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  • So let’s talk about babies. Very cute, right? It’s hard to look at a baby smiling at you

    我們來談談嬰兒,很可愛,對吧?看到嬰兒微笑時

  • and not feel good. But even the most devoted parents don’t generally think of their baby

    總是不自覺地嘴角上揚。但是甚至是最摯愛的父母基本上都不會認為他們的嬰兒

  • as a cognitive powerhouse. But babies figure out how language works like little

    是具有認知能力的載體。但是嬰兒就像小神童一樣地了解語言是如何運作的

  • geniuses. Theyre just born that way. I’m Moti Lieberman, and this is the Ling Space.

    他們就是天生如此。 我是Moti Lieberman,歡迎來到林式空間(語言學空間)

  • Language is special. People can do a lot of amazing things - ride a unicycle, learn long

    語言是很特別的。人們可以做很多驚人的事情,像是騎單輪腳踏車,學習長除法

  • division, walk on the moon. But maybe the most

    、月球漫步。但是或許最

  • amazing thing that human beings do is language. Don’t believe me? Just wait.

    驚人的事就是語言。你不相信?等著瞧

  • So the most important idea for today’s episode is the theory that the ability to learn and

    今天這一集中最重要的概念就是一個理論是說我們能夠學習

  • use language is biologically hardwired into the human brain.

    使用語言是與生俱來在我們腦中的能力

  • Babies are made to pick up the language that they hear around them, just sponging up those glorious sounds and structures

    嬰兒是生出來就可以習得在他們周遭所聽到的語言,就是能夠吸收那些困難的聲音和句子

  • and turning them into their mother tongues. The theory that language is something innate,

    然後把它們轉化成他們的母語。這理論就是說語言是天生的

  • something youre born with, is known in linguistics as nativism or generativism,

    是與生俱來的,在語言學中就是所知的先天論或是生成論

  • and it’s got a lot of really good evidence behind it.

    而且已經在許多證據下被證明了

  • Before we start getting into what this means, though, let’s be perfectly clear about what

    在我們探討它的意思之前,我們得先定義這範疇的界線

  • it doesn’t. It doesn’t mean that were born with any particular languageno baby springs

    它不是指我們出生就有特定的語言能力-沒有嬰兒一蹦出來

  • into the world with the ability to speak perfect English or German or Japanese. We don’t

    就會說英文、德文或日語的。我們不

  • come equipped with the rules or sounds or vocabulary of any language - that’s all stuff we have to learn.

    是與生俱來知道那些語言的規則、聲音或是單字-那些都是需要學習的

  • What babies don’t need to figure out is how language can workwhat kinds of words

    嬰兒不用學習就可以知道語言是如何運作的-什麼字

  • we can build, what types of sentences we can make, what sorts of interpretations were

    我們可以造、什麼句子我們可以說或是我們語言允許的意義

  • allowed. These fundamental principles of language define what’s possible and what’s not,

    這些語言根本的原則定義了可行性及不可行性

  • and theyre the same for everybody. Anything that doesn’t stick to the rules will never

    對每個人來說都一樣。任何不遵守規則的東西從不會

  • come up in any human language, ever. Given how many

    在任何人類語言中出現。 

  • different languages there are, it might seem unlikely that there's one set of principles that can rule

    要適用所有在所有不同的語言,看似好像沒有一套的原則可以管理

  • them all. But the idea comes to us from none less than the father of modern linguistics,

    它們全部。但是這樣的想法來自了重要的當代語言學之父

  • Noam Chomsky. He called it: Universal Grammar, or UG.

    諾姆喬姆斯基。 他把它稱為「普遍語法」或是UG

  • There are a lot of arguments to back up the nativist position, but for today, were just

    有許多的討論可以來支持先天論,但是今天,我們只會

  • going to focus on two of them. So the first is that babies go through the same stages in

    針對其中的兩種。 所以,第一個是嬰兒在成長中經歷了一樣的階段

  • development no matter what language theyre learning. The second is that infants master

    不論他們是學習什麼語言。 第二個是嬰兒為什麼可以精通

  • language way faster than they should if theyre just little blank slate know-nothing babies.

    語言比他們應該得快很多,如果他們只是一張白紙、什麼都不知道的小孩。

  • To be that fast, there’s got to be something there to help them along.

