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  • Next time you're caught cheating in school, just blame hormones.

    下一次被抓到考試作弊,就說是賀爾蒙的錯吧!

  • Hey everyone, Amy here on DNews.

    大家好,我是 DNews 的 Amy

  • Pretty much everyone has cheated on a test at some point in their lives.

    幾乎每個人都曾經在考試中作弊過

  • And while it's generally frowned upon and I don't condone it, peeking at the names of the Great Lakes on a geography test when you're six years old doesn't mean you're going to grow up to be a horrible adult.

    這固然是讓大部分人不悅的行為,也令人難以接受。但是在六歲時的地理考試偷看五大湖區的名字並不代表你之後就會成為一個糟糕的大人

  • Some early psychological research into why kids cheat landed on moral development.

    一些早期的心理學研究認為,小孩作弊的行為跟道德發展時期有關

  • As we age, we become less egotistical and more moral, drawing us away from doing something we know is wrong.

    隨著我們長大,我們變得不那麼自私且更有道德感,也不再去做那些我們知道錯的事

  • Other studies have suggested cheating is the result of cost-benefit analysis:

    其他的研究則指出,作弊是成本效益分析下的結果

  • if the reward for cheating is greater than the outcome of getting caught, kids will take the risk.

    如果作弊所帶來的報酬遠大於被抓到的後果,小孩子會願意冒險一試

  • In either case, these rationales point to cheating as a subconscious decision.

    不管在哪一種情況下,這些理由都把作弊歸類為下意識的決定

  • But what if it's not a decision at all? New research published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology

    但如果這根本不是一種決定呢?一份新發表在實驗心理學刊的研究指出,

  • says that those who cheat on tests do so because of hormones. Extra testosterone gives us the

    是賀爾蒙讓那些人在考試上作弊。過多的睪固酮讓我們有

  • courage to cheat, and extra cortisol gives us the motivation.

    勇氣作弊,然後過多的皮質醇則給了我們作弊的動機

  • Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin asked a group of people to take a math

    德克薩斯州大學奧斯汀分校的研究者們,邀請一群受試者參與一場數學測驗

  • test and grade it themselves, knowing that the more questions they answered correctly

    並請他們幫自己評分。實驗的前提為,只要答對的題目越多

  • would earn them more money.

    收到的獎金就越多

  • They also took saliva samples before and after the test.

    研究者更在實驗開始與結束時收集受試者的唾液樣本

  • The results showed that people with elevated levels of testosterone and cortisol were more likely to lie about the number of

    實驗結果指出,當受試者的睪固酮與皮質醇濃度都上升的情況下,他們比較有可能在答對的題目數上

  • questions they got right.

    說謊

  • Testosterone decreases fear of punishment and increases sensitivity to reward so that would explain why some cheated.

    睪固酮減少了人們對處罰的恐懼感,並增加對獎勵的敏感度,而這就能解釋為什麼有些人會作弊。

  • Elevated cortisol, meanwhile, is linked to a state of chronic

    同樣的,皮質醇的上升則是和逐漸衰弱的

  • stress that can be almost debilitating, so that could be a powerful motivator in deciding to cheat.

    慢性壓力有關,而這就可能是讓人決定作弊的強大動機

  • Those who cheated also showed lowered levels of cortisol after the test, consistent with

    測驗結束後的測量發現,皮質醇的濃度在作弊的人身上較低,而這個結果則跟

  • a reduction of emotional stress you might expect from having successfully cheated on a test.

    你預期作弊會成功時,情緒壓力減少的反應成一致的關係

  • So that's good? Not really. The reduction of stress triggered a powerful stimulation

    所以這樣好嗎?不見得。壓力的減少會在大腦的獎勵中心

  • in the reward centre of the brain, effectively reinforcing unethical behaviour.

    觸發一個強大的刺激,並有效地增強不道德的行為

  • The flip side is that people with lower levels of both testosterone and cortisol could be less prone to this unethical behavior.

    相反的,如果人們的睪固酮與皮質醇都處在較低的濃度,他們比較不容易去作出不道德的行為

  • But it's not like parents could remove testosterone from their children for the sake of better

    不過,這並不是說家長可以將小孩子的睪固酮去除,好讓他們有更好的

  • test-taking behavior! Instead, there are ways to break that cycle of hormonal response

    考試行為!而是說,有方法能夠破除這個賀爾蒙反應與

  • reinforcing cheating. Research cited in the same study says that individuals rewarded

    增強作弊行為間的週期。在同樣一份研究中的報告指出,一個人在團體中獲獎勵,

  • in a group are less susceptible to the effects of testosterone on performance, and those

    他的行為會比較不容易受到睪固酮的影響,然後那些

  • who engage in stress-reducing activities like yoga were less moved to cheat due to

    參與減壓活動的人,像是瑜珈。他們因為皮質醇的濃度下降,

  • lower cortisol levels.

    所以比較不會作弊

  • So if you want to raise an ethical student, group yoga might help! At least, that's

    所以,如果你想要提高學生的道德感,團體瑜珈也許可以幫上忙!至少,

  • my own thought, and if you're curious to know more of my own thoughts on other topics,

    這是我的想法啦!然後如果你對於我在其他議題上的看法也有興趣,

  • namely space, be sure to check out my personal channel, Vintage Space.

    像是太空,務必到我的個人頻道看看,Vintage Space

  • the starter cartridge in the Titan II burned for only about a second, and it came with this very distinctive noise that

    泰坦2號火箭的發射只燃燒了近一秒的時間,並發出了一個非常獨特的聲音

  • now that I'm gonna make it right here, you're definitely gonna hear it in the launch.

    我沒有要現在模仿,不過你一定會在它發射時聽到

  • It kinda sounds like a "bwooooop"

    它聽起來有點像 「bwooooop」

  • 3...2....1...0... bwoooop

    三... 二... 一... bwooooop

  • So, be honest, did you guys ever cheat on a test in grade school? Let us know in the comments below and don't forget to subscribe for more DNews everyday of the week!

    所以,老實的說,你們到底有沒有在學校的考試上作弊過呢?把你的回覆寫在下方讓我們知道吧!最後,別忘了訂閱DNews!

Next time you're caught cheating in school, just blame hormones.

下一次被抓到考試作弊,就說是賀爾蒙的錯吧!

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驚人的事實:為什麼要作弊? (The Shocking Reason Why People Cheat On Tests)

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