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  • A couple of years ago,

    幾年前,

  • Harvard Business School chose

    哈佛商學院把該年度

  • the best business model of that year.

    最佳商業模式

  • It chose Somali piracy.

    選給了索馬利亞海盜。

  • Pretty much around the same time,

    差不多在那時候,

  • I discovered that there were 544 seafarers

    我看到544名船員

  • being held hostage on ships,

    遭劫船做為人質,

  • often anchored just off the Somali coast

    這些被挾持的船往往就大喇喇的

  • in plain sight.

    停靠在索馬利亞海岸外。

  • And I learned these two facts, and I thought,

    這兩件事讓我思考:

  • what's going on in shipping?

    海運業出了什麼問題?

  • And I thought, would that happen in any other industry?

    這種狀況有沒有可能發生在其它產業?

  • Would we see 544 airline pilots

    我們有沒有可能看到

  • held captive in their jumbo jets

    544名機師被挾持在飛機裡

  • on a runway for months, or a year?

    遭囚禁長達數個月或一年?

  • Would we see 544 Greyhound bus drivers?

    或者是544名灰狗巴士司機?

  • It wouldn't happen.

    根本不可能!

  • So I started to get intrigued.

    這問題讓我著迷。

  • And I discovered another fact,

    隨後我發現另一個

  • which to me was more astonishing

    更令我訝異的事實,

  • almost for the fact that I hadn't known it before

    而我訝異的點在於竟然活到了42、43歲

  • at the age of 42, 43.

    才得知這個事實:

  • That is how fundamentally we still depend on shipping.

    我們仍極度依賴海運。

  • Because perhaps the general public

    這也許是因為一般普羅大眾

  • thinks of shipping as an old-fashioned industry,

    認為海運已經過時了,以為海運就是

  • something brought by sailboat

    貨物透過亞哈(出自白鯨記)

  • with Moby Dicks and Jack Sparrows.

    與史傑克(出自神鬼奇航)來做運輸。

  • But shipping isn't that.

    事實並不然。

  • Shipping is as crucial to us as it has ever been.

    海運對我們的重要性日益加深,

  • Shipping brings us 90 percent of world trade.

    它包辦了全球百分之九十的貿易物流,

  • Shipping has quadrupled in size since 1970.

    運輸量從1970年起成長了四倍,

  • We are more dependent on it now than ever.

    我們對海運的依賴更甚以往。

  • And yet, for such an enormous industry --

    但即便有十萬艘商船正在海上航行,

  • there are a 100,000 working vessels on the sea

    這麼龐大的產業

  • it's become pretty much invisible.

    卻像隱形似的。

  • Now that sounds absurd in Singapore to say that,

    當然在新加坡講這個聽起來很滑稽,

  • because here shipping is so present

    因為海運在這裡相當有存在感,

  • that you stuck a ship on top of a hotel.

    你們直接把船放在飯店頂樓(指金沙酒店)。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But elsewhere in the world,

    但若你在其它國家

  • if you ask the general public what they know

    詢問一般民眾對海運

  • about shipping and how much trade is carried by sea,

    及其物流量的了解有多少時,

  • you will get essentially a blank face.

    你只會看到一副茫然的表情。

  • You will ask someone on the street

    你隨便問一個路人

  • if they've heard of Microsoft.

    有沒有聽過微軟,

  • I should think they'll say yes,

    我認為你會得到肯定的答案,

  • because they'll know that they make software

    因為大家都知道微軟研發

  • that goes on computers,

    電腦軟體,

  • and occasionally works.

    不是很好用的軟體。

  • But if you ask them if they've heard of Maersk,

    但要是改問他們有沒有聽過快桅(Maersk)公司時,

  • I doubt you'd get the same response,

    我不認為你還能得到肯定的答案。

  • even though Maersk,

    儘管快桅

  • which is just one shipping company amongst many,

    只是眾多海運公司裡的其中一間,

  • has revenues pretty much on a par with Microsoft.

    它的營收卻幾乎和微軟相當─

  • [$60.2 billion]

    602億。

  • Now why is this?

    海運業怎麼了?

  • A few years ago,

    幾年前,

  • the first sea lord of the British admiralty --

    英國皇家海軍第一海務大臣─

  • he is called the first sea lord,

    他雖被稱為第一海務大臣,

  • although the chief of the army is not called a land lord

    但不代表陸軍最高統帥就叫做房東 (land lord,音同房東)。

  • he said that we, and he meant

    海務大臣認為我們

  • in the industrialized nations in the West,

    這些西方工業化國家

  • that we suffer from sea blindness.

    得到了"海盲症"。

  • We are blind to the sea

    我們看不見

  • as a place of industry or of work.

