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  • Ever since I was a little girl

    從我還是一個小女孩

  • seeing "Star Wars" for the first time,

    第一次觀看星球大戰開始,

  • I've been fascinated by this idea

    我就被個人機器人

  • of personal robots.

    這個概念所吸引。

  • And as a little girl,

    當我是小女孩時,

  • I loved the idea of a robot that interacted with us

    我就愛這主意-機器人可以與我們互動

  • much more like a helpful, trusted sidekick --

    就像我們身邊有益值得信賴的助手,

  • something that would delight us, enrich our lives

    能逗樂我們,豐富我們的生活

  • and help us save a galaxy or two.

    還能助我們拯救一兩個星系。

  • I knew robots like that didn't really exist,

    所以當那時我知道這樣的機器人還不存在時,

  • but I knew I wanted to build them.

    我就知道-我想要建造它們。

  • So 20 years pass --

    20年過去了,

  • I am now a graduate student at MIT

    我進入麻省理工學院的研究院

  • studying artificial intelligence,

    學習人工智能,

  • the year is 1997,

    那一年是1997年,

  • and NASA has just landed the first robot on Mars.

    NASA剛剛登陸了第一個在火星的機器人。

  • But robots are still not in our home, ironically.

    但是,諷刺的是,機器人仍然不在我們的家中。

  • And I remember thinking about

    我還記得考慮過所有

  • all the reasons why that was the case.

    爲什麽如此的原因。

  • But one really struck me.

    其中一個原因特別使我震驚。

  • Robotics had really been about interacting with things,

    機器人技術一度就是關於如何和實物互動,

  • not with people --

    而不是與人類-

  • certainly not in a social way that would be natural for us

    尤其不可能以一種對我們而言自然的社交方式

  • and would really help people accept robots

    幫助我們真正接受機器人

  • into our daily lives.

    進入我們的日常生活。

  • For me, that was the white space; that's what robots could not do yet.

    對我而言,那就是空缺-那就是機器人尚且不能做的。

  • And so that year, I started to build this robot, Kismet,

    所以那一年,我開始建造機器人Kismet,

  • the world's first social robot.

    世界上第一個社交型機器人。

  • Three years later --

    三年后-

  • a lot of programming,

    許多的編程,

  • working with other graduate students in the lab --

    和與其他博士生在實驗室的一同工作后-

  • Kismet was ready to start interacting with people.

    Kismet 開始能夠和他人互動。

  • (Video) Scientist: I want to show you something.

    (錄像)科學家:我要給你看一個東西。

  • Kismet: (Nonsense)

    Kismet:

  • Scientist: This is a watch that my girlfriend gave me.

    科學家:這是我女友給我的手錶

  • Kismet: (Nonsense)

    Kismet:

  • Scientist: Yeah, look, it's got a little blue light in it too.

    科學家:看,它這還有個小藍燈在裏面。

  • I almost lost it this week.

    這周我差點丟了它。

  • Cynthia Breazeal: So Kismet interacted with people

    辛西婭:所以Kismet和人們交流

  • like kind of a non-verbal child or pre-verbal child,

    有點像一個不會說話或說話前的孩童,

  • which I assume was fitting because it was really the first of its kind.

    我認為這很合適,因為Kismet正是第一個這類機器人。

  • It didn't speak language, but it didn't matter.

    它不能說話,但這無所謂。

  • This little robot was somehow able

    這個小機器人不知怎麼地,能夠

  • to tap into something deeply social within us --

    深深觸動我們內心的交際性。

  • and with that, the promise of an entirely new way

    於是,這預示了一種我們能與機器人

  • we could interact with robots.

    交流的全新方式。

  • So over the past several years

    所以在過去的這些年中,

  • I've been continuing to explore this interpersonal dimension of robots,

    我繼續探索著機器人的人際交流方向,

  • now at the media lab

    現在在麻省理工學院媒體實驗室

  • with my own team of incredibly talented students.

    我建立一個團隊,由許多無比天才的學生組成。

  • And one of my favorite robots is Leonardo.

