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  • A tourist is backpacking

    安德魯史丹頓:一名背包客

  • through the highlands of Scotland,

    在蘇格蘭高地旅遊,

  • and he stops at a pub to get a drink.

    在一家酒館停下來喝一杯。

  • And the only people in there is a bartender

    那裡只有酒保

  • and an old man nursing a beer.

    和一位喝著啤酒的老人家。

  • And he orders a pint, and they sit in silence for a while.

    背包客點了杯啤酒,他們默默然坐了一會。

  • And suddenly the old man turns to him and goes,

    忽然間,老人家轉向他說,

  • "You see this bar?

    "看到這家酒吧嗎?

  • I built this bar with my bare hands

    我用上全縣最好的木材

  • from the finest wood in the county.

    憑雙手建成這家酒吧。

  • Gave it more love and care than my own child.

    給它比給我兒子更多的愛和關心。

  • But do they call me MacGregor the bar builder? No."

    但他們會稱呼我酒吧建造者MacGregor嗎?不會。"

  • Points out the window.

    指向窗外。

  • "You see that stone wall out there?

    "你看見外面那石牆嗎?

  • I built that stone wall with my bare hands.

    我赤手築起的石牆。

  • Found every stone, placed them just so through the rain and the cold.

    找來每塊石頭,歷盡雨水和寒冷把它們疊起來。

  • But do they call me MacGregor the stone wall builder? No."

    但他們會稱呼我石牆建造者MacGregor嗎?不會。"

  • Points out the window.

    指向窗外。

  • "You see that pier on the lake out there?

    你看見外面湖邊那碼頭嗎?

  • I built that pier with my bare hands.

    我赤手築成那碼頭。

  • Drove the pilings against the tide of the sand, plank by plank.

    迎著浪把樁柱,一枝枝的,打進湖底沙中。

  • But do they call me MacGregor the pier builder? No.

    但他們會稱呼我碼頭建造者MacGregor嗎?不會。

  • But you fuck one goat ... "

    但你和一頭羊性交..."

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Storytelling --

    說故事 --

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • is joke telling.

    就是說笑話。

  • It's knowing your punchline,

    那是知道你的笑點,

  • your ending,

    你故事的結局,

  • knowing that everything you're saying, from the first sentence to the last,

    知道你所說的一切,從第一到最後的一句話,

  • is leading to a singular goal,

    都是朝著單一目標,

  • and ideally confirming some truth

    理想地也確認一些真理

  • that deepens our understandings

    以加深我們對自己

  • of who we are as human beings.

    作為人類的認識。

  • We all love stories.

    我們都愛聽故事。

  • We're born for them.

    我們為它們而來到這個世界。

  • Stories affirm who we are.

    故事肯定我們是什麼的人。

  • We all want affirmations that our lives have meaning.

    我們都想得到生命是有意義的肯定。

  • And nothing does a greater affirmation

    沒有其他東西可比

  • than when we connect through stories.

    用故事把我們連結起來帶來更大的肯定。

  • It can cross the barriers of time,

    它可穿越時間,

  • past, present and future,

    過去、現在和未來的障礙,

  • and allow us to experience

    讓我們可透過其他人,

  • the similarities between ourselves

    真實的或想像的,

  • and through others, real and imagined.

    去感受彼此的異同。

  • The children's television host Mr. Rogers

    兒童電視節目主持人Rogers先生

  • always carried in his wallet

    在他的錢包裡經常帶著

  • a quote from a social worker

    社會工作者的一句說話

  • that said, "Frankly, there isn't anyone you couldn't learn to love

    它說:"坦白說,當你聽過他們的故事後,

  • once you've heard their story."

    沒有任何人你不能學會去愛他的。"

  • And the way I like to interpret that

    我喜歡用來演譯它的方式是

  • is probably the greatest story commandment,

    說故事的誡條最重要的

  • which is "Make me care" --

    是"令我關心" --

  • please, emotionally,

    請你,在感情上、

  • intellectually, aesthetically,

    理智上和美學上

  • just make me care.

    令我關心。

  • We all know what it's like to not care.

    我們都知道毫不在乎是怎樣的。

  • You've gone through hundreds of TV channels,

    你逐一頻道地

  • just switching channel after channel,

    轉換了數百個電視頻道,

  • and then suddenly you actually stop on one.

    然後突然停在某一頻道上。

  • It's already halfway over,

    它已播放了一半,

  • but something's caught you and you're drawn in and you care.

    但有些東西吸引到你令你關心。

  • That's not by chance,

    這並非偶然,

  • that's by design.

