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  • Thank you. Thank you.

    謝謝。謝謝。

  • Beyond boundaries.

    超越界線。

  • What a theme, huh?

    多棒的主題,對吧?

  • Now, when I think of boundaries,

    現在,當我想到界線時,

  • I think of rules, regulations, and restrictions.

    我想到規則、法規和限制。

  • And I think of the parents, and the teachers, and the supervisors,

    我想到父母、老師和主管,

  • who hold us accountable with regard to those boundaries.

    也就是那些確保我們不違規的人們。

  • That's not a bad thing.

    這不是件壞事。

  • Yeah, I know, if you're like me, I need supervisors,

    對,我知道,如果你是像我這樣的人, 我需要主管,

  • I need someone holding me accountable to do the right thing.

    我需要有人監督,讓我去做正確的事情

  • But beyond boundaries is something different.

    但超越界線是另一回事。

  • I think of those leaders, those teachers, those supervisors, those parents

    讓我想到那些 領導人、老師、主管、父母,

  • who inspire us to go beyond the call of duty,

    他們啟發我們除了盡責任以外,

  • to do more than we have to,

    去做更多的事,

  • to do it not because they tell us, but because we want to.

    不是因為他們要求我們, 而是因為我們想要。

  • I would like to share with you

    我想和各位分享

  • what the research says about how to make that happen.

    關於如何讓這件事情發生的研究。

  • And not just for other people, but for yourself.

    而且不是為了別人,而是為你自己。

  • Here is the deal, how could we inspire people and ourselves to be self-motivated?

    事情是這樣的,我們如何 啟發別人、自己產生自我動機?

  • There is another word. It's called "empowerment".

    有另一個詞,叫做「賦權」。

  • You've heard that word, right?

    你們聽過這個詞,對吧?

  • Now, the management definition of empowerment is,

    管理學對賦權的定義是:

  • "Get it done. Just get it done.

    「把事情完成。把它解決掉就對了。

  • With fewer resources and less time, I empower you, make it happen."

    用更少的資源和更短的時間, 我授權你,完成它吧。」

  • I'm talking about feeling empowered.

    我在說的是被賦權的感覺。

  • That's different.

    那是不一樣的。

  • Feeling empowered is when you're self-motivated.

    當你有自我動機時,賦權的感覺會出現。

  • Now, if you want to know if you feel empowered,

    接著呢,如果你想知道 你是否感到被賦權,

  • or if your child, your student, your worker feels empowered,

    或是你的小孩、學生、員工 是否感覺被賦權,

  • ask them three questions.

    問他們三個問題。

  • If they say yes to these three questions, they will feel empowered.

    如果他們對這三個問題都回答「是」, 表示有被賦權的感覺。

  • And by the way,

    還有順帶一提,

  • this is not based on common sense, this is based on research.

    這不是來自常識,而是來自研究。

  • But you've all been there, so it'll feel like common sense.

    但你們都遇過這些問題, 所以感覺就像常識。

  • Question number one: can you do it? Albert Bandura calls it self-efficacy.

    第一個問題:你能辦到嗎? 艾爾伯特‧班杜拉(Albert Bandura)稱之為「自我效能」。

  • Do you believe you can do it?

    你相信自己能辦到嗎?

  • Do you have the time, the knowledge, and the training

    你是否有時間、有知識和足夠的訓練

  • to do what we are asking you to do?

    達成我們要求你做的事?

  • If you answer yes, good.

    如果答案是肯定的,非常好。

  • Second question: will it work?

    第二個問題:這件事情行得通嗎?

  • Do you believe that what we're asking you to do, the process, will work?

    你相信我們要求你去做的事情、 那些流程,會行得通嗎?

  • Albert Bandura calls that response-efficacy:

    艾爾伯特‧班杜拉稱為「回應效能」:

  • believing that the behavior would lead to the ultimate outcome.

    相信自己所做的事可達到最終成效。

  • By the way, that takes education.

    順帶一提,這需要教育。

  • We have to show them the data, we might show them some theory,

    我們必須給他們資料, 可能還需要告訴他們一些理論,

  • we show them, teach them why this might work.

    讓他們知道、教導他們 為什麼這件事情可能會有用。

  • I just used the word 'education'. Earlier, I used the word 'training'.

    我剛剛用了「教育」這個字。 以前我都講「訓練」。

  • Is there a difference?

    有任何差別嗎?

  • In elementary school, we call it education.

    在小學,我們稱之為教育。

  • Middle school: education. High school: education.

