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  • Linguists estimate 6,000-7,000 languages are spoken worldwide,

    語言學家估計,有6000到7000種語言仍在世界上流通

  • and so that sounds like a tremendous amount of languages,

    聽起來數量龐大

  • tremendous linguistic diversity,

    龐大的語言多樣性

  • but what that actually means

    但那表示什麼呢?

  • is that many, many languages have few numbers of speakers,

    代表有很多很多語言,僅少數人會說

  • and in fact in many countries, as many as 90% or more of the people in that country

    而事實上在很多國家,約有百分之九十或更多人

  • speak a language at home

    在家所講的語言

  • other than the national or official language of that country.

    並非國家的或官方的語言

  • 30 languages including English, Arabic, Hindi, Spanish, Mandarin Chinese,

    包括英語、阿拉伯語、北印語、西班牙語、中文等30種語言

  • include more than 4 billion people speaking the language

    已占了40億人在說

  • so if there's 7 billion people worldwide,

    如果世界上有70億人

  • and 4 billion people speak 30 languages,

    而其中40億人說那30種語言

  • that doesn't leave a lot of speakers left for the remaining 6,970 languages.

    那麼就沒剩多少人,來說其餘的6,970種

  • And in fact, more than half of the world's languages

    事實上,世界上有超過一半的語言

  • are in critical situations for their survival.

    處在危急的存亡關頭

  • These languages are endangered.

    這些語言瀕臨絕種了

  • UNESCO has a series of criteria

    聯合國教科文組織有一套標準

  • that outline how a language is doing in terms of its survival.

    分級概述語言的瀕危狀況

  • And for these languages,

    對這些語言來說

  • if there's no children in the home learning the language,

    如果小孩在家沒有學習這些語言

  • if there are only elderly speakers remaining,

    如果只剩老年人會說這些語言

  • those languages are in severely threatened states.

    那這些語言就面臨嚴重威脅

  • It maybe they're just vulnerable,

    也許現在只處於脆弱狀態

  • and in a few years, a few decades, the speakers will go,

    但幾年之後,幾十年後,說這些語言的人會凋零

  • but many languages are in a critically endangered situation

    許多語言面臨瀕臨絕種的處境

  • which means their very survival is threatened.

    也就是他們的生存面臨威脅

  • In fact, every continent in our global world

    事實上,地球上每塊大陸

  • has an endangered language.

    都有瀕危的語言

  • Endangered languages are found worldwide,

    瀕危的語言在世界各地都有

  • So, these critically endangered languages are on every continent,

    所以,這些瀕臨絕種的語言遍及每塊大陸

  • but tiny languages are fighting back for their survival.

    但這些規模極小的語言,努力地為其生存奮鬥

  • In Europe, the example of Irish is an amazing story,

    在歐洲,愛爾蘭的例子,十分令人驚艷

  • and inspiring story of language revitalization and reclamation.

    在語言的復興和回歸的層面上,具有啟發性

  • In the 19th century, as speakers started to realize

    19世紀,母語人士開始意識到

  • there were fewer and fewer Irish speakers and English was taking over,

    越來越少人會說愛爾蘭語,而英語正大舉入侵

  • they started to engage in efforts

    他們開始著手努力

  • in order to see that their languages survived.

    為了讓他們的母語留存下來

  • In the Gaeltacht, those are the parts of Ireland

    在 Gaeltacht,屬於愛爾蘭地區的一部分

  • where the most number of speakers are found,

    說愛爾蘭居爾特語的人,在此地區數量最眾

  • the most dense areas of Irish Gaelic speakers.

    是以愛爾蘭居爾特語為母語者,居住密度最高的地區

  • In the 20th century, we saw things like radio,

    在20世紀,有了像廣播電台的科技

  • Irish Gaelic radio emerged,

    愛爾蘭居爾特語的電台出現了

  • and so new media offered places for speakers to regenerate and revive.

