字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Well, one of the privileges 我今天不在演講活動現場 of not being with you in person today 其中一個好處是 is I get to talk to you twice. 我可以講兩遍 One at the beginning, and here we are at the end. 一次是活動開始，一次是現在結束時 The reason 今天的對話之所以這麼重要 why today's conversations are so important 是因為我們活在改革時代 is that we are living in revolutionary times. 因此教育也必須改革 That's why we need a revolution in education. 有兩大動力驅動改革 And there are two big drivers of change. 其中一個是人口增長 One of them is population growth. 我們現在的人口之多 We live in a world now that's more populated 遠超過以往任何時代 than at any time in history. 全球約有 70 億人 There are about 7 billion people on the earth, 是歷史上人口最多的時代 which is more human beings than at any other time, 很快就會達到 90 億 and we're heading for 9 billion. 光是這個原因就很重要 That's reason enough in itself. 其次是科技 But the second is technology 及科技如何改變我們所做的一切事物 and the way that technologies are transforming everything we do, 經濟、文化、我們的思考， 和彼此聯繫的方式 economically, culturally, how we think and how we relate. 我十年前出了一本書 I published a book ten years ago, 書名是《讓創意自由》 called "Out of Our Minds: Learning to Be Creative", 我才剛出版了新版本 and I've just issued a new version of it 因為過去十年發生了太多事情 and the reason is that so much has happened in the last ten years. 十年前還沒有 Google I mean, ten years ago, there was no Google, 沒有 Facebook 和 Twitter there was no Facebook, no Twitter, 沒有任何的社群媒體 no social media of any sort. 沒有智慧型手機、iPhone、iPad There were no smartphones, no iPhones, no iPads, 沒有現在習以為常的許多事物 none of the things that we take for granted. 變化還會持續加速 And that rate of change is going to accelerate. 不會慢下來 It's not going to decrease. 未來不是平靜的牧場 And we're not heading toward some calm pasture, 能讓我們把一切變動拋諸腦後 where all the changes will be behind us. 只會更紛擾混亂 They'll simply become more tumultuous. 對了，我寫新版， 是用微軟的文書軟體 By the way, I wrote the new version of the book on Microsoft Word. 我不知道你們有沒有用過 I don't know if any of you use Microsoft Word. 你有沒有注意到 But, well, I don't know if you notice it, 它對你寫作很有意見 but, if you do it, 它會評論你的書作風格 it has opinions on what you write. 文字下面有時會出現波浪綠線 It comments on your literary style. 表示它認為你寫的不妥 You get little green squiggles 例如，它不喜歡被動式 if it doesn't approve of what you just said. 你不能說：「房子被蓋起來。」 And one of the things it disapproves of is the passive voice. 必須要說誰蓋了它 So, you can't say, "The roundhouse was built." 根據比爾．蓋茲的規則是這樣 You have to say who built it, 我不知道他為什麼這麼反對被動式 according to Bill Gates anyway. 但有一天，我在寫公共教育的歷史 Why he's got this thing against the passive voice I do not know, 寫到智力測試的發展時 but I was writing about the history of public education, 我寫了這樣的一句： and I wrote about the growth of intelligence testing. 「現代智力測試的基礎 And I wrote this sentence and I said, 是 19 世紀末 "The foundations of the modern intelligence test 被法蘭西斯．高爾頓爵士所奠基 were laid in the late 19th century, 即查理．達爾文的表弟。」 by Sir Francis Galton, 這也是史實 a cousin of Charles Darwin." -- 我再重複一次 which is true, by the way. 「現代智力測驗的基礎 I'll just tell you again, 是 19 世紀末 "The foundations of the modern intelligence test 被法蘭西斯．高爾頓爵士所奠基 were laid in the late 19th century, 即查理．達爾文的表弟。」 by Sir Francis Galton, 結果，微軟文書不喜歡 a cousin of Charles Darwin." 就在句子下面標了波浪綠線 Well, Microsoft Word didn't like that. 因為句子是用被動語態 It had little green squiggles, 它建議我改為主動語態 because it had the passive voice "were laid". 改成： And it suggested the alternative in the active voice. 「在 19 世紀末 And what it suggested was, 法蘭西斯．高爾頓爵士 『上了』查理．達爾文的表弟 "In the late 19th century, 這是現代智能測試的基礎。」 Sir Francis Galton laid a cousin of Charles Darwin 我相信應該沒有吧 (Laughter) 但有趣的是，公共教育 the foundation of the modern intelligence test." 從 19 世紀到現在，運作了很長時間 Well, not really, I feel. 