是靜態的。

  • Particularly in the world of sea ice,

    尤其是海洋中的冰世界,

  • the rate of natural change is outstripping predictions of just a few years ago,

    幾年前自然變化的速率已經是超越了預測,

  • and the processes either are accelerating

    而無論是加速過快

  • or the predictions were too low to begin with.

    或開始的時候預測過低。

  • But in any case, there are big, big changes happening as we speak.

    無法否認,在我們說話這時,氣象已有大大的變化。

  • So, here's another time-lapse shot of Columbia.

    這裡有另一個定時拍攝哥倫比亞照片,

  • And you see where it ended in these various spring days,

    你可以看到在春天每月不同的變化景觀,

  • June, May, then October.

    六月,五月,可能的話也包含十月.

  • Now we turn on our time lapse.

    現在我們起動定時拍攝儀器,

  • This camera was shooting every hour.

    每隔一小時拍攝一次

  • Geologic process in action here.

    地理景觀的變化正在發生

  • And everybody says, well don't they advance in the winter time?

    每個人都以為冬天情況就應該不會惡化.

  • No. It was retreating through the winter because it's an unhealthy glacier.

    但不是的!即使冬天也一直退縮,因為它是一個不健康的冰川。

  • Finally catches up to itself, it advances.

    一次比一次嚴重.冰川消失一直在進行.

  • And you can look at these pictures over and over again

    你可以一遍又一遍看這些照片,

  • because there's such a strange, bizarre fascination in seeing

    看到這些照片真有一個奇怪的,奇異的感覺,

  • these things you don't normally get to see come alive.

    因為正常狀況你不可能見到這樣的現象,彷彿有生命一像.

  • We've been talking about "seeing is believing "

    我們都知道百聞不如一見,

  • and seeing the unseen at TED Global.

    而此時在TED Global我們看到本應看不見的景觀.

  • That's what you see with these cameras.

    全都因為照相機的鏡頭,

  • The images make the invisible visible.

    這些照片使無形變可見。

  • These huge crevasses open up.

    巨大的冰隙裂開來,

  • These great ice islands break off --

    一些巨大的冰島脫離冰川而漂流走

  • and now watch this.

    現在看這個。

  • This has been the springtime this year --

    這是今年春天

  • a huge collapse. That happened in about a month,

    一個巨大的崩離。這發生大約需要一個月,

  • the loss of all that ice.

    流失很多冰。

  • So that's where we started three years ago,

    這就是我們三年的成果,

  • way out on the left, and that's where we were a few months ago, the

    從最左邊最早開始起到右邊幾個月前的結果,

  • last time we went into Columbia.

    也就是我們最近進入哥倫比亞冰川的時刻.

  • To give you a feeling for the scale of the retreat,

    為了讓你更感覺得到冰川撤退規模,

  • we did another cheesy illustration,

    我們再用插圖來表達,

  • with British double-decker buses.

    如果用英國雙層巴士來計算,

  • If you line up 295 of those nose to tail, that's about how far back that was.

    須要295輛雙層巴士頭碰尾緊接排一線才夠長,

  • It's a long way.

    那可是很長的距離啊.

  • On up to Iceland.

    讓我們回到冰島。

  • One of my favorite glaciers, thelheimajökull.

    我最喜歡的冰川之一,名叫Sólheimajökull。

  • And here, if you watch, you can see the terminus retreating.

    在這裡,如果你注意,你可以看到邊際一直在後退,