    我最喜歡的機器人之一是里納多(Leonardo).

  • We developed Leonardo in collaboration with Stan Winston Studio.

    我們與Stan Winston工作室合作研發了里納多。

  • And so I want to show you a special moment for me of Leo.

    現在我想向你們展示一個對我和里納多特別的時刻。

  • This is Matt Berlin interacting with Leo,

    這是Matt Berlin 和里納多的互動,

  • introducing Leo to a new object.

    給里納多介紹一種新事物。

  • And because it's new, Leo doesn't really know what to make of it.

    因為是新事物,里納多並不知道對此該怎麼做。

  • But sort of like us, he can actually learn about it

    但有點像我們,他可以通過觀察

  • from watching Matt's reaction.

    Matt的反應來學習。

  • (Video) Matt Berlin: Hello, Leo.

    (錄像)Matt Berlin:你好,里納多。

  • Leo, this is Cookie Monster.

    里納多,這是餅乾怪獸。

  • Can you find Cookie Monster?

    你能找到餅乾怪獸嗎?

  • Leo, Cookie Monster is very bad.

    里納多,餅乾怪獸非常壞。

  • He's very bad, Leo.

    他非常壞,里納多。

  • Cookie Monster is very, very bad.

    餅乾怪獸非常非常壞。

  • He's a scary monster.

    他是一個可怕的怪獸。

  • He wants to get your cookies.

    他想搶走你的餅乾。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • CB: All right, so Leo and Cookie

    CB: 好,所以里納多和餅乾

  • might have gotten off to a little bit of a rough start,

    交往的開始有點艱難

  • but they get along great now.

    但他們現在相處的很好。

  • So what I've learned

    所以從建造這些系統

  • through building these systems

    我學到

  • is that robots are actually

    機器人事實上是

  • a really intriguing social technology,

    一種有趣的社會科技。

  • where it's actually their ability

    機器人有能力

  • to push our social buttons

    觸動我們的交際按鈕

  • and to interact with us like a partner

    像我們的夥伴一樣與我們交流

  • that is a core part of their functionality.

    這是他們功能的核心。

  • And with that shift in thinking, we can now start to imagine

    有了這種思考上的變化,我們現在可以開始想像

  • new questions, new possibilities for robots

    對於機器人我們不曾想過的

  • that we might not have thought about otherwise.

    新問題和新的可能性。

  • But what do I mean when I say "push our social buttons?"

    但什麽是我所說的"觸動我們的交際按鈕"呢?

  • Well, one of the things that we've learned

    我們學到的一樣東西是

  • is that, if we design these robots to communicate with us

    當我們設計這些機器人用同樣的

  • using the same body language,

    身體語言與我們交流,

  • the same sort of non-verbal cues that people use --

    既人們所用的同一種非言語暗示-

  • like Nexi, our humanoid robot, is doing here --

    像Nexi,我們的類人機器人在這裡所作的-

  • what we find is that people respond to robots

    我們發現,我們回應機器人

  • a lot like they respond to people.

    十分類似于我們回應他人。

  • People use these cues to determine things like how persuasive someone is,

    人們通過這些非言語暗示來確定一個人多有說服力,

  • how likable, how engaging,

    多討人喜歡,多迷人,

  • how trustworthy.

    多值得信賴。

  • It turns out it's the same for robots.

    而原來,對於機器人也同樣如此,

  • It's turning out now

    結果是現在

  • that robots are actually becoming a really interesting new scientific tool

    機器人正在成為一種用來理解人類行為的

  • to understand human behavior.

    有趣的科學工具。

  • To answer questions like, how is it that, from a brief encounter,

    從一次簡短的相見,我們是怎麼能夠

  • we're able to make an estimate of how trustworthy another person is?

    判斷另一個人有多值得信任的呢?

  • Mimicry's believed to play a role, but how?

    模仿被認為是因素之一,但究竟如何呢?

  • Is it the mimicking of particular gestures that matters?

    是不是模仿一種特定的姿勢有影響?