受這種制式文化影響越來越深 But it is interesting that the span of public education 到最後，甚至也會顛覆 runs pretty much 這些讓我們追趕不上的急速改變 from the late 19th century to present day, 有些是受到科技影響 and it's become increasingly dominated 所以我們必須了解 by that type of culture. 教育面臨多大的挑戰 And what was subverted in the end as well 而且未來的關鍵在於教育 is the rapid changes that are overtaking us, 威爾斯 (H. G. Wells) 有句名言 some of them being driven by technology. 他也是 19 世紀偉大的作家 So, it is important that we sense the scale of the challenges 是少數能前瞻未來 that education is involved with 並且從歷史預見未來的人 and also the need for us to see education as the key to the future. 他曾經說： There was a great quote by H. G. Wells, 「文明是一場 another great 19th century writer, 教育與災難的兢賽。」 one of the few people to look into the future and see something 我們有理由相信，他可能是對的 that has been born out by events. 而且災難稍稍領先 But he'd once said that, 但是教育還有機會趕上 "Civilization is a race 如果我們大膽設想，並且回歸基本面 between education and catastrophe." 思考教育的基本目標 以及如何達成 Well, there's some reason to believe he might be right 但是，我還希望你想想 and that catastrophe is edging out in front a little. 當我們反省需要做什麼改變 But it's not too late to catch up with it, 並不需要從零開始 if we think boldly and fundamentally 今天你正站在，或者坐在 about the basic purposes of education and how we meet them. 辯論已久的選擇十字路口 But what I also wanted to leave you with is this thought 比較主流和另類教育 that, as we consider the changes that need to be made, 我的許多見解 we don't have to reinvent everything. 其實已經有很多前輩清楚主張過 You're standing today -- or sitting, if you are -- 並且付諸實踐 in a very long tradition of debate about alternatives 有一個很悠久的傳統 to the mainstream forms of education. 有時叫做「進步教育」 Many things that I argue for 其實我一直不喜歡這種二分法 have been argued by other people, eloquently in the past, 區分進步或傳統 and practiced by them. 但早在教育的起源，就有人主張 There was a long tradition 更完全的方法 in what was sometimes called "progressive education". 更平衡的方法 I've never liked the apparent dichotomy 能真正均衡地 between progressive and traditional, 發展藝術和科學 but an argument has been made 人文和體育 really from the origins of education 跟其他我之前說過的 for more holistic approaches, 至今已有很多著名的先驅和實踐家 more balanced approaches, 從蒙特梭利、裴斯塔洛齊、福祿貝爾 ones that represent a real balance 到皮亞傑、布魯納 between the arts and the sciences, for example, 比比皆是，還有杜威 between the humanities and physical education, 教育界有很多偉大的先驅 and the other things that I mentioned. 有很多是英國人 There have been notable pioneers and practitioners, 也有很多很棒的學校 from Montessori, Pestalozzi, Froeble, 各位演講會場附近就有一所 to the work of Piaget, Bruner. 世界上很了不起的學校—夏山學校 The list goes on... Dewey. 公共教育系統也有很多好學校 There have been great pioneers in education, 還有很多環保的學校 many of them in the U.K. 創新的學校 There have been wonderful schools. 我認為我們必須體認到 You're meeting not far from one of the most 對話不是發生在真空管裡，與世隔絕 extraordinary schools in the world, which is Summerhill. 不是在歷史的真空管 But also great schools in the public sector, 或文化的真空管 great environmental schools, 重點是 great innovative schools. 不要把這些原則只用在另類教育 I think it's important that we recognize 而要落實到主流教育 that conversation is not happening in a vacuum, 我住在洛杉磯，我說過 it's not a historical vacuum, 最近參加一個會議 it's not a cultural vacuum. 一個很棒的計畫「The Heart Project」 The issue, though, is to make these principles 在洛杉磯市中心舉辦 not part of the alternative, 洛杉磯所有地區的代表都來了 but part of the mainstream. 例如，洛杉磯聯合學區的督導 I live in Los Angeles, as I mentioned earlier, 這個學區有 80 萬個學生 and I was in a meeting recently, 是紐約以外，全美最大的學區 of a great project, called "The Heart Project", 我們在會議中探討 that happens downtown, here in L.A. 另類教育的未來 And it brought together, this particular meeting, 我覺得最有趣的是 representers from across the city, 另類教育的作法是為了 the supervisor of the L.A. Unified School District, for example, 重新吸引中輟生 which has 800,000 students in it. 