    中學:教育。高中:教育。

  • College: higher education. (Laughter)

    大學:高等教育。(笑聲)

  • Then you go to industry, what do you call it?

    然後你進入產業,叫它什麼?

  • Training.

    訓練。

  • You have your training department. There must be a difference.

    你們有訓練部門。所以一定有差別。

  • Well, you know the difference.

    好吧,現在你們知道其中差異了。

  • Do you want your kids to have sex education or sex training?

    你希望你的小孩接受性教育還是性訓練?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And your kids might answer the question differently.

    你們的小孩可能會有不同答案。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Because you know that training means you do the behavior and you get feedback.

    因為你知道訓練代表 你做一件事然後得到回饋。

  • That's powerful. Powerful.

    這是很有效的,非常有效。

  • Have you ever heard this word 'online training'?

    你們聽過「線上訓練」這個詞嗎?

  • It's an oxymoron, isn't it?

    這是個矛盾名詞,不是嗎?

  • I mean training is to watch the behavior,

    我意思是,訓練是看著你做那件事,

  • but online training is like plastic silverware,

    但線上訓練就像塑膠(銀)餐具、 (餐具英文包含"銀"字根: silverware)

  • jumbo shrimp, legal brief, country music.

    巨大蝦米、訴訟摘要、鄉村音樂。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I mean, it doesn't work.

    我是說,這無法奏效。

  • OK, so if you answer yes, till it will work,

    好吧,如果你覺得可以,它可以奏效,

  • third question: is it worth it?

    第三個問題是:這件事值得嗎?

  • So we've had a training question, we've had an educational question;

    所以我們已經有訓練的問題、 我們已經有教育的問題;

  • this is the motivational question.

    現在這個則是動機問題。

  • Do you believe the consequences-- This is about the consequences.

    你是否相信它的結果-- 這和結果息息相關。

  • B.F. Skinner taught us this: "selection by consequences".

    心理學大師斯金納(B.F. Skinner)告訴我們:「因結果而選擇」。

  • Dale Carnegie quoted B.F. Skinner and said

    戴爾·卡耐基(Dale Carnegie)引用斯金納的言論,他說

  • that from the day you were born,

    從出生那天起,

  • everything you did was because you wanted something for doing it.

    你所做的每件事都是因為 你想從中獲得些什麼。

  • Consequences. Is it worth it?

    結果。它值不值得?

  • So you have to convince people that it's worth it.

    所以你必須說服人們這件事值得做。

  • Now, by the way, if you answer yes to those three questions,

    接下來,順道一提,如果你對 三個問題的答案都是肯定的,

  • you feel competent, am I right?

    你就覺得自己能勝任了,對嗎?

  • You feel competent at doing worthwhile work.

    你能勝任有價值的工作。

  • You've all been there.

    你們一定都經歷過。

  • When you feel competent at doing worthwhile work,

    當你自覺能做有意義的工作,

  • you're more likely to be self-motivated.

    你更可能產生自我動機。

  • You've been there. No one has to look over you.

    你們都有這樣的經驗。 你不需要有人盯著你。

  • Here is the challenge leaders, teachers.

    現在這是個挑戰,領導人們、老師們,

  • How do you inspire people to feel competent?

    你怎麼啟發人們相信他們的能力?

  • Well, you give them feedback. You give them recognition.

    你給他們回饋,你給他們認同。

  • You show them they are competent.

    你讓他們看到自己是有能力的。

  • OK. I got one more another C word: choice.

    好,現在我有另一個C開頭的詞: 選擇(choice)。

  • Your common sense will tell you.

    你的常識會告訴你,

  • When you believe you have a sense of autonomy,

    當你相信自己感到有自主權,

  • a sense of choice in what you're doing, you feel more self-motivated.

    覺得正在做的事情是自己的選擇, 你會更有自我動機。

  • B.F. Skinner taught us that, too, in his book "Beyond Freedom and Dignity",

    這件事斯金納也在他的書 《超越自由與尊嚴》裡說過,

  • way back in 1971.

    在久遠的1971年。

  • Reading that book changed my life,

    讀這本書改變了我的人生,

  • because I realized that I am controlled by consequences.

    因為我意識到是結果在左右我,

  • But sometimes I don't feel controlled.

    但有時我並沒有感覺受到控制。

  • When I'm working for a pleasant consequence,

    當我正在為愉快的結果工作時,

  • it feels good, it feels like I'm working to get something.