    新媒體工具提供人們平台來重建、復興母語

  • The indigenous language, Maori, spoken in New Zealand,

    有一種土語,毛利語,在紐西蘭流通的語言

  • is the New Zealand indigenous language,

    是紐西蘭的土語

  • and that language has had a very vary lots of challenges that it's faced.

    這個語言曾面臨許許多多挑戰

  • In the 1970s, the communities started to realize

    1970年代,居民開始意識到

  • that the survival of the language was threatened,

    這個語言的存亡面臨威脅

  • and so what happened in the 1980s is that Maori community members sought to

    所以在1980年代,毛利人們設法

  • recreate that environment where language is best learnt :

    重新建構一個適合學語言的環境:

  • in the home.

    在家中學習

  • In the home, for child rearing

    在家中育兒的時候

  • where parents, and grandparents, and children

    父母親、祖父母和小孩

  • engage in daily activities, immersed in their language.

    從日常生活起居,融入到母語裡 (註:浸沒式語言教學)

  • This is the place where children best learn the language.

    這就是小孩學習語言的最佳環境

  • And so in the 1980s, the Maori created "language nests,"

    於是,在1980年代,毛利人建立了「語言巢」

  • trying to recreate that environment which was not possible at that time

    試著要重新創造在當時是不可能達到的環境,

  • because the parent generation, the childbearing generation,

    因為父母那一代,生兒育女的這一代

  • did not speak the language, and as a consequence,

    根本不說這個語言了,然而結果是

  • the Maori language nest model has taken over in many communities worldwide,

    毛利人的語言巢模型,被世界各地許多地方採用

  • seeking to revive and revitalize their language use that model.

    設法要復興母語而利用此模型

  • Closer to home in Arlington, Texas,

    回到我們的德州,阿靈頓來談 (註:講者為德州大學阿靈頓分校教授)

  • only three hours down the road in Ada, Oklahoma

    只距離俄克拉荷馬州的艾達三個小時路程的地方

  • is the Chickasaw Language Revitalization Program.

    有契卡索語的復興計畫

  • And this program is vigorously engaged in making sure its language survives

    這個計畫正積極有力的推行,確保語言能留存

  • into the next generation.

    傳承至下一代

  • Chickasaw, at best, has 60 to 65 speakers of the Chickasaw language,

    契卡索語,充其量也只有60到65個人能說

  • and non of them are under the age of 60.

    而且他們沒有人低於60歲

  • You can see that's a challenging situation for the Chickasaw tribal members.

    可見契卡索部落的成員們,面臨的是多麼有挑戰性的處境

  • But what the Chickasaw Language Program does

    但是,契卡索語復興計畫的內容

  • is they create lots of opportunities for their citizens

    為居民們製造了很多機會

  • to engage and partake in the language.

    讓他們參與、投入這個語言

  • For example,

    舉例來說

  • playing cards with the language allow the grandparents, parents, and children

    玩字卡,讓祖父母、父母親和兒童

  • to engage in games, and have the language there.

    參與遊戲,而語言就在其中

  • If we look to Australia

    來看看澳洲

  • where there's tremendous diversity in Aboriginal languages,

    當地的原住民語言有龐大的多樣性

  • we find an inspiring example of a sleeping language being reawakened.

    有個鼓舞人心的例子,是有關一個沉睡中的語言被喚醒

  • Jack Buckskin, a young Kaurna man

    Jack Buckskin,Kaurna族的青年

  • has been instrumental in bringing his language back.

    曾有效地復興了他們的語言

  • With the help of linguist Rob Amery, and archival materials in the language,

    在語言學家Rob Amery 的幫助之下,以及 Kaurna 語的資料典藏

  • Jack Buckskin learnt his language, he teaches his language,

    Jack Buckskin 學會了他們的語言,並教授這個語言

  • and now his little girl speaks the language

    現在他的小女兒也會說 Kaurna 語

  • which she learned in the home.

    她是在家中學會的

  • So once again, thanks to Jack Buckskin and his efforts,

    因此我們要再次感謝 Jack Buckskin 和他的努力

  • and efforts of others around him;

    以及他身邊其他人的努力

  • what we see is the Kaurna language again spoken by children.