    要這麼快,一定要有一些東西來幫助他們。

  • Let’s start off with babbling, those adorable random syllables that little babies make. Except

    我們從一些胡言亂語開始,那些小小孩所造出來的可愛的、隨機組合的音節。 除了

  • theyre not really random. No matter what language theyre learning, this early babbling

    它們其實不是真的任意的。 不論他們在學什麼語言,這些的嬰兒的牙牙學語

  • uses the same set of sounds. One study examined the early babbling of babies from 15 different

    使用了同一套聲音。 一個研究檢驗了來自15種語言的嬰兒的牙牙學語

  • languages, including English, Thai, Japanese, Arabic, Hindi, and Mayanlanguages where

    包含英文、泰文、日文、阿拉伯文、北印度話和馬雅話-這些語言的

  • all they have in common is that theyre spoken by people. The study found that these

    共同之處就是都是人類的語言。 這個研究發現

  • babies all prefer labial consonants, or sounds made with the lips, more than other consonants;

    嬰兒都偏好唇音,或是用嘴唇發出的聲音,都比其他子音還要多

  • stop consonants like [p] and [b], where the air flow through the mouth is totally blocked,

    像是[p]和[b]的塞音,也就是氣流在行經口腔的時候是完全被阻塞的

  • over others; and vowels made low in the mouth like [æ] and [ɑ] over those that are made

    勝過其他的;在口腔中較低部位發出的母音像是[æ]和[ɑ]也比其他

  • higher up, like [i] and [u].

    高母音多,像是[i]和[u]

  • And all of that is independent of how often - or even whether

    而且這些都是和頻率獨立出來的,或是甚至

  • at all - these languages make use of these sounds! Babbling Hindi-learning babies make

    完全不相關。 這些語言運用著這些聲音! 學北印度語的嬰兒和

  • the same amounts of the same sounds that Arabic-learning babies do.

    學阿拉伯文的嬰兒發出了一樣數量的一樣聲音。

  • In fact, your average 8-month-old baby can differentiate between any pair of sounds used

    事實上,平均8個月的嬰兒可以分辨世界上任何語言中的任何一對聲音

  • in any language in the world. Depending on your language, you might not be able to tell

    取決於你的語言,你或許無法說出

  • the difference between [t̪ɑk] and [ʈɑk], or between [lɑk] and [ɹɑk],

    [t̪ɑk]和[ʈɑk]或是[lɑk]和[ɹɑk]的差異

  • but your baby can. It makes sense: a baby needs to be prepared

    但是嬰兒可以。 這很合理,一個嬰兒需要準備好

  • to pick up any language, so they better come equipped to hear anything that could be relevant.

    來學起任何語言,所以他們有更好的配備能用聽辨可能相關的聲音

  • It’s not just the way they deal with sounds that’s the same for all infants. They all

    這不只是他們處理聲音的方式,是所有嬰兒都是的。 他們全部

  • pick up words at the same approximate rate and stages, too, and that's regardless of how the language

    也都在差不多的階段以差不多的程度來學起生字,而且這也是和他們學什麼語言

  • theyre learning works. It doesn’t matter whether or not the babies hear motherese, that

    是毫無關係的。 嬰兒有沒有聽到媽媽式說話不重要,也就是

  • way of speaking slow and using easy words and intonation, likeWhat a cute baby!

    慢慢說、用簡單的字和語調來說話,像是「多麼可愛的小孩呀!

  • Where’s the kitty, baby?”

    寶寶,小貓咪在哪裡呢?」

  • It doesn’t matter if the language has tone, like Mandarin, or doesn’t, like English,

    語言如果有音調並不重要,像是中文,或是沒有,像是英文

  • or whether the verb comes at the beginning or end of the sentence.

    或是動詞是在句子的開頭或結尾

  • In fact, all babies, in whatever language, will start getting their first words around

    事實上,所有的嬰兒,在不管什麼語言中,都會開始學到第一個字

  • 10-12 months old. By 18 months, theyve got about 50 words. And then they undergo

    在10到12個月的時候。 18個月前,他們就學會了約50個字。 然後他們就歷經了

  • a crazy vocabulary spurt, picking up hundreds of words over the next few months, so that

    一個瘋狂的單字暴衝,在未來的幾個月內就學起數百個字,一直這樣到

  • by around 2, theyll have about 500. And then they start going even faster! Your average

    大約兩歲的時候,他們就有了500個單字了。 然後接下來甚至是進行得更快!平均

  • 2 and a half year old is glomming up new words at the rate of about 10 a day. That’s faster than

    兩歲半的時候就以一天10個字的速率來快速學起新單字。

  • your average 3-credit undergraduate language course.