    感覺很好,感覺像是 為了獲得些什麼而工作。

  • When I'm working to avoid an aversive consequence,

    當我是為了避開討厭的後果而工作時,

  • I feel controlled.

    就感覺受到控制。

  • That is called negative reinforcement.

    這稱為負向增強。

  • So here is a challenge, leaders:

    所以這是個挑戰,領導人們:

  • how do we get people to become success seekers,

    我們怎麼讓人們追尋成功,

  • rather than failure avoiders?

    而非迴避失敗?

  • First day of Introductory Psychology class

    在我心理學概論的第一堂課裡,

  • - I teach two classes of 600 students,

    我教兩個班級共600個學生,你們之中有些可能上過而且記得

  • maybe some of you've been in that class and remember -

    在第一天,我問:「有多少人 是為了避免失敗而來?」

  • the first day I say, "How many are here to avoid failure?"

    有80%的人舉起了手。

  • And 80% raise your hand.

    我說:「好吧,謝謝你們過來, 我知道你們都很積極,

  • I say, "Well, thanks for coming, I know you're motivated,

    但你們都不快樂。

  • but you are not happy campers.

    你可能告訴你的朋友們:

  • You probably told your friends,

    『我得去上課,因為這是課業要求』

  • 'I've got to go to class. It's a requirement.'

    而不是『我得去上課, 因為這是個機會』。

  • Not 'I get to go to class. It's an opportunity.'

    你可能是被鬧鐘叫醒的,而不是機會鐘 (鬧鐘alarm clock的alarm亦有"警報"之意)

  • You probably woke up to an alarm clock not an opportunity clock."

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    你的看法決定一切。 真的,你的看法至關重要。

  • It's all in how you see it. Really, it's all in how you see it.

    這是你們的典範。

  • It's your paradigm.

    這和你跟別人溝通的方式, 和自己溝通的方式相關。

  • It's how you communicate to others and how you communicate to yourself.

    所以艾倫‧蘭格(Ellen Langer) 在她的書《正念》(Mindfulness)裡說

  • So, Ellen Langer said in her book "Mindfulness",

    這心理學家也知道:

  • - and psychologists know -

    「當你感到有所選擇, 你就感受到動機。」

  • "When you perceive choice, you perceive motivation."

    所以你會更積極。

  • You're more motivated.

    所以,為了自己,坐下來好好反思,

  • So the deal is, for yourself sit back and reflect,

    好好留心你所擁有的選擇。

  • be mindful of the choices you have.

    開始談論當一個 如何追尋成功而非迴避失敗。

  • And talk about being a success seeker, rather than a failure "avoider".

    一切全在你如何表達、 如何和自己和別人溝通。

  • It's all how you talk, how you communicate to yourself and to others.

    我還有第四個C開頭的詞: 社群(community)。

  • I got a fourth C word: community.

    非常有力的詞。

  • Powerful word.

    心理學家知道社群支持非常重要。

  • Psychologists know that social support is critical.

    感受到「關聯感」、

  • People who perceive a sense of relatedness,

    感受到和他人有所連結的人, 覺得自己更有動機、也更快樂。

  • a sense of connection with other people, feel motivated, and they are happier.

    在此我想朗誦一首詩,

  • I want to recite a poem.

    維勒莉‧考克斯(Valerie Cox)的 《偷餅賊》(The cookie thief)。

  • It's called "The cookie thief" by Valerie Cox.

    當我朗誦時

  • And as I recite this poem,

    --詩裡只有兩個角色,一男一女

  • - there is only two characters, a men and a lady -

    請各位將自己放入他們的處境。

  • put yourself in the situation.

    留心思考一下,在那個 情境裡你們會怎麼做。

  • Be mindful, think about the situation and what you would do.

    好嗎? 我們開始。

  • OK? Here we go.

    一個女人在夜裡的機場等待

  • A woman was waiting at an airport one night

    幾個小時後她的飛機將離開

  • With several [long] hours before her flight.

    她在機場商店找了一本書

  • She hunted for a book in the airport shop

    買了包餅乾並找個地方坐下好好讀

  • Bought a bag of cookies and found a place to drop.