或是適應不良的學生 It's the largest school district in America, outside of New York. 而且作法非常有意思 And we were there to talk about 所有另類教育的方式， 不論世界哪個地方 the future of alternative education. 課程都是個人化 What really interested me was this: 師生人數比例都非常低 the principles of alternative education are designed to re-engage 注重團體活動 young people with education who've dropped out of it, 擁抱社區 or been failed by it. 並且致力發掘 每個學生的獨特才華和興趣 And the principles are interesting. 並創造環境，讓學生更喜歡融入 They're all based... all the alternative education approaches, 在這個會議中，我告訴他們 all around the world, are based on a personalised curriculum. 這些另類教育的原則 They're based on an intensive ratio between students and teachers. 其實就是教育的原則 They're based on group activities 就是好的教育 and closings with the community. 我很納悶 And they're based on trying to identify 現在居然變成另類教育 the individual talents and interests of each student 落在主流教育之外 and shaping the environment, 所以我認為，我們的責任是要把 so it helps to encourage them. 另類、邊緣教育的這些原則 Well, I was saying at this meeting in L.A. 重新注入主流 that these principles of alternative education 我相信，如果所有的教育都能這麼做 are all actually the principles of education, 我們的學生就不會再輟學 just good education. 會從教育中獲得更多 It seems to me bizarre 貢獻、回饋社會更多 that they've now become confined 新科技本身也需要改變 to the alternative to mainstream education. 同時又是促成改變的因素 And I think our job is to make the... what's been hither to... 新科技提供了絕佳的機會 in a way, the fringe of education, or the periphery... 使教育個人化 It's to move those principles to the centre. 不過科技不是萬靈丹 I think if all of education was modelled on similar principles, 我認為，任何科技 都不能獨力發揮作用 then our students wouldn't be dropping out in the first place, 需要靠人善加運用 they'd be getting much more from education 相機不會拍好作品 and we'd be getting much more from them. 但好的攝影師可以 The new technologies are among the factors that we need to change, 鋼琴不會創作偉大的音樂 and they're among the factors that will make change possible. 但優秀的音樂家可以 They make available now 學校的科技設備 tremendous opportunities to personalised education. 也不會提供好教育 They're not the whole answer. 但是好的教育者可以善用這些科技 I believe, it's true of all technology, that technology alone 因此，當我們前瞻未來 doesn't do much. 預測未來的困難程度 It's what you do with it, you know. 就像是 19 世紀建築師 A camera doesn't produce great photographs, 預測我們今日世界一樣困難 but a great photographer might. 但是只要我們不屈不撓 A piano itself doesn't produce great music, 信任、發展我們真正的創造力 but a great musician could. 並且貫徹到所有的學校 And technologies we have available in schools 就可以為所有人打造不同的未來 don't make for great education, 因此，我們今天活動結束後 but great educators could make something great of them. 要認真填寫 TEDx 提供的認捐表 So, as we look into the future, from where we sit now, 問問自己願不願意贊助構想、 it's as hard for us to predict the future as it was 資源、金錢，或時間 for the architects of the 19th century 出一己之力，共襄盛舉 to predict the world that we now live in. 我自己也有出力 But if we are resilient, 我常常做，投注所有的時間 and if we invest in and believe properly in our true creative powers, 推動教育革命，也支持其他人改革 if we apply them in all our educational settings, 我很樂意贊助 TEDx 的需要 then we will begin to shape a different type of future for everybody. 讓這個對話能延續不斷 And it's important, therefore, that as we go away from today's conference, 共同打造一個我們都渴望的未來 that we take seriously the pledge form 非常感謝大家 that TEDx has put before us, asking us if we'd be prepared to pledge ideas, or resources, or money, or time to making something happen. Well, I want to say that I have done that, I do do that, I spend all my time in promoting changes in education and supporting those who do and I'm delighted to offer my pledge to support whatever comes from TEDx, to take this conversation forward and help to shape a future that we all want to live in. Thank you very much.