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  • So this is a story

    這是從一個地方

  • of a place that I now call home.

    我現在把它叫做「家」來的故事。

  • It's a story of public education

    這是一個公立教育

  • and of rural communities

    與偏遠地區

  • and of what design might do to improve both.

    和如何以設計改變兩者的故事

  • So this is Bertie County,

    這是伯地郡

  • North Carolina, USA.

    位於美國北卡羅納州

  • To give you an idea of the "where:"

    讓我給你們一點大概的地理位置

  • So here's North Carolina, and if we zoom in,

    這裡是北卡羅納州,把地圖放大一點看

  • Bertie County is in the eastern part of the state.

    伯地郡就位在北卡的東部地區

  • It's about two hours east

    大概是從里海往東

  • driving-time from Raleigh.

    兩個小時的車程

  • And it's very flat. It's very swampy.

    是地形平坦的沼澤地

  • It's mostly farmland.

    大部分都用作農田

  • The entire county

    整個郡

  • is home to just 20,000 people, and they're very sparsely distributed.

    總人口只有20,000人,而且分布的很零散.

  • So there's only 27 people per square mile,

    每平方英里只有27人

  • which comes down to about 10 people

    如果以每平方公里來算

  • per square kilometer.

    相當於10個人

  • Bertie County is kind of a prime example

    伯地郡是很典型

  • in the demise of rural America.

    美國沒落鄉村

  • We've seen this story all over the country

    這樣的故事不只發生在美國境內

  • and even in places beyond the American borders.

    甚至在其他國家都可以看到

  • We know the symptoms.

    我們都知道它發生時的徵狀

  • It's the hollowing out of small towns.

    就是小鎮的空洞化

  • It's downtowns becoming ghost towns.

    市區人煙稀少

  • The brain drain --

    人才流失

  • where all of the most educated and qualified leave and never come back.

    大部分有學歷和有能力的人離開後就再也沒回來了

  • It's the dependence on farm subsidies

    這些偏遠地區只能依靠農田的補助金

  • and under-performing schools

    、表現不佳的學校

  • and higher poverty rates in rural areas

    和比起市區更高比例

  • than in urban.

    的低收入戶

  • And Bertie County is no exception to this.

    伯地郡當然也不例外

  • Perhaps the biggest thing it struggles with,

    或許所面臨最大的問題

  • like many communities similar to it,

    就像其他社區一樣

  • is that there's no

    沒有

  • shared, collective investment

    對偏遠社區未來

  • in the future of rural communities.

    共同集體的投資

  • Only 6.8 percent of all our philanthropic giving in the U.S. right now

    目前美國境內只有6.8%的慈善捐款

  • benefits rural communities,

    是針對偏遠社區

  • and yet 20 percent of our population lives there.

    但居住在這些地區人口卻高達20%

  • So Bertie County is not only very rural; it's incredibly poor.

    所以伯地郡不但很偏遠而且是難以置信的貧窮

  • It is the poorest county in the state.

    它是全美最貧窮的郡

  • It has one in three of its children living in poverty,

    3分之1的兒童來自低收入戶家庭

  • and it's what is referred to as a "rural ghetto."

    所以這裡被稱作鄉村貧民窟

  • The economy is mostly agricultural.

    農業是主要的經濟來源

  • The biggest crops are cotton and tobacco,

    棉花及菸草是最大宗農作物

  • and we're very proud of our Bertie County peanut.

    而且我們也很以伯地郡的花生為傲

  • The biggest employer is the Purdue chicken processing plant.

    普度雞肉加工廠是當地最大的雇主

  • The county seat is Windsor.

    溫莎鎮是伯地郡的活動中心

  • This is like Times Square of Windsor that you're looking at right now.

    你們現在看到的就像是溫莎鎮的時代廣場

  • It's home to only 2,000 people,

    不過居住在這裡的人只有2,000個

  • and like a lot of other small towns

    就像很多其他的小鎮

  • it has been hollowed out over the years.

    多年來已經漸漸的空洞化

  • There are more buildings that are empty or in disrepair

    空屋或荒廢的建築物

  • than occupied and in use.

    比有人住或使用中的建築物多得多

  • You can count the number of restaurants in the county

    你一隻手就可以數完整個郡的

  • on one hand --

    餐廳

  • Bunn's Barbecue being my absolute favorite.

    Bunn's燒烤是我的最愛

  • But in the whole county there is no coffee shop,

    可是整個郡卻連1家咖啡廳都沒有

  • there's no Internet cafe,

    沒有網咖

  • there's no movie theater, there's no bookstore.

    沒有電影院,沒有書局

  • There isn't even a Walmart.