    她沉浸在書裡卻剛好看見

  • She was engrossed in her book but happened to see

    旁邊一個男子膽大包天

  • That the man beside her as bold as could be

    往中間的袋裡抓了兩片餅乾

  • [Grabbed] a cookie or two from the bag between

    她試著忽略以免場面難看

  • Which she tried to ignore to avoid a scene

    她讀著書、嚼著餅乾、看著時間流過

  • She read, munched cookies, and watched the clock

    大膽的餅乾賊一直減少她的存貨

  • As this gutsy cookie thief diminished her stock

    一分一秒過去,她氣憤難平

  • She was getting more irritated as the minutes ticked by

    想著:「要不是我人好, 就讓他眼睛黑青」

  • Thinking, "If I wasn't so nice, I'd blacken his eye."

    她每拿一片餅乾,他就跟著拿一片

  • With each cookie she took, he took one too

    剩下最後一片時,她好奇他怎麼應變

  • When only one was left she wondered what he'd do

    他臉上掛著微笑,笑容靦腆

  • With a smile on his face and a nervous laugh

    拿起最後一片餅乾,將它剖為兩半

  • He took the last cookie and he broke it in half

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    遞給她一片並吞下另外一片

  • He offered her a half as he ate the other

    她抓了過來,心想:「我的天

  • She snatched it from him and thought, "Oh, brother.

    他不只大膽,還如此無禮

  • This guy has some nerve, and he’s also rude.

    如此囂張還沒有任何感激」

  • [Why] he didn't even show any gratitude."

    會如此惱怒是她始料未及

  • She had never known when she had been so galled

    解脫地嘆了口氣當她準備登機

  • And sighed with relief when her flight was called

    她收拾行李頭也不回準備起飛

  • She gathered her belongings and headed for the gate

    拒絕再看背後那個忘恩負義的賊

  • Refusing to look back at the thieving ingrate

    她登上了機並坐上了座位

  • She boarded the plane and sank in her seat

    然後找著快看完的書

  • Then she sought her book which was almost complete

    她摸著包包驚訝地發現

  • As she reached in her baggage, she gasped with surprise

    有一包餅乾出現在她面前

  • There was her bag of cookies in front of her eyes

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    「如果我的在這,」她絕望地呻吟著

  • "If mine are here," she moaned with despair

    「那包就是他的,而且無私地分享著」

  • "Then the others were his, and he tried to share."

    「來不及道歉了」她難過地領會

  • "Too late to apologize," she realized with grief

    自己才是那個無禮的、囂張的餅乾賊

  • That she was the rude one, the ingrate, the thief.

    所以剛剛你們怎麼看?

  • So, where were you, when I was--

    你們剛剛站在誰的角度思考?

  • Where were you? Who's side were you on?

    你們用自己的角度思考, 還是雙方的角度?

  • Were you thinking independent? Or interdependent?

    如果是自己的視角,我不怪你們。

  • I don't blame you if you think independent.

    我們都這樣被教導。

  • That's how we are raised.

    好人難出頭。會吵的小孩有糖吃。

  • Nice guys finish last. Squeaky wheel gets the grease.

    必須宣傳自己。

  • Gotta blow your own horn.

    獨立。

  • Independent.

    我們來到這世上,依靠別人生活,

  • We come in this life of ours dependent of others,

    然後等不及進入青少年時期。

  • and then we can't wait to become teenagers.

    我們要當小孩已經太老; 當大人卻又還沒夠成熟。

  • We are too old to do what kids do. Too young to do what adults do.

    所以只好做沒人會做的事, 顯示自己有自主權。

  • So that we will do that nobody else would do to assert our independence.

    有些人從此就陷在裡面,被它困住。

  • And some of us gets stuck there. We are stuck.

    我可以自己來。我不需要你們。

  • I'll do it myself. I don't need you.

    這並不好。

  • Not good.

    我們都需要彼此,需要彼此的支持。

  • We need each other. We have to have each other's back.

    我們需要社群的感覺。

  • We need a sense of community.

    我們必須從目前的獨立自主文化 轉移到互相扶持。

  • This independence culture that we got, we have to move to interdependent.

    好,四個C開頭的詞 可以提供自我動機的能量,

  • OK, four "C" words that can fuel self-motivation,

    而我認為他們還可以 提供人們主動關心他人的力量。

  • and I think can fuel actively caring for people.

    讓我告訴你們一個 把它們串運在一起的故事。

  • Let me tell you a story to put it all together.

    這是60年前發生的事, 但記憶就像昨天一樣鮮明。

  • It happened over 60 years ago. I remember it like yesterday.

    我父母問我:「嘿,史考特。

  • My parents asked me, "Hey, Scott.

    你想上爵士鼓課程嗎? 你想玩打鼓嗎?」

  • How would you like to get drum lessons? How would you like to play the drums?"