    比一般大學生3學分的語言課程還要快

  • So the ways that kids make sounds, the way they pick up words, it’s all the same worldwide,

    所以小孩發出聲音的方式,他們學字的方式,是全世界都一樣的

  • in Chicago or Tokyo or Cairo or Bangkok. And since the languages theyre learning are

    在芝加哥、東京、開羅或是曼谷都一樣。 而且因為他們所學的語言是

  • all so different, this tells us something fundamental about the human brain. How babies

    都截然不同的,這告訴我們人腦的根本概念。嬰兒如何

  • learn language is biologicalour brains are configured for language.

    學習語言是天生的-我們的大腦是為了語言而備的

  • If youre still not convinced, how about this: there’s been a lot of research done

    如果你還不相信,那看看這個:已經有許多研究

  • on other language acquisition theories, and the results there are just as clear.

    其他語言習得理論的研究,而且結果是很清楚的

  • Maybe you think that we can pick up language quicker than other behavioral skills, that

    或許你認為我們可以習得語言比其他行為技能還要快

  • there’s nothing special about it except how fast we do it. Okay. First, of course

    這完全沒有任何特別的,除了我們的速度。 首先

  • kids make mistakes - calling a deerhorsiethe first time they see one, saying “I eated

    孩子當然會犯錯-在第一次看到鹿的時候,叫成馬,就是說I eated

  • instead of “I ate” - but there’s all sorts of mistakes that kids don’t make that it

    而非I ate-但是所有孩童不會犯的錯誤的種類

  • seems like they should. For example, when asking a question, “Teddy is happycan

    就似乎他們會。 例如,當問一個問題,「泰迪熊很開心」可以

  • turn intoIs Teddy happy?”, butTeddy dressed up as Alicecan never turn intoDressed

    變成「泰迪熊開心嗎?」,但是「泰迪熊裝扮得跟艾莉絲一樣」就無法變成「

  • Teddy up as Alice?”. Kids never make mistakes like that.

    裝扮泰迪熊像愛麗絲嗎?」孩童永遠不會犯這樣的錯誤

  • Second, if language was just something you picked up without having a blueprint in your

    第二,如果語言是能夠在腦中不用計畫就能夠學起的

  • brain, it should be possible to approximate some part of it with computer modeling. That’s

    它就應該可以是大腦一部分會近似於電腦模擬

  • exactly what one linguist tried to do in 2011. She designed twenty different computer models

    那就是一個語言學家在2011年試著做的。她設計了20種不同電腦模擬狀況

  • of how the English stress system could be acquiredso what syllables should be pronounced

    是關於英文重音系統是如何被習得的-所以音節應該要發出什麼音

  • more strongly than others, and what factors matter for deciding that. And the researcher

    比其他音節還要強,什麼因素造成的。 而且那研究者

  • didn’t only run the experiment only onceshe did it a thousand times for each model, with

    不只運行那個實驗一次-她一個模型做了一千次

  • different versions paying attention to different factors. So how many of these models nailed

    有針對不同因素的不同版本。 所以有多少模型是關於英文的發現呢?

  • English? Three. Three out of twenty thousand total trials.

    三個。 兩萬個試驗中只有三個

  • And yet, basically every English speaking child gets this right. That strongly

    而且截至今日,基本上每一個說英文的小孩就可以搞清楚這個。

  • suggests there’s something very special going on with language.

    這強烈暗示了語言有很特別的東西

  • But it’s not just that all babies do the same things that makes us think that language

    但是不只是因為嬰兒都這樣所以使我們這樣認為語言是

  • is innate, that it’s something were born with. It’s that kids get so good at language

    天生的,是我們與生俱來的。這也是為什麼孩童可以迅速精通語言

  • so quickly. Let’s consider what your average 2 and a half year old knows about language.