    甚至沒有Walmart

  • Racially, the county

    以人口分布來說,這個郡

  • is about 60 percent African-American,

    有大約60%的非裔美國人

  • but what happens in the public schools

    但是在公立學校裡

  • is most of the privileged white kids

    大部分有優勢的白人小孩

  • go to the private Lawrence Academy.

    都會到私立的羅倫斯中學就讀

  • So the public school students

    公立學校裡

  • are about 86 percent African-American.

    86%的學生是非裔美國人

  • And this is a spread from the local newspaper of the recent graduating class,

    這是當地報紙刊登最近即將畢業學生的照片

  • and you can see the difference is pretty stark.

    所以你可以發現這個差異是非常大的

  • So to say that the public education system

    如果說伯地郡的公立教育系統

  • in Bertie County is struggling

    正在苟言殘喘

  • would be a huge understatement.

    其實都還無法形容它的窘境

  • There's basically no pool

    他們根本找不到

  • of qualified teachers to pull from,

    符合資格的老師

  • and only eight percent of the people in the county

    全郡只有8%的人

  • have a bachelor's degree or higher.

    擁有學士或更高的學位

  • So there isn't a big legacy

    所以沒有甚麼值得驕傲的教育遺產

  • in the pride of education.

    遺留下來

  • In fact, two years ago,

    事實上,兩年前

  • only 27 percent of all the third- through eighth-graders

    所有三年級到八年級學生中只有27%的學生

  • were passing the state standard

    通過北卡州

  • in both English and math.

    英文和數學的標準

  • So it sounds like I'm painting a really bleak picture of this place,

    聽起來我只是在說這個地方有多糟糕

  • but I promise there is good news.

    不過我保證也有好的一面

  • The biggest asset, in my opinion,

    我覺得現在伯地郡最大的資產

  • one of the biggest assets in Bertie County right now is this man:

    就是這個人

  • This is Dr. Chip Zullinger,

    這是Chip Zullinger博士

  • fondly known as Dr. Z.

    大家喜歡叫他Z博士

  • He was brought in in October 2007

    他是2007年10月被邀請來伯地郡

  • as the new superintendent

    擔任新的督導

  • to basically fix this broken school system.

    基本上就是來補救這個殘破的教育系統

  • And he previously was a superintendent

    他之前在南卡羅納州查爾斯頓市

  • in Charleston, South Carolina

    擔任過督導

  • and then in Denver, Colorado.

    另外在美國80年代晚期

  • He started some of the country's first charter schools

    他在科羅拉多州丹佛市

  • in the late '80s in the U.S.

    首創全國第一家特許學校

  • And he is an absolute renegade and a visionary,

    他是絕對反傳統而且有遠見的

  • and he is the reason that I now live and work there.

    他是我決定搬到那並在那工作的原因

  • So in February of 2009,

    2009年2月

  • Dr. Zullinger invited us, Project H Design --

    Zullinger 博士邀請我們H設計計畫

  • which is a non-profit design firm that I founded --

    H設計計畫是一家我為了伯地郡而創立的非營利設計公司

  • to come to Bertie and to partner with him

    我們到那與他一起

  • on the repair of this school district

    修復學區

  • and to bring a design perspective to the repair of the school district.

    並合作將設計的概念融入學區的修復

  • And he invited us in particular

    他特別邀請我們來

  • because we have a very specific

    因為我們對設計的程序

  • type of design process --

    有非常明確的想法

  • one that results in appropriate design solutions

    讓適切的解決方法

  • in places that don't usually have access

    在這些通常無法獲得

  • to design services or creative capital.

    設計服務或是有創造力資本的地方得以實現

  • Specifically, we use these six design directives,

    特別的是,我們使用六個設計指令

  • probably the most important being number two:

    最重要的應該是第二點

  • we design with, not for --

    一起設計而不是為誰設計

  • in that, when we're doing humanitarian-focused design,

    因為這樣,所以當我們在做以人道主義為主的設計時

  • it's not about designing for clients anymore.

    不再是為客戶設計

  • It's about designing with people,

    而是與大家一起設計

  • and letting appropriate solutions emerge from within.

    讓最好的解決方法由內部產生

  • So at the time of being invited down there,

    當我們被邀請到那裏時

  • we were based in San Francisco,

    我們公司還在舊金山

  • and so we were going back and forth

    幾乎2009年一整年

  • for basically the rest of 2009,

    我們就這樣兩地往返

  • spending about half our time in Bertie County.

    我們花了大約一半的時間在伯地郡

  • And when I say we, I mean Project H,

    當我說我們的時候,我指的是H計畫

  • but more specifically, I mean myself and my partner, Matthew Miller,

    更精確的說,就是我跟我的合夥人,馬修米勒

  • who's an architect and a sort of MacGyver-type builder.