    天啊,我想過嗎?

  • Oh man! Would I ever?

    我開始想到巴迪·瑞奇(Budd Rich) 和金‧庫帕(Gene Krupa)。

  • I'm thinking of Buddy Rich and Gene Krupa.

    你們大部分都不知道這些名字, 但他們是鼓手。

  • Most of you guys don't know those names, but they were the drummers.

    那個年代,鼓的位置在樂團的最前面。

  • In those days, the drum was in front of the band.

    我彷彿看到他們的白色珍珠鼓組, 那是我的願景。

  • They had White Pearl drum sets, and I saw it myself. That was my vision.

    這就是我的願景:剛剛提到的「結果」。

  • I had a vision: consequences. That was my vision.

    然後我說:「好啊,我想上打鼓課。」

  • And I said, "Yeah, I want to take drum lessons."

    所以老師會他的鼓組帶到我的隔壁。

  • So the teacher would bring his drum set next to mine.

    當時我沒有像這樣的好鼓。

  • I didn't have a nice drum like this.

    我爸媽在拍賣買了一個堪用的鼓給我。

  • My parents bought me a beatable drama at an auction.

    他們告訴我:「如果你越打越好, 如果老師告訴我們--

  • And they said to me, "If you get better, if your teacher tells us you get--

    --他們正在讓我對它負責--

  • - they are holding me accountable -

    老師說你越打越好, 我們就會買個好一點的小鼓給你,

  • teacher says you are getting better, we will get you a better snare drum,

    然後大鼓,然後銅鈸。」

  • and then a bass drum, and then some symbols."

    那就是我的願景,讓我繼續學習的動力:

  • And that was my vision, and that kept me going:

    「結果」。

  • consequences.

    所以老師會進來,示範一些東西:

  • So the teacher would come in, and he would show me stuff:

    這是 -- 用左手;

  • this is how--, left hand;

    這是巴迪·瑞奇用他的左手 和右手打鼓的方式,

  • this is how Buddy Rich plays with his left hand and his right hand.

    然後他會做一些動作,如裝飾音--

  • and then he'd do things like a flam.

    (鼓聲)

  • (Drum)

    你在後面聽得到嗎? 可以嗎? 然後這是鼓邊音。

  • Can you hear that at the back? You OK? And this is a rim shot.

    (鼓聲)

  • (Drum)

    他會示範給我看。 我當時只有10歲,記得嗎?

  • He would show me stuff. I was just 10 years old, remember?

    當他示範給我看時,我覺得「哇!」

  • And when he showed me stuff, I felt, "Wow!"

    他示範一些簡單的鼓音, 「看著我,史考特,看這個--」

  • He showed me this little simple drumbeat, "Watch me, Scott, watch this."

    (鼓聲)

  • (Drum)

    我試著練看看,然後我做到了。 我感到自信。

  • And I practiced it. And I did it. I am feeling competent.

    他示範左右連擊技法(paradiddle): 「聽好,(打鼓)左右左左,右左右右。」

  • He showed me a paradiddle, "Listen. (Playing drums) Paradiddle, paradiddle."

    然後他說:「你回家練習;下週要看你打左右連擊。」

  • "You go home and practice; next week, I want to see your paradiddling.

    我說:「看這個」

  • I said, "Watch this."

    (打鼓)

  • (Drumming)

    然後我說:「看這個」

  • And I said, "Watch this."

    (打鼓)

  • (Drumming)

    他說:「那是雙重左右連擊, 我們還沒教到這個!」

  • He said, "That's a double paradiddle. We didn't get there yet."

    我進度超前。(笑聲) 因為我有自我動機。

  • I am really ahead. (Laughter) Because I'm self-motivated.

    我感到自信。

  • I feel competent.

    我走過賓州阿倫敦市的紐伯格高中,

  • I'm walking through Newberg High School, Allentown, Pennsylvania.

    遇到音樂老師,他說:

  • I see the music teacher, and he says,

    「聽說你在學鼓。」

  • "I've heard you're learning to play the drums."

    我說:「對啊!我越打越好。」

  • I said, "Yeah! I'm getting good."

    他說:「你可以加入樂團, 當小鼓的鼓手。」

  • He said, "You can march in the band. You can be the snare drummer."

    哇!那感覺真棒。另一個願景。

  • Wow! That felt good. Another vision.

    然後那老師進來--

  • Then the teacher comes into my--

    --這是私人課程,順帶說, 兩塊錢,那是很久前的事--