    我們看到孩童再度說起了 Kaurna 語

  • It's not just about language.

    不僅僅是語言而已

  • Tremendous amounts of information is stored and encoded in language :

    大量的訊息被儲存、編譯在這個語言裡:

  • culture, traditions, life ways, food,

    文化、傳統、生活方式和飲食

  • knowledge about the seasons, climate, plants, and animals.

    關於季節的知識、氣候、植栽和動物

  • In fact, if we stay in Australia,

    事實上,如果我們只看澳洲的話

  • there's a significant oral tradition

    就有一些值得注意的口傳故事

  • among a number of different aboriginal people

    流傳在許多不同的原住民之間

  • that there was a time when the sea level was low,

    曾經有段時間海平面是比較低的

  • and what is now island was then connected land

    如今的島嶼,過去曾與大陸相連

  • where people could roam.

    人們可以自由來去

  • But then the sea levels rose and life changed,

    但後來海平面上升,生活隨之改變

  • and this is something that's found in many aboriginal traditions:the story of the sea level change.

    許多原住民傳說裡,都找得到有關海平面改變的故事

  • And if fact, there's parallels in western science for climate change

    而事實上,這和西方科學的氣候改變紀錄吻合

  • that 6,000-7,000 years ago the water levels rose.

    也就是在6000-7000年前,海平面上升

  • The Gwich'in in Alaska

    阿拉斯加的哥威迅人

  • are in a part of the world with Arctic climates,

    位於世界角隅的極地氣候帶

  • and its climate in this environment is rapidly changing.

    這裡的氣候,在當前的環境下快速變化中

  • One of the things that they have lived on that's been essential to their survival is the caribou.

    他們賴以為生的重要事物之一就是馴鹿了

  • The caribou plays a strong role in tradition subsistence,

    馴鹿在傳統的生計方式裡扮演重要角色

  • and as the weather is changing, as the land is changing,

    而在氣候改變、陸地的變化之下

  • the Gwich'in are rapidly engaged in vigorously documenting

    哥威迅人迅速、積極地從事記錄工作

  • what they know about the caribou.

    把他們所知的馴鹿相關知識記錄下來

  • They have a rich vocabulary for the parts and the anatomy of the caribou.

    他們有豐富的辭彙用來描述馴鹿的部位和構造

  • Elders have amazing amounts of traditional knowledge

    長者們身懷著驚人豐沛的傳統知識

  • about how the caribou was hunted, ceremonies involved the caribou

    關於如何狩獵馴鹿,以及與馴鹿有關的相關儀式

  • so this is a centre of the life ways of the Gwich'in,

    因此馴鹿是哥威迅人生活方式的中心

  • and they're working to make sure

    他們努力以確保

  • that knowledge is there for future generations,

    這些知識能傳承給下一代

  • and that knowledge is tied to the language.

    這些知識和語言緊密相連

  • But it's not just Alaska,

    不只阿拉斯加

  • if we look to the Tohono O'odham in the Sonoran Desert,

    如果我們來看看 Tohono O'odham 族,在亞利桑那州的索諾蘭沙漠裡

  • what we see is a people

    我們看到這個人

  • vigorously engaged in traditional food ways,involved in plant activities.

    積極有活力地進行傳統食品製做,和從事栽植活動

  • For example, the harvest of the Bahidaj,

    這個例子,是「Bahidaj」的收成

  • the red ripe fruit of the Haashan, of the Saguaro cactus.

    也就是「Haashan」的紅色成熟果實,這種巨人柱仙人掌的果實

  • People still harvest that fruit

    人們仍會採收這種果實

  • and that fruit's harvest in June

    而這果實在六月收成

  • is usually a signal that the rains are coming,

    通常預告著雨季即將來臨

  • it's an integral part of the calendar of the Tohono O'odham life and traditions.