    海洋相關產業與工作,

  • It's just something we fly over,

    海洋之於我們只是搭機時

  • a patch of blue on an airline map.

    呈現在飛航路線圖上的一片藍色色塊,

  • Nothing to see, move along.

    沒什麼好看的,我們直接飛過。

  • So I wanted to open my own eyes

    也因此,我渴望張開我的雙眼

  • to my own sea blindness,

    來正視我的"海盲症",

  • so I ran away to sea.

    於是我投向海洋。

  • A couple of years ago, I took a passage

    多年前,我參與了一段

  • on the Maersk Kendal,

    馬士基肯德號的航程,

  • a mid-sized container ship

    這是一艘中型貨櫃船,

  • carrying nearly 7,000 boxes,

    搭載了近7000個箱子。

  • and I departed from Felixstowe,

    我從英格蘭南部的

  • on the south coast of England,

    菲力克斯托港口出發,

  • and I ended up right here in Singapore

    五個星期後正好抵達

  • five weeks later,

    新加坡,

  • considerably less jet-lagged than I am right now.

    那次的旅程跟這次比,比較沒有時差問題。

  • And it was a revelation.

    我徹底開了眼界。

  • We traveled through five seas,

    我們航行過五個海、

  • two oceans, nine ports,

    兩大洋及九個港口,

  • and I learned a lot about shipping.

    而我從中學到很多海運業的知識。

  • And one of the first things that surprised me

    第一件讓我驚訝的事情

  • when I got on board Kendal

    就發生在我剛登上肯德號時。

  • was, where are all the people?

    人都跑去哪了?

  • I have friends in the Navy who tell me

    我在海軍服役的朋友們跟我說,

  • they sail with 1,000 sailors at a time,

    他們每次出航都會搭載1000名水兵,

  • but on Kendal there were only 21 crew.

    但在肯德號上總共只有21名船員。

  • Now that's because shipping is very efficient.

    那是因為當代海運非常有效率。

  • Containerization has made it very efficient.

    貨櫃運輸大大提升了效率,

  • Ships have automation now.

    船隻配備自動化操作系統,

  • They can operate with small crews.

    因此小團隊即可勝任。

  • But it also means that, in the words

    但這也意味著─

  • of a port chaplain I once met,

    套用一個港口牧師跟我講的─

  • the average seafarer you're going to find

    你會發現貨櫃船上的船員,

  • on a container ship is either tired or exhausted,

    不是疲累就是過勞,

  • because the pace of modern shipping

    因為當代海運的工作步調

  • is quite punishing for what the shipping calls

    對他們所謂的"人性要素"來講

  • its human element,

    是相當繁重緊湊的,

  • a strange phrase which they don't seem to realize

    他們似乎沒注意到"人性要素"這詞

  • sounds a little bit inhuman.

    在這情境下聽起來並不太人道。

  • So most seafarers now working on container ships

    因此大部分在貨櫃船上工作的船員,

  • often have less than two hours in port at a time.

    很少能一次在港口待上兩個小時。

  • They don't have time to relax.

    他們一刻也不能鬆懈。

  • They're at sea for months at a time,

    他們出海時間長達數個月,

  • and even when they're on board,

    即便在船上,

  • they don't have access to what

    也沒有五歲小孩視為理所當然的

  • a five-year-old would take for granted, the Internet.

    網路可用。

  • And another thing that surprised me when I got on board Kendal

    另一件讓我訝異的事是,登上肯德號後,

  • was who I was sitting next to --

    坐在我身邊的人

  • Not the queen; I can't imagine why they put me underneath her portrait --

    並不是女王; 但我不能理解怎麼會被安排坐在她的肖像下面。

  • But around that dining table in the officer's saloon,

    但在高級船員交誼廳裡的餐桌上,

  • I was sitting next to a Burmese guy,

    我坐在緬甸人旁邊,

  • I was opposite a Romanian, a Moldavian, an Indian.

    與羅馬尼亞人、摩爾多瓦人及印度人對坐。

  • On the next table was a Chinese guy,

    隔壁桌坐了個中國人,

  • and in the crew room, it was entirely Filipinos.

    而船員室裡則清一色都是菲律賓人。

  • So that was a normal working ship.

    就是一般作業中船隻的樣子。

  • Now how is that possible?

    但這怎麼可能呢?

  • Because the biggest dramatic change

    原因在於過去60年間,

  • in shipping over the last 60 years,

    當民眾不再留意海運業發展的同時,

  • when most of the general public stopped noticing it,

    有一項重大變革問世,

  • was something called an open registry,

    那就是所謂的開放登記

  • or a flag of convenience.

    或稱權宜船。

  • Ships can now fly the flag of any nation

    船隻可懸掛任何一個有提供

  • that provides a flag registry.