    他是個建築師,有點像馬蓋先那種類型的

  • So fast-forward to today, and we now live there.

    快轉到今天,現在我們已經搬到那住了

  • I have strategically cut Matt's head out of this photo,

    我很技巧性的將照片裡馬修的頭砍掉

  • because he would kill me if he knew I was using it

    如果他知道我用這張照片他肯定會殺了我

  • because of the sweatsuits.

    因為這件運動衫

  • But this is our front porch. We live there.

    這是我們的前庭,我們就住在那

  • We now call this place home.

    我們稱這裡"家"

  • Over the course of this year that we spent flying back and forth,

    經過今年飛來飛去後

  • we realized we had fallen in love with the place.

    我們體會到我們已經愛上這個地方了

  • We had fallen in love with the place and the people

    我們愛上的不只是這個地方,還有這裡的人

  • and the work that we're able to do

    我們可以做的工作

  • in a rural place like Bertie County,

    是在像伯地郡這樣的偏遠地區

  • that, as designers and builders,

    然而,作為一個設計師及建築師

  • you can't do everywhere.

    不是每個地方

  • There's space to experiment

    都有空間讓你去實驗

  • and to weld and to test things.

    修補或測試

  • We have an amazing advocate in Dr. Zullinger.

    Zullinger博士對我們是全力的擁護

  • There's a nobility of real, hands-on,

    親手作這苦活

  • dirt-under-your-fingernails work.

    是非常有成就感的

  • But beyond our personal reasons for wanting to be there,

    但除了我們個人原因想待在那裏外

  • there is a huge need.

    那裏確實有強烈的需求

  • There is a total vacuum of creative capital in Bertie County.

    伯地郡中完全沒有具有創造力的資本可言

  • There isn't a single licensed architect in the whole county.

    整個郡上沒有一個有執照的建築師

  • And so we saw an opportunity

    所以我們抓到這個機會

  • to bring design as this untouched tool,

    引進這個未經雕琢的設計工具

  • something that Bertie County didn't otherwise have,

    這是伯地郡之前完全不可能擁有的

  • and to be sort of the -- to usher that in

    現在就像是工具箱裡新的工具

  • as a new type of tool in their tool kit.

    被介紹給大家認識

  • The initial goal became using design

    因此我們最初的目標就是與Zullinger博士合作

  • within the public education system in partnership with Dr. Zullinger --

    將設計運用在公立教育系統

  • that was why we were there.

    這也是我們之所以在那的原因

  • But beyond that, we recognized

    但除了這個原因之外,我們了解到

  • that Bertie County, as a community,

    伯地郡是個

  • was in dire need of a fresh perspective

    急需新願景的社區

  • of pride and connectedness

    一個值得驕傲,有向心力

  • and of the creative capital

    有創造力資本的社區

  • that they were so much lacking.

    而這些都是他們過去所缺少的

  • So the goal became, yes, to apply design within education,

    就這樣,我們將設計運用在教育裡作為目標

  • but then to figure out how to make education

    然後再想出如何讓教育

  • a great vehicle for community development.

    成為社區發展的火車頭

  • So in order to do this, we've taken three different approaches

    所以為了達成這個目標,我們用了三種不同的步驟

  • to the intersection of design and education.

    來連結設計與教育

  • And I should say that these are three things that we've done in Bertie County,

    我應該說我們在伯地郡做了三件事

  • but I feel pretty confident that they could work

    而且我很有信心這個計畫

  • in a lot of other rural communities

    可以成功落實在美國其他偏遠社區

  • around the U.S. and maybe even beyond.

    甚至是美國以外的地方

  • So the first of the three is design for education.

    這三件事中的第一件事是為教育設計

  • This is the most kind of direct, obvious

    連結這兩件事

  • intersection of the two things.

    是最直接最顯著的作法

  • It's the physical construction

    這個實際的建築物

  • of improved spaces and materials and experiences

    讓老師及學生

  • for teachers and students.

    對改善空間及材料的使用有更多經驗

  • This is in response to the awful mobile trailers

    這是用來取代現今移動式拖車

  • and the outdated textbooks

    老舊教科書

  • and the terrible materials that we're building schools out of these days.

    和學校糟糕的建築材料

  • And so this played out for us in a couple different ways.

    這個計畫展現在很多不同的地方

  • The first was a series of renovations of computer labs.

    首先是一連串電算中心的整修

  • So traditionally, the computer labs,

    傳統上,對於學校的電算中心

  • particularly in an under-performing school like Bertie County,

    尤其是像伯地郡這樣表現不佳的鄉鎮

  • where they have to benchmark test every other week,

    每隔一個星期會進行標竿測試

  • the computer lab is a kill-and-drill

    這樣的電算中心是很表面而達不成學習效果

  • testing facility.

