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  • The idea of human rights is that each one of us,

    「人權」這觀念,意謂著每一個人,

  • no matter who we are or where we are born,

    不論身份,不論出生地,

  • is entitled to the same basic rights and freedoms.

    都享有相同的基本權利和自由

  • Human rights are not privileges,

    人權不是就代表特權,

  • and they cannot be granted or revoked.

    它們均不能由他人賦予或剝奪

  • They are inalienable and universal.

    它們是不可剝奪的,而且是普世的

  • That may sound straight forward enough,

    這聽來簡單易明,

  • but it gets incredibly complicated

    但它變得非常複雜,

  • as soon as anyone tries to put the idea into practice.

    只要是當有人嘗試實踐這理念的時候

  • What exactly are the basic human rights?

    哪些是基本人權?

  • Who gets to pick them?

    這由誰決定?

  • Who enforces them, and how?

    誰執行它們,並如何執行?

  • The history behind the concept of human rights is a long one.

    人權這觀念源遠流長

  • Throughout the centuries and across societies, religions, and cultures,

    歷經多個世紀,橫跨種種社會、宗教和文化,

  • we have struggled with defining notions of rightfulness, justice, and rights.

    我們都在掙扎如何定義 正當、正義和權利

  • But one of the most modern affirmations of universal human rights

    但其中一個最現代、對於普世人權的肯定

  • emerged from the ruins of World War II with the creation of the United Nations.

    出現在第二次世界大戰後,伴隨著聯合國的創立

  • The treaty that established the UN gives as one of its purposes

    建立聯合國的條約申明,它其中一個目的

  • to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights.

    是重新確立對於基本人權的信念

  • And with the same spirit,

    本著相同精神

  • in 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    於1948,聯合國大會通過《世界人權宣言》

  • This document, written by an international committee chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt,

    這文件由愛蓮娜.羅斯福主持的 國際委員會起草

  • lays the basis for modern international human rights law.

    為現代國際人權法奠下基礎

  • The declaration is based on the principle

    宣言建基於一個原則:

  • that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

    所有人都生而自由,並享有平等的尊嚴和權利

  • It lists 30 articles recognizing, among other things,

    宣言列出 30 條權利

  • the principle of nondiscrimination and the right to life and liberty.

    例如,承認不歧視原則,肯定生存和自由的權利

  • It refers to negative freedoms, like the freedom from torture or slavery,

    宣言包括消極自由,例如免受酷刑和奴役的自由

  • as well as positive freedoms,

    也包括積極自由

  • such as the freedom of movement and residence.

    例如遷徙往來的自由

  • It encompasses basic civil and political rights,

    宣言涉及公民和政治權利

  • such as freedom of expression, religion, or peaceful assembly,

    例如表達自由、宗教自由與 和平集會的自由

  • as well as social, economic, and cultural rights,

    同時涉及社會、經濟和文化權利

  • such as the right to education

    例如受教育的權利

  • and the right to freely choose one's occupation

    自由選擇職業

  • and be paid and treated fairly.

    並享有公平薪酬待遇的權利

  • The declaration takes no sides as to which rights are more important,

    宣言並無判斷這些權利孰輕孰重

  • insisting on their universality,

    而是強調它們是普世的、

  • indivisibility,

    不可分割的

  • and interdependence.

    而且互相依存的

  • And in the past decades, international human rights law has grown,

    在過去數十年,國際人權法持續發展

  • deepening and expanding our understanding of what human rights are,

    我們對於「人權」的理解更為深廣

  • and how to better protect them.

    也更清楚如何保障「人權」

  • So if these principles are so well-developed,

    若果這些原則已經如此完善

  • then why are human rights abused and ignored time and time again

    為何濫用和漠視人權的情況

  • all over the world?

    在世界不同角落仍不斷發生?

  • The problem in general is that it is not at all easy

    概括而言,問題在於

  • to universally enforce these rights or to punish transgressors.

    普世地執行這些權利或懲罰違反者並不容易

  • The UDHR itself, despite being highly authoritative and respected,

    《世界人權宣言》雖然權威並受尊重

  • is a declaration, not a hard law.

    但只是宣言,而非能拘束主權國家的法律

  • So when individual countries violate it,

    所以當個別國家觸犯它

  • the mechanisms to address those violations are weak.

    相應的處理機制是軟弱的

  • For example, the main bodies within the UN in charge of protecting human rights

    例如,聯合國內負責保障人權的主要組織

  • mostly monitor and investigate violations,

    大多監察和調查違反人權的情況

  • but they cannot force states to, say, change a policy or compensate a victim.

    但它們對國家沒有約束力,例如不能迫使國家改變政策或賠償受害者

  • That's why some critics say it's naive to consider human rights a given

    這正是為何一些評論說 「人權天賦」的說法幼稚

  • in a world where state interests wield so much power.

    忽略這是一個國家利益支配權力的世界

  • Critics also question the universality of human rights

    評論也質疑人權的普世性,

  • and emphasize that their development

    並強調「人權」的歷史演變

  • has been heavily guided by a small number of mostly Western nations

    深受少數國家 (多為西方國家) 的影響

  • to the detriment of inclusiveness.

    有損「人權」的包容性

  • The result?

    結果呢?

  • A general bias in favor of civil policital liberties

    普遍偏向認為公民政治權利

  • over sociopolitical rights

    凌駕社會政治權利

  • and of individual over collective or groups rights.

    而且個人權利凌駕集體權利

  • Others defend universal human rights laws

    一些人則捍衛普世的人權法,

  • and point at the positive role they have on setting international standards

    指出這些法律有助建立國際標準,

  • and helping activists in their campaigns.

    也有助推動人權運動

  • They also point out that

    同時,這些人也指出

  • not all international human rights instruments are powerless.

    不是所有國際的人權組織皆無權力

  • For example, the European Convention on Human Rights establishes a court

    例如,《歐洲人權公約》設立法院

  • where the 47 member countries and their citizens can bring cases.

    47 個成員國和其居民均能提出訴訟

  • The court issues binding decisions that each member state must comply with.

    成員國必須遵從法院作出的決定

  • Human rights law is constantly evolving

    人權法持續演進,

  • as are our views and definitions of what the basic human rights should be.

    隨著我們對於基本人權的看法和定義而不斷演變

  • For example, how basic or important is the right to democracy

    例如,享有民主的權利有多基本或重要?

  • or to development?

    發展的權利又如何?

  • And as our lives are increasingly digital,

    當我們的生活日漸數碼化

  • should there be a right to access the Internet?

    我們應該享有上網的權利嗎?

  • A right to digital privacy?

    或是數碼私隱的權利?

  • What do you think?

    你的意見呢?

The idea of human rights is that each one of us,

「人權」這觀念,意謂著每一個人,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 人權 權利 自由 國際 國家

【TED-Ed】什麼是世界人權?(What are the universal human rights? - Benedetta Berti)

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    Ann 發佈於 2015 年 11 月 23 日
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