    讓我們回想一下兩歲半時對語言的認知

  • They know what sound combinations are possible for their language, so they know what a possible

    他們知道他們語言中的聲音的可能組合,所以他們知道字聽起來可能是怎樣

  • word sounds like. They know the word order for their language, so a Turkish kid will

    他們知道他們語言中的字序,所以一個土耳其小孩會

  • know that the verb comes after the object, but a French kid will know it’s the other

    知道動詞是跟在受詞的後面,但是一個法國小孩會知道則知道在法文中是相反的

  • way around. They know how to make questions, and what sorts of questions it's grammatically

    他們知道如何造出句子,而且什麼樣的問句是合乎文法

  • okay to ask. They know how to use modifiers like adjectives or adverbs. Now, think about

    來提問的。他們知道如何使用修飾語像是形容詞和副詞。 現在,想想

  • what your average toddler knows about, like, everything else. They know a whole lot about how language

    一般小孩都知道什麼,就是其他任何事情。 他們知道全部語言如何

  • works, at an age where they can’t add 2 + 2. Or tie their shoes. Or reliably use a bathroom.

    運作,在他們還無法2加2的時候就知道了。 或是繫鞋子。 或是可靠地自己使用廁所

  • So why are kids so good? Why can they learn so fast, make so few mistakes, and succeed

    所以為什麼孩子們這樣厲害? 為什麼他們可以學得這麼快?犯這麼少錯?而且成功

  • where sophisticated computer models fail? How do they know all of this despite not having

    當精密電腦模型都失敗了? 他們怎麼知道所有的事情的,儘管沒有

  • it explicitly taught to them? It’s because they already know how language can work. Deep

    經過特意的教學? 那是因為他們已經知道語言如何運作。

  • in their brains, in their genes, they have the abstract rule sets that tell them what’s possible

    深至他們腦中、基因中,他們有抽象的一套規則來告訴他們什麼是可能的

  • and what’s not. All babies start the same way, with the same linguistic abilities. Then,

    和什麼是不可能的。 所有的嬰兒都是這樣開始的,具有一樣的語言能力。 然後,

  • they apply the data they hear to the Universal Grammar in their heads, and they make little

    他們應用他們腦中聽到的普遍語法的數據,然後他們

  • linguistic miracles happen. Every single day.

    使語言奇蹟發生了。 每一天都是如此。

  • So weve reached the end of the Ling Space for this week. Well be coming back to talk

    所以我們已經到了本週林氏空間(語言學空間)的結尾。我們未來再回來

  • more about child language in the future, but if you were paying attention this time, you

    談更多關於兒童語言,但是如果你這次注意到這個影片,你

  • learned that nativist or generativist ideas mean that we think language is innate, but

    已經學到先天論或生成論的概念就是我們認為語言是天生的,但是

  • not that any particular language is; that babies go through

    不是任何特定的語言;孩童經歷

  • the same stages of development regardless of what language theyre learning; and that

    一樣的成長階段不論他們學的語言是什麼;

  • kids know a whole lot about how language works at a really early age.

    而且還同在他們很小的時候就知道語言是如何運作

  • The Ling Space is written and produced by me, Moti Lieberman. It’s directed by Adèlelise

    林氏空間是由我撰寫和製作,Moti Lieberman。是由Adèle-Élise Prévost指導

  • Prévost, our production assistant is Georges Coulombe, and our music and sound design is by

    我們的製作助理是Georges Coulombe,我們的音響設計是Shane Turner

  • Shane Turner. Our educational consultants are Level-Up Learning Solutions, and our graphics

    我們的教育顧問是Level-Up Learning Solution,我們的圖像設計

  • team is atelierMuse. Were down in the comments below, or you can bring the discussion over

    團隊是atelierMuse。 我們都記在下方的備註欄裡面,或是你可以到我們的網站

  • to our website, where we have some extra material on this topic. Check us out on Twitter and

    來跟我們討論,在那裡我們有更多關於這個主題的資料。也到Twitter、

  • Facebook, and if you want to keep expanding your own personal Ling Space, please subscribe.

    facebook上面找我們,而且如果你想要持續增進每個人的語言學空間,請記得要訂閱唷

  • And well see you next Wednesday. Mata raishuu!

    我們下禮拜見。下週見(日)

So let’s talk about babies. Very cute, right? It’s hard to look at a baby smiling at you

我們來談談嬰兒,很可愛,對吧?看到嬰兒微笑時

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 語言 嬰兒 聲音 習得 泰迪熊 天生

語言學習和通用文法 (Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar)

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    Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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