    而是經過精心設計的。

  • So it got me thinking, what if I told you my history was story,

    這令我反省,如果我把要告訴你我的歷史作為故事,

  • how I was born for it,

    我如何為它來到這個世界,

  • how I learned along the way this subject matter?

    如何在過程中不斷學習這個題材?

  • And to make it more interesting,

    為使它更有趣,

  • we'll start from the ending

    我會從結局開始

  • and we'll go to the beginning.

    然後回到起點。

  • And so if I were going to give you the ending of this story,

    如果我要先給你這個故事的結局,

  • it would go something like this:

    它會是像這樣:

  • And that's what ultimately led me

    這亦是最終令我

  • to speaking to you here at TED

    在TED這裡

  • about story.

    說給各位聽的故事。

  • And the most current story lesson that I've had

    我最近的故事課是

  • was completing the film I've just done

    剛在今年2012

  • this year in 2012.

    完成那一部電影。

  • The film is "John Carter." It's based on a book called "The Princess of Mars,"

    電影名叫"異星爭霸戰:尊卡特傳奇"(John Carter)。它根據Edgar Rice Burroughs所寫

  • which was written by Edgar Rice Burroughs.

    一本叫"火星公主"(The Princess of Mars")的書拍成。

  • And Edgar Rice Burroughs actually put himself

    Edgar Rice Burroughs 亦在電影內

  • as a character inside this movie, and as the narrator.

    扮演一個角色和擔任旁白。

  • And he's summoned by his rich uncle, John Carter, to his mansion

    他富有的叔叔,尊卡特,發電報傳召他去他的豪宅

  • with a telegram saying, "See me at once."

    電報上說,"立刻前來見我。"

  • But once he gets there,

    當他去到那裡,

  • he's found out that his uncle has mysteriously passed away

    他發現叔叔神秘地去世了

  • and been entombed in a mausoleum on the property.

    被埋在自有的陵墓內

  • (Video) Butler: You won't find a keyhole.

    (影片)管家:你不會找到匙孔的。

  • Thing only opens from the inside.

    它只能從裡面打開。

  • He insisted,

    他堅持,

  • no embalming, no open coffin,

    不做防腐處理,不開棺,

  • no funeral.

    不舉行葬禮。

  • You don't acquire the kind of wealth your uncle commanded

    如果是像我們一樣的人

  • by being like the rest of us, huh?

    你不會得到你叔叔支配的那樣的財富,是吧?

  • Come, let's go inside.

    來,我們進去看看。

  • AS: What this scene is doing, and it did in the book,

    這一幕,在書中也同樣出現,有什麼目的呢?

  • is it's fundamentally making a promise.

    它基本上是作出一個承諾。

  • It's making a promise to you

    它向你作出一個承諾

  • that this story will lead somewhere that's worth your time.

    故事會領你到某處理值得你花時間的地方。

  • And that's what all good stories should do at the beginning, is they should give you a promise.

    這是所有優秀故事開始時都應做的,給你一個承諾。

  • You could do it an infinite amount of ways.

    你可有無盡的方法去做。

  • Sometimes it's as simple as "Once upon a time ... "

    有時只是簡單地"很久以前..."

  • These Carter books always had Edgar Rice Burroughs as a narrator in it.

    這些卡特的書裡面都有Edgar Rice Burroughs 作為旁白。

  • And I always thought it was such a fantastic device.

    我經常覺得這是一個很棒的工具。

  • It's like a guy inviting you around the campfire,

    就像有人邀請你加入營火晚會,

  • or somebody in a bar saying, "Here, let me tell you a story.

    或酒吧中有人說,"讓我給你說個故事。

  • It didn't happen to me, it happened to somebody else,

    它並非發生在我身上,而是在另一個人身上,

  • but it's going to be worth your time."

    但它值得你花時間聽聽。"

  • A well told promise

    一個說得好的承諾

  • is like a pebble being pulled back in a slingshot

    就像拉彈弓的石子

  • and propels you forward through the story

    並推動你前進

  • to the end.

    直至故事的結局。

  • In 2008,

    2008年,

  • I pushed all the theories that I had on story at the time

    我把當時對故事的所有理論

  • to the limits of my understanding on this project.

    在這項目上推到我能理解的極限

  • (Video) (Mechanical Sounds)

    (影片)(機械音響)

  • And that is all

    ♫這就是♫

  • that love's about

    ♫愛的意義♫

  • And we'll recall

    ♫我們會♫

  • when time runs out

    ♫在時間消逝後♫

  • That it only

    ♫記得它♫

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • AS: Storytelling without dialogue.

    沒有對話地說故事。

  • It's the purest form of cinematic storytelling.

    這是電影式說故事的最純粹的形式。

  • It's the most inclusive approach you can take.

