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  • Next time you're caught cheating in school, just blame hormones.


  • Hey, everyone, Amy here on DNews.

    大家好,我是 DNews 的 Amy。

  • Pretty much everyone has cheated on a test at some point in their lives.


  • And while it's generally frowned upon and I don't condone it, peeking at the names of the Great Lakes on a geography test when you're 6 years old doesn't mean you're gonna grow up to be a horrible adult.

    雖然這是普遍不被認可的行為,我也不會縱容它,但是在 6 歲時的地理考試偷看五大湖區的名字並不代表你之後就會成為一個糟糕的大人。

  • Some early psychological research into why kids cheat landed on moral development.


  • As we age, we become less egotistical and more moral, drawing us away from doing something we know is wrong.


  • Other studies have suggested cheating is the result of cost-benefit analysis.


  • If the reward for cheating is greater than the outcome of getting caught, kids will take the risk.


  • In either case, these rationales point to cheating as a subconscious decision.


  • But what if it's not a decision at all?


  • New research published in the "Journal of Experimental Psychology" says that those who cheat on tests do so because of hormones.


  • Extra testosterone gives us the courage to cheat, and extra cortisol gives us the motivation.


  • Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin asked a group of people to take a math test and grade it themselves,


  • knowing that the more questions they answered correctly would earn them more money.


  • They also took saliva samples before and after the test.


  • The results showed that people with elevated levels of testosterone and cortisol were more likely to lie about the number of questions they got right.


  • Testosterone decreases fear of punishment and increases sensitivity to reward, so that would explain why some cheated.


  • Elevated cortisol, meanwhile, is linked to a state of chronic stress that can be almost debilitating, so that could be a powerful motivator in deciding to cheat.


  • Those who cheated also showed lower levels of cortisol after the test, consistent with a reduction of emotional stress you might expect from having successfully cheated on a test.


  • So, that's good? Not really.


  • The reduction of stress triggered a powerful stimulation in the reward center of the brain, effectively reinforcing unethical behavior.


  • The flip side is that people with lower levels of both testosterone and cortisol could be less prone to this unethical behavior.


  • But it's not like parents could remove testosterone from their children for the sake of better test-taking behavior.


  • Instead, there are ways to break that cycle of hormonal response reinforcing cheating.


  • Research cited in the same study says that individuals rewarded in a group are less susceptible to the effects of testosterone on performance,


  • and those who engage in stress-reducing activities like yoga were less moved to cheat due to lower cortisol levels.


  • So, if you want to raise an ethical student, group yoga might helpat least, that's my own thought.


  • And if you're curious to know more of my own thoughts on other topicsnamely, spacebe sure to check out my personal channel, Vintage Space.

    如果你對於我在其它議題上的看法也有興趣,也就是太空議題,務必到我的個人頻道 Vintage Space 看看。

  • The starter cartridge in the Titan II burned for only about a second,

    泰坦 2 號火箭的發射只燃燒了近一秒的時間,

  • and it came with this very distinctive noise thatnow that I'm gonna make it right here, you're definitely gonna hear it in the launch.


  • It kinda sounds like a "bwoop".

    它聽起來有點像 bwoop。

  • Three, two, one, zero.

    三... 二... 一... 零。

  • So, be honest, did you guys ever cheat on a test in grade school?


  • Let us know in the comments below, and don't forget to subscribe for more DNews everyday of the week.

    把你的回覆寫在下方讓我們知道,也別忘了訂閱 DNews 每天平日收看。

Next time you're caught cheating in school, just blame hormones.


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