    這是 Tohono O'odham 的部落生活和傳統裡不可或缺的一部分

  • Tohono O'odham community action is a non-profit,

    Tohono O'odham 部落的活動是非營利的

  • it's engaged in the language and cultural revitalization,

    他們進行語言和文化的復興運動

  • and making sure these traditional ways of harvesting plants, of planting foods are kept alive.

    要確保這些傳統收成、食物的種植方式都能留存下來

  • Ceremonies, traditional games it's all about health and life ways,

    儀式,傳統遊戲,都是健康和生活方式的一部分

  • and finding that wholeness that's involved in the traditional foods,

    而其完整性還包括了傳統食品

  • in the traditional activities, in the traditional sports.

    傳統活動、運動

  • The O'odham have some of the highest IBD rates in the world

    Tohono O'odham 部落裡有些 IBD 的發生率為世界最高 (註:發炎性腸道疾病)

  • and reclaiming that cultural connection

    重新尋求那樣的文化關聯

  • can allow them to have a healthier path to the future.

    能讓他們更健康地邁向未來

  • It's not just about history, it's about technology,

    不僅談歷史,也和科技有關

  • the Cherokee leaders in digital technology with language.

    切羅基族 (又譯:查拉幾族) 領導著語言的數位科技

  • So right now, thanks to localisation projects

    現在呢,感謝一些方案推行本土化

  • the Cherokee Language Program has with Microsoft, Apple, and Google,

    切羅基族人的語言套件在微軟、蘋果和谷歌都可以使用

  • you can text on your iPhone in Cherokee.

    你可以在你的 iPhone 上輸入切羅基語

  • The Cherokee have long been leaders in digital language technology:

    切羅基語長久以來一直居於語言數位科技的領導地位

  • when Sequoyah invented the writing system, the Cherokee syllabary in the 1800s,

    塞闊雅在1800年代發明了書寫系統,也就是切羅基語的音節文字

  • what you soon saw were printing presses

    後來很快地有了印刷出刊

  • creating a large literature in the Cherokee language,

    產生很多切羅基語文學

  • and a large written tradition.

    和很多的傳統文化的記載

  • When the Cherokee were forced out of their traditional lands in the south-east

    當切羅基人被迫離開他們位於(北美大陸)東南方原來的祖傳土地

  • into what was then Indian territory and became Oklahoma,

    來到後來成為奧克拉荷馬州的印地安人保留區之後

  • one of the things that was quick to happen

    其中一件很快發生的事

  • was the re-emergence of the printing presses,

    便是印刷工具的重新出現

  • and the re-emergence of a printed Cherokee literature.

    及印刷的切羅基文學再度出現

  • (voice-over in Cherokee) The little, green lizard sat on a tree limb.

    (切羅基語旁白) 小小的綠色蜥蜴坐在樹枝上

  • The little green lizard sat on a tree limb

    小小的綠色蜥蜴坐在樹枝上

  • and he would change colours, green and red.

    牠能變成紅色和綠色

  • While he sat on the tree limb, he changed colours.

    坐在樹枝上的時候,牠變色了

  • The little lizard was in the grass and his two lizard friends came along,

    小蜥蜴在草地裡,兩個蜥蜴朋友也一起來了

  • and they went into the sand.

    牠們到沙地裡去

  • At best, 200 speakers by the last count, but probably far fewer.

    最近一次統計,最多約有200人說切羅基語,但或許還更少

  • Most of the speakers are in their late 50s or older.

    大部分的人已50多歲接近60歲,或更老

  • We had Janelle Batis, a speaker in her 30s who was able to speak the language

    我們知道有一位 Janelle Batis,30多歲,能說切羅基語

  • because her parents did not allow them to speak English in the home.

    因為她的父母不允許他們在家用英文對話

  • We had her here on the UT Arlington campus,

    我們請她到德州大學阿靈頓分校來

  • and were able to use technology to help

    然後,藉由科技的幫助

  • create materials that can be used to teach the language,

    創造出切羅基語的教學材料

  • and that have been used in culture in language camps

    而這些教材曾被用在「語言的文化」營隊裡