    它是你可採用最包容的方式。

  • It confirmed something I really had a hunch on,

    它印證了我真的有預感的一些東西,

  • is that the audience

    就是觀眾

  • actually wants to work for their meal.

    實際想參與準備他們的食物。

  • They just don't want to know that they're doing that.

    他們只是不想知道自己在做那些工作。

  • That's your job as a storyteller,

    那是你作為說故事者的任務,

  • is to hide the fact

    就是隱瞞

  • that you're making them work for their meal.

    你令他們自己準備食物的事實。

  • We're born problem solvers.

    我們是天生解決問題的人。

  • We're compelled to deduce

    我們被迫演譯

  • and to deduct,

    和歸納,

  • because that's what we do in real life.

    因為這正是我們在現實生活所做的。

  • It's this well-organized absence of information

    正是這種有組織的信息不足

  • that draws us in.

    把我們拉進去。

  • There's a reason that we're all attracted to an infant or a puppy.

    我們被嬰兒或小狗吸引是有原因的。

  • It's not just that they're damn cute;

    不單是因他們可愛;

  • it's because they can't completely express

    而是他們不能完全表達

  • what they're thinking and what their intentions are.

    他們的想法和動機。

  • And it's like a magnet.

    它像一塊磁鐵。

  • We can't stop ourselves

    我們無法阻止自己

  • from wanting to complete the sentence and fill it in.

    要完成句子和填上去。

  • I first started

    我首次開始

  • really understanding this storytelling device

    真正明白說故事的工具

  • when I was writing with Bob Peterson on "Finding Nemo."

    是在我和Bob Peterson寫"海底總動員(Finding Nemo)"的時候。

  • And we would call this the unifying theory of two plus two.

    我們稱之為二加二的統一理論。

  • Make the audience put things together.

    使觀眾把東西放在一起。

  • Don't give them four,

    不要把四給他們,

  • give them two plus two.

    給他們二加二。

  • The elements you provide and the order you place them in

    你提供的元素和編排它們的次序

  • is crucial to whether you succeed or fail at engaging the audience.

    對你能否成功引起觀眾投入起關鍵作用。

  • Editors and screenwriters have known this all along.

    編輯和編劇們一直都知道這點。

  • It's the invisible application

    它無形的應用

  • that holds our attention to story.

    吸引我們對故事的關注。

  • I don't mean to make it sound

    我不是要它聽起來

  • like this is an actual exact science, it's not.

    像是精確科學,它不是。

  • That's what's so special about stories,

    這是為何故事那麼特別,

  • they're not a widget, they aren't exact.

    它們不是零件,它們並不精確。

  • Stories are inevitable, if they're good,

    好的故事是不可抗拒的,

  • but they're not predictable.

    但它們是難以預測的。

  • I took a seminar in this year

    我今年參加了

  • with an acting teacher named Judith Weston.

    表演老師Judith Weston的一個研討會。

  • And I learned a key insight to character.

    我學到了對角色的一個見解。

  • She believed that all well-drawn characters

    她相信所有出色的角色

  • have a spine.

    都是有骨幹的。

  • And the idea is that the character has an inner motor,

    意思是角色有一副內在的發動機

  • a dominant, unconscious goal that they're striving for,

    他們所追求的一個主導性、沒意識的目標,

  • an itch that they can't scratch.

    一個他們搔不著的癢處。

  • She gave a wonderful example of Michael Corleone,

    她舉了很好的例子,就是"教父"中Michael Corleone,

  • Al Pacino's character in "The Godfather,"

    是Al Pacino飾演的角色,

  • and that probably his spine

    他們骨幹很可能

  • was to please his father.

    就是討好他的父親。

  • And it's something that always drove all his choices.

    那一直驅動著他所有的選擇。

  • Even after his father died,

    即使他父親去世後,

  • he was still trying to scratch that itch.

    他還不斷依循這個思維

  • I took to this like a duck to water.

    這令我如魚得水。

  • Wall-E's was to find the beauty.

    在Wall-E中是美的追求。

  • Marlin's, the father in "Finding Nemo,"

    在"海底總動員"中,父親Marlin,

  • was to prevent harm.

    是要避開傷害。

  • And Woody's was to do what was best for his child.

    而“玩具總動員(Toy Story)”中Woody是要做對小孩最好的事。

  • And these spines don't always drive you to make the best choices.

    但這些骨幹不一定驅使你作出最佳的選擇。

  • Sometimes you can make some horrible choices with them.

    有時你可作出可怕的選擇。

  • I'm really blessed to be a parent,

    我其的很幸運能作為一名家長,

  • and watching my children grow, I really firmly believe

    看著孩子成長,我真的堅信

  • that you're born with a temperament and you're wired a certain way,

    你生與俱來某氣質和特定想法,

  • and you don't have any say about it,

    你是無權過問的,

  • and there's no changing it.