    船舶國籍登記的國家國旗。

  • You can get a flag from the landlocked nation

    你可以取得一些內陸國家的國旗,

  • of Bolivia, or Mongolia,

    如玻利維亞、蒙古國

  • or North Korea, though that's not very popular.

    或北韓,不過北韓籍並不流行。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So we have these very multinational,

    因此船上才能由多國籍、

  • global, mobile crews on ships.

    全球化且機動性強的船員所組成,

  • And that was a surprise to me.

    這也是令我訝異的地方。

  • And when we got to pirate waters,

    而當靠近海盜猖獗的水域,

  • down the Bab-el-Mandeb strait and into the Indian Ocean,

    也就是曼德海峽與印度洋之間時,

  • the ship changed.

    船做了些改變。

  • And that was also shocking, because suddenly,

    這場景相當震撼,

  • I realized, as the captain said to me,

    因為我突然想起船長曾跟我說的:

  • that I had been crazy to choose to go

    我一定是瘋了才會選擇

  • through pirate waters on a container ship.

    搭貨櫃船航經海盜猖獗的水域。

  • We were no longer allowed on deck.

    我們不准上甲板,

  • There were double pirate watches.

    另佈署雙層警戒以監測海盜。

  • And at that time, there were those 544 seafarers being held hostage,

    那時正值544名船員被挾持的期間,

  • and some of them were held hostage for years

    其中有些船員早被挾持了好幾年,

  • because of the nature of shipping and the flag of convenience.

    這導因於海運業的本質及權宜船制度。

  • Not all of them, but some of them were,

    這當中有些船

  • because for the minority of unscrupulous ship owners,

    是因為少數不肖船東,

  • it can be easy to hide behind

    將船隻登記在特定國籍下

  • the anonymity offered by some flags of convenience.

    好隱藏船隻的真實資料。

  • What else does our sea blindness mask?

    "海盲症"還有哪些症狀?

  • Well, if you go out to sea on a ship

    嗯,若你搭船出海

  • or on a cruise ship, and look up to the funnel,

    或來趟郵輪之旅時,抬頭看看煙囪,

  • you'll see very black smoke.

    你會看到非常黑的濃煙。

  • And that's because shipping

    那是因為海運業的

  • has very tight margins, and they want cheap fuel,

    利潤被壓縮得很緊, 因此需要便宜的燃油,

  • so they use something called bunker fuel,

    他們用的油叫做釜底燃料油,

  • which was described to me by someone in the tanker industry

    依據某油輪業者的說法,

  • as the dregs of the refinery,

    這燃油形同煉油後的渣滓,

  • or just one step up from asphalt.

    或僅比瀝青再高一階而已。

  • And shipping is the greenest method of transport.

    海運是最環保的運輸方式,

  • In terms of carbon emissions per ton per mile,

    海運每公噸每公里所產生的碳排放量

  • it emits about a thousandth of aviation

    是空運的千分之一,

  • and about a tenth of trucking.

    陸運的十分之一。

  • But it's not benign, because there's so much of it.

    但這不代表它對環境無害,因為有太多艘船隻了,

  • So shipping emissions are about three to four percent,

    因此海運碳排放量佔全球總量的3%到4%左右,

  • almost the same as aviation's.

    幾乎跟航空業一樣。

  • And if you put shipping emissions

    若將全國碳排放量做排行,

  • on a list of the countries' carbon emissions,

    海運業

  • it would come in about sixth,

    大概位於第六名。

  • somewhere near Germany.

    在2009年德國外海某處,

  • It was calculated in 2009 that the 15 largest ships

    有項針對該處15艘大型船隻所做的汙染報告指出,

  • pollute in terms of particles and soot

    其懸浮微粒、煤煙

  • and noxious gases

    及有毒氣體,

  • as much as all the cars in the world.

    與全球汽車總排放量相當。

  • And the good news is that

    好消息是

  • people are now talking about sustainable shipping.

    人們開始重視海運業的永續發展,

  • There are interesting initiatives going on.

    一些富巧思的創舉也正實行中。

  • But why has it taken so long?

    但這歷程為何如此緩慢?

  • When are we going to start talking and thinking

    我們何時才能對海運業有更深一步的思考,

  • about shipping miles as well as air miles?

    正如我們面對航運業的問題一樣?

  • I also traveled to Cape Cod to look

    我曾走訪鱈魚角以了解

  • at the plight of the North Atlantic right whale,

    北大西洋露脊鯨所面臨的困境,

  • because this to me was one of the most surprising things

    因為在我的海洋之旅裡,

  • about my time at sea,

    這是最令我感驚奇的事情之一,

  • and what it made me think about.