    的測驗場所

  • You come in, you face the wall, you take your test and you leave.

    你走進來,面對牆,做完測驗然後離開

  • So we wanted to change the way that students approach technology,

    我們想作的是改變學生接觸科技的方式

  • to create a more convivial and social space

    去創造一個更有趣且大家更願意來的地方

  • that was more engaging, more accessible,

    讓它變得更吸引人,更容易接近

  • and also to increase the ability for teachers

    同時也可以增加老師使用

  • to use these spaces for technology-based instruction.

    這些地方作為科技基礎教學的機會

  • So this is the lab at the high school,

    這是中學裡的電算中心

  • and the principal there is in love with this room.

    那裏的校長愛死這間教室了

  • Every time he has visitors, it's the first place that he takes them.

    每次他有訪客,這裡都是第一個被參觀的地方

  • And this also meant the co-creation with some teachers

    這也是跟一些其他老師

  • of this educational playground system

    共同創作的結果

  • called the learning landscape.

    他們是教學遊樂區的老師,並使用一個叫做學習景觀的方法

  • It allows elementary-level students to learn core subjects

    它讓初級程度的學生透過遊戲

  • through game play and activity

    學習到事物的核心

  • and running around and screaming and being a kid.

    但還是可以像個小孩一樣跑來跑去大聲喊叫

  • So this game that the kids are playing here --

    小朋友正在這裡玩配配看的遊戲

  • in this case they were learning basic multiplication

    並同時透過這個遊戲

  • through a game called Match Me.

    學習基礎乘法

  • And in Match Me, you take the class, divide it into two teams,

    配配看遊戲呢,是將班級分成兩個小組

  • one team on each side of the playground,

    分別在遊戲區兩邊

  • and the teacher will take a piece of chalk

    然後老師拿粉筆

  • and just write a number on each of the tires.

    在每個輪胎上寫下一個數字

  • And then she'll call out a math problem --

    再來她會唸出數學題目

  • so let's say four times four --

    譬如4乘4

  • and then one student from each team has to compete

    每個組選出1個學生出來比賽

  • to figure out that four times four is 16

    並計算出4乘4等於16

  • and find the tire with the 16 on it and sit on it.

    而且要找出有寫有16的輪胎並且坐在上面

  • So the goal is to have all of your teammates sitting on the tires

    隊員最先完成坐在輪胎上的隊伍

  • and then your team wins.

    就是贏家

  • And the impact of the learning landscape

    這個學習景觀方法所帶來的成效

  • has been pretty surprising and amazing.

    出乎我們的意料之外

  • Some of the classes and teachers have reported higher test scores,

    一些班級獲得到更好的成績

  • a greater comfort level with the material,

    而且對教材有更好的掌握

  • especially with the boys,

    尤其是男孩子

  • that in going outside and playing,

    喜歡到戶外玩耍

  • they aren't afraid to take on

    他們不會害怕

  • a double-digit multiplication problem --

    作兩位數的乘法

  • and also that the teachers are able

    而且老師也可以

  • to use these as assessment tools

    把這些器材當作評分的工具

  • to better gauge how their students

    藉以更精準評估學生

  • are understanding new material.

    是否理解新的教材

  • So with design for education, I think the most important thing

    在這個為教育設計的步驟裡,我認為是最重要的是

  • is to have a shared ownership of the solutions with the teachers,

    可以和老師共享解決方案

  • so that they have the incentive and the desire to use them.

    所以他們才會有動機和慾望去使用它

  • So this is Mr. Perry. He's the assistant superintendent.

    這是Perry先生,他是副督導

  • He came out for one of our teacher-training days

    有一天他來參觀我們的教學培訓課程

  • and won like five rounds of Match Me in a row and was very proud of himself.

    贏了大概五次的配配看遊戲,對此他可是非常的自豪

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So the second approach is redesigning education itself.

    接下來,第二個步驟是重新設計教育本身

  • This is the most complex.

    這是最複雜的部分

  • It's a systems-level look

    從系統的層級來看

  • at how education is administered

    教育的落實

  • and what is being offered and to whom.

    教學的內容及教授的對象

  • So in many cases this is not so much about making change

    很多時候,我們不能要求改變多少

  • as it is creating the conditions

    因為我們所面臨的狀況是

  • under which change is possible

    只能決定哪種改變是可行的

  • and the incentive to want to make change,

    或是為什麼想改變的動機

  • which is easier said than done in rural communities

    然而在這樣偏避的區域要去實踐是很不容易的

  • and in inside-the-box education systems

    尤其在制式教育體制下