    亦無法改變的。

  • All you can do is learn to recognize it

    你只可學會認識它

  • and own it.

    和擁有之。

  • And some of us are born with temperaments that are positive,

    有些人生與俱來正面的氣質,

  • some are negative.

    有些是負面的。

  • But a major threshold is passed

    但當你夠成熟

  • when you mature enough

    去承認是什麼驅使你

  • to acknowledge what drives you

    並去操控它時

  • and to take the wheel and steer it.

    你就通過了一個重要的門檻。

  • As parents, you're always learning who your children are.

    作為父母,你總是在了解你的孩子。

  • They're learning who they are.

    他們也在了解自己。

  • And you're still learning who you are.

    而你亦仍在了解自己。

  • So we're all learning all the time.

    所以我們無時無刻都在學習了解。

  • And that's why change is fundamental in story.

    這是為何改變是故事的基礎。

  • If things go static, stories die,

    如果事物靜止,故事就失去生命,

  • because life is never static.

    因為生活永不靜止。

  • In 1998,

    1998年,

  • I had finished writing "Toy Story" and "A Bug's Life"

    我寫完"玩具總動員(Toy Story)"和"蟲蟲特攻隊(A Bug's Life)"之後

  • and I was completely hooked on screenwriting.

    我完全迷上了編劇。

  • So I wanted to become much better at it and learn anything I could.

    所以我想做得更好而盡我所能去學習。

  • So I researched everything I possibly could.

    我盡我所能去研究一切。

  • And I finally came across this fantastic quote

    最後我遇到這奇妙的佳句

  • by a British playwright, William Archer:

    英國劇作家 William Archer 所說的:

  • "Drama is anticipation

    "戲劇是預期

  • mingled with uncertainty."

    夾雜著不明朗。"

  • It's an incredibly insightful definition.

    這是一個令人難以置信的精闢定義。

  • When you're telling a story,

    當你說故事時,

  • have you constructed anticipation?

    有沒有建立期待?

  • In the short-term, have you made me want to know

    短暫地,你有沒有令我想要知道

  • what will happen next?

    接下來會發生什麼?

  • But more importantly,

    但更重要的是,

  • have you made me want to know

    你有沒有令我想要知道

  • how it will all conclude in the long-term?

    它長期的結局?

  • Have you constructed honest conflicts

    你有沒有透過事實真相

  • with truth that creates doubt

    建立誠實的衝突

  • in what the outcome might be?

    創造對可能出現的結果產生的懷疑?

  • An example would be in "Finding Nemo,"

    在"海底總動員(Finding Nemo)"有個例子,

  • in the short tension, you were always worried,

    在短期中,你總是擔心

  • would Dory's short-term memory

    Dory的短暫記憶

  • make her forget whatever she was being told by Marlin.

    會否令他忘記Marlin對她說過的話。

  • But under that was this global tension

    但在這之下是

  • of will we ever find Nemo

    能否在浩瀚的大海中

  • in this huge, vast ocean?

    找到Nemo的整體張力。

  • In our earliest days at Pixar,

    我們早期在皮克斯工作室時,

  • before we truly understood the invisible workings of story,

    在我們真正了解故事的無形運作前,

  • we were simply a group of guys just going on our gut, going on our instincts.

    我們簡單地只是一群靠直覺和本能去做的人。

  • And it's interesting to see

    有趣的是

  • how that led us places

    這引領我們

  • that were actually pretty good.

    去到實際相當不錯的位置。

  • You've got to remember that in this time of year,

    你要記住在每年的這個時候,

  • 1993,

    在1993年那時,

  • what was considered a successful animated picture

    被視為成功的動畫

  • was "The Little Mermaid," "Beauty and the Beast,"

    是"小美人魚(The Little Mermaid)","美女與野獸(Beauty and the Beast)",

  • "Aladdin," "Lion King."

    "阿拉丁(Aladdin)","獅子王(Lion King)"。

  • So when we pitched "Toy Story" to Tom Hanks for the first time,

    當我們首次向Tom Hanks推薦"玩具總動員"時,

  • he walked in and he said,

    他走進來說,

  • "You don't want me to sing, do you?"

    "你們不是要我唱歌吧?"

  • And I thought that epitomized perfectly

    我想這完美地概括了

  • what everybody thought animation had to be at the time.

    當時人們對動畫的想法。

  • But we really wanted to prove

    但我們真的想證明

  • that you could tell stories completely different in animation.

    你可在動畫中用完全不同的方法去說故事。

  • We didn't have any influence then,

    我們那時並無任何影響力,