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  • The Naming of Clouds

    雲的命名

  • On a cold December evening in 1802,

    1802 年 12 月,一個寒冷的夜晚

  • a nervous young man named Luke Howard

    一位緊張兮兮的年輕人,名叫盧克.霍華德

  • stood before the assembled members of a London science club

    站在倫敦科學俱樂部會員前

  • about to give a lecture that would change his life,

    準備做一場演講,這將改變他一生

  • and go on to change humanity's understanding of the skies.

    繼而改變人類對天空的認識

  • Luke Howard was a pharmacist by profession, but he was a meteorologist by inclination, having been obsessed by clouds and weather since childhood.

    盧克.霍華德的職業是藥師,但他的志趣是成為氣象學家,他從小就一直著迷於雲和天氣

  • As a school boy, he spent hours staring out of the classroom window,

    學生時期,他常花數小時望向教室窗外

  • gazing at the passing clouds.

    凝視著飄過的雲朵

  • Like everyone else at the time, he had no idea how clouds formed,

    正如那時候的其他人,對於雲是如何形成

  • or how they stayed aloft.

    或它們如何在停高空飄浮一無所知

  • But he enjoyed observing their endless transformations.

    但他沉浸於觀察雲無止盡的變換

  • By his own admission, Luke paid little attention to his lessons,

    他承認自己很少關心課業

  • but fortunately for the future of meteorology,

    但對氣象學的發展是個福音

  • he managed to pick up a good knowledge of Latin.

    因為他學習並精通了拉丁文

  • Compared to the other natural sciences,

    相較於其他自然科學

  • meteorology, the study of weather, was a late developer,

    研究天氣的氣象學發展得比較晚

  • mainly because weather is elusive.

    主要是因為天氣難以捉摸

  • You can't snap off a piece of rainbow or a section of cloud for convenient study.

    你無法折一段彩虹或摘一小片雲拿來研究

  • You can, of course, collect rain water in calibrated containers,

    當然,你能將雨收集在測量容器內

  • but all you really end up with are buckets of water.

    但最後你所得的終究是幾桶水而已

  • Understanding clouds required a different approach,

    要瞭解雲需要不同的方法

  • which is where Luke Howard's idea came in.

    而這方法正是盧克.霍華德想出來的

  • His simple insight based on years of observation

    基於多年的觀察,他單純地理解到

  • was that clouds have many individual shapes

    雲有許多種獨特的形狀

  • but they have few basic forms.

    但它們僅有少數幾種基本類型

  • In fact, all clouds belong to one of three principle types

    事實上,所有雲都屬於三個主要種類其中之一

  • to which Howard gave the names:

    霍華德為它們命名為:

  • Cirrus, Latin for tendril or hair,

    卷雲,在拉丁語是捲髮或頭髮之意

  • Cumulus, heap or pile,

    積雲,堆積或堆疊之意

  • and Stratus, layer or sheet.

    層雲,層或片之意

  • But that wasn't the clever part.

    可是那不是最聰明的部分

  • Clouds are constantly changing, merging, rising, falling, and spreading throughout the atmosphere,

    雲一直持續在變化,聚集、上升、下降、散佈於大氣中

  • rarely maintaining the same shapes for more than a few minutes.

    很少在幾分鐘內保持相同形狀

  • Any successful naming system had to accommodate this essential instability,

    任何成功的命名系統都必須適用於這種基本的不穩定性

  • as Howard realized.

    霍華德了解這一點

  • So, in addition to the three main cloud types,

    所以,除了三種雲的主要種類外

  • he introduced a series of intermediate and compound types

    他還提出一系列中間型及混合型

  • as a way of including the regular transitions that occur among clouds.

    以涵蓋在雲之間常見的轉換

  • A high, wispy cirrus cloud that descended and spread into a sheet was named cirrostratus,

    當高而纖細的卷雲下降且散成片狀時,就叫做「卷層雲」

  • while groups of fluffy cumulus clouds that joined up and spread were named stratocumulus.

    當成群毛絨絨的積雲匯合展延,就叫做「層積雲」

  • Howard identified seven cloud types,

    霍華德鑑別出七種雲的種類

  • but these have since been expanded to ten,

    但現今已增加到十種

  • cloud nine being the towering cumulonimbus thunder cloud,

    第九種是高聳的積雨雷雲

  • which is probably why being on cloud nine means to be on top of the world.

    這可能是它被擺在「欣喜若狂」 ( cloud nine ) 意即世界之頂 (天堂) 的理由吧!

  • Howard's classification had an immediate international impact.

    霍華德的分類立即在國際間產生影響

  • The German poet and scientist J.W. von Goethe wrote a series of poems in praise of Howard's clouds,

    德國詩人科學家歌德寫了一系列的詩,讚頌霍華德的雲

  • which ended with the memorable lines,

    結尾有令人難以忘懷的詞句

  • "As clouds ascend, are folded, scatter, fall,

    「當雲上升、折疊、散開、下降

  • Let the world think of thee who taught it all,"

    讓世人想起教導這一切的你」

  • while Percy Shelley also wrote a poem "The Cloud,"

    雪萊也寫了一首詩 —— <雲>

  • in which each of Howard's seven cloud types was characterized in turn.

    詩裡,霍華德七種雲中的每一種都輪流被加以描繪

  • But perhaps the most impressive response to the naming of clouds was by the painter John Constable,

    但或許對雲的命名迴響最感人的是畫家約翰.康斯特勃

  • who spent two summers on Hampstead Heath painting clouds in the open air.

    他花了兩個夏天在漢普斯特德荒野的戶外畫雲

  • Once they had been named and classified,

    一旦雲被命名與分類

  • clouds became easier to understand

    它們就變得清晰易懂

  • as the visible signs of otherwise invisible atmospheric processes.

    猶如將不可見的大氣運作轉為可見的標誌

  • Clouds write a kind of journal on the sky

    雲寫下一種天空日誌

  • that allows us to understand the circulating patterns of weather and climate.

    讓我們瞭解了天氣與氣候的循環型式

  • Perhaps the most important breakthrough in understanding clouds

    或許認識雲的最重大突破在於

  • was realizing that they are subject to the same physical laws as everything else on Earth.

    領悟了它們是遵循相同的物理定律,如同地球上的其他事物一樣

  • Clouds, for example, do not float,

    例如:雲並不一直飄浮在空中

  • but fall slowly under the influence of gravity.

    而是受重力影響緩緩地下沉

  • Some of them stay aloft due to upward convection from the sun-heated ground,

    有些停在高空飄浮,是因為受太陽 —— 熾熱大地所產生向上的對流的影響

  • but most are in a state of slow, balletic descent.

    但大多以緩慢的芭蕾舞姿下降

  • "Clouds are the patron goddesses of idle fellows,"

    「雲是無所事事者的守護女神」

  • as the Greek dramatist Aristophanes wrote in 420 B.C.

    西元前 420 年希臘戲劇家阿里斯托芬寫道

  • and nephology, the study of clouds, remains a daydreamer's science,

    而雲學,雲的研究,仍是做白日夢者的科學

  • aptly founded by a thoughtful young man

    恰好是由一位思想豐富的年輕人所創立

  • whose favorite activity was staring out of the window at the sky.

    他的樂趣就是凝視窗外的天空

The Naming of Clouds

雲的命名

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 霍華德 盧克 天氣 天空 種類

【TED-Ed】雲是如何命名的? (How did clouds get their names? - Richard Hamblyn)

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    Ann 發佈於 2016 年 01 月 19 日
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