    也引發我的思考。

  • We know about man's impact on the ocean

    我們知道漁業、過度濫捕等人為因素

  • in terms of fishing and overfishing,

    對海洋所造成的衝擊,

  • but we don't really know much about

    卻鮮少知道

  • what's happening underneath the water.

    水面下發生了什麼事,

  • And in fact, shipping has a role to play here,

    事實上,海運正對此造成了影響,

  • because shipping noise has contributed

    因為輪船的噪音已對

  • to damaging the acoustic habitats of ocean creatures.

    仰賴聽覺的海洋生物構成了傷害。

  • Light doesn't penetrate beneath the surface of the water,

    光無法徹底穿透海洋,

  • so ocean creatures like whales and dolphins

    因此海洋生物如鯨、豚

  • and even 800 species of fish

    及多達800種的魚類等,

  • communicate by sound.

    都是透過聲音來溝通。

  • And a North Atlantic right whale

    北大西洋露脊鯨的聲音

  • can transmit across hundreds of miles.

    能傳達數百哩,

  • A humpback can transmit a sound

    座頭鯨的聲音甚至能

  • across a whole ocean.

    傳遍整個海洋,

  • But a supertanker can also be heard

    但超大型油輪的聲音

  • coming across a whole ocean,

    也能傳遍整片海洋。

  • and because the noise that propellers make underwater

    而船螺旋槳在水裡

  • is sometimes at the same frequency that whales use,

    所產生的噪音頻率有時和鯨魚一模一樣,

  • then it can damage their acoustic habitat,

    這侵害了鯨魚的"聽覺棲地",

  • and they need this for breeding,

    鯨魚相當仰賴聽覺來繁殖、

  • for finding feeding grounds,

    覓食

  • for finding mates.

    及找尋配偶。

  • And the acoustic habitat of the North Atlantic right whale

    而北大西洋露脊鯨的"聽覺棲地"

  • has been reduced by up to 90 percent.

    已減少了90%,

  • But there are no laws governing acoustic pollution yet.

    但目前仍未有法令針對噪音汙染做規範。

  • And when I arrived in Singapore,

    當年在我抵達新加坡後,

  • and I apologize for this, but I didn't want to get off my ship.

    我得為此道歉,但我並不想下船。

  • I'd really loved being on board Kendal.

    我真的很享受待在肯德號上的日子,

  • I'd been well treated by the crew,

    團員們對我很照顧,

  • I'd had a garrulous and entertaining captain,

    又有個多話且幽默的船長,

  • and I would happily have signed up for another five weeks,

    我原本很樂意再另外待上五個禮拜,

  • something that the captain also said

    船長也說過

  • I was crazy to think about.

    我一定是瘋了才會這樣想。

  • But I wasn't there for nine months at a time

    我畢竟不像那些菲律賓籍船員

  • like the Filipino seafarers,

    一待就是九個月,

  • who, when I asked them to describe their job to me,

    當被問及到他們的工作內容時,

  • called it "dollar for homesickness."

    他們說那是「金錢換想家」。

  • They had good salaries,

    他們的收入不錯,

  • but theirs is still an isolating and difficult life

    但得在危險且艱困的海上環境裡

  • in a dangerous and often difficult element.

    時時面對生活的孤寂與磨練。

  • But when I get to this part, I'm in two minds,

    而講到這裡,我思緒分成了兩個部分,

  • because I want to salute those seafarers

    我要向那些船員們致敬,

  • who bring us 90 percent of everything

    他們默默的替我們

  • and get very little thanks or recognition for it.

    帶來了生活中90%的物品;

  • I want to salute the 100,000 ships

    我也要向那正在海上航行的

  • that are at sea

    十萬艘船致敬,

  • that are doing that work, coming in and out

    他們每天起卸貨物、進出海港,

  • every day, bringing us what we need.

    以供給我們所需。

  • But I also want to see shipping,

    除此之外,我也希望海運業

  • and us, the general public, who know so little about it,

    及對這產業所知甚少的我們

  • to have a bit more scrutiny,

    能進一步審視這產業,

  • to be a bit more transparent,

    讓海運業更透明化,

  • to have 90 percent transparency.

    以窺知其90%的面貌。

  • Because I think we could all benefit

    我認為一個簡單的行動

  • from doing something very simple,

    就能讓我們從中獲益,

  • which is learning to see the sea.

    那就是開始認識海洋。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝各位。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

A couple of years ago,

幾年前,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 海洋 船隻 聽覺 海盜 港口

【TED】羅斯-喬治:祕密航運業內幕(Rose George: Inside the secret shipping industry)。 (【TED】Rose George: Inside the secret shipping industry (Rose George: Inside the secret shipping industry))

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    溫小承 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日