  • It turns out it's really hard

    結果發現想要從觀察他人中

  • to learn this or understand this from watching people

    學習和理解這非常困難

  • because when we interact we do all of these cues automatically.

    因為當我們與人交流時,一切暗示信號都自然發生

  • We can't carefully control them because they're subconscious for us.

    我們不能仔細控制它們,因為它們是潛意識的

  • But with the robot, you can.

    但是對於機器人你可以。

  • And so in this video here --

    所以這有個視頻 --

  • this is a video taken from David DeSteno's lab at Northeastern University.

    這是一個在西北大學David DeSteno的實驗室錄製的視頻

  • He's a psychologist we've been collaborating with.

    David 是一個我們合作的心理學家。

  • There's actually a scientist carefully controlling Nexi's cues

    有科學家在仔細控制著Nexi的肢體暗示信號

  • to be able to study this question.

    來能研究這個問題。

  • And the bottom line is -- the reason why this works is

    所以底線是-爲什麽這樣有效的原因是-

  • because it turns out people just behave like people

    因為人們即使在和機器人互動時,

  • even when interacting with a robot.

    表現的和平時也一樣。

  • So given that key insight,

    所以有了這個關鍵的理解,

  • we can now start to imagine

    我們現在可以想像

  • new kinds of applications for robots.

    新種類的機器人應用。

  • For instance, if robots do respond to our non-verbal cues,

    比如,如果機器人可以回應我們的非言語信號,

  • maybe they would be a cool, new communication technology.

    那麼它們可以用在新型超酷的傳媒科技上。

  • So imagine this:

    所以想像:

  • What about a robot accessory for your cellphone?

    設計一個機器人手機配件如何?

  • You call your friend, she puts her handset in a robot,

    你給朋友打電話,她把聽筒放在機器人里,

  • and, bam! You're a MeBot --

    哇哦,你變成了一個自我機器人--

  • you can make eye contact, you can talk with your friends,

    你們可以眼神交流,你可以和朋友說話,

  • you can move around, you can gesture --

    你可以走動,你可以做手勢--

  • maybe the next best thing to really being there, or is it?

    這可能就是下一個真正會發生的了不起的事,不是嗎?

  • To explore this question,

    來探索這個問題

  • my student, Siggy Adalgeirsson, did a study

    我的學生,Siggy Adalgeirsson,做了一項研究

  • where we brought human participants, people, into our lab

    我們召集了參與者-人

  • to do a collaborative task

    來我們的實驗室,與一個遠程合作者

  • with a remote collaborator.

    一同完成一個合作任務。

  • The task involved things

    任務包括

  • like looking at a set of objects on the table,

    像看桌子上放置的一系列東西,

  • discussing them in terms of their importance and relevance to performing a certain task --

    然后討論這些東西對於完成一個特定任務-最終是一個生存任務-

  • this ended up being a survival task --

    的相關性和重要性

  • and then rating them in terms

    然後根據他們認為這樣東西多有價值

  • of how valuable and important they thought they were.

    多重要來打分。

  • The remote collaborator was an experimenter from our group

    遠程合作者是一個來自我們組的實驗人員

  • who used one of three different technologies

    他們使用三種不同的科技手段

  • to interact with the participants.

    來和參與者交流。

  • The first was just the screen.

    第一種是屏幕,

  • This is just like video conferencing today.

    就像如今的視屏會議一樣。

  • The next was to add mobility -- so, have the screen on a mobile base.

    第二種我們加入了移動性,一個會移動的屏幕

  • This is like, if you're familiar with any of the telepresence robots today --

    就像,如果你熟悉的話,現在存在的任何遠程呈現機器人一樣--

  • this is mirroring that situation.

    這反應了那種情況。

  • And then the fully expressive MeBot.

    下一類就是有完全表達性的自我機器人。

  • So after the interaction,

    所以在交流后,

  • we asked people to rate their quality of interaction

    我們讓參與者給他們與遠程合作者

  • with the technology, with a remote collaborator

    交流所使用的科技手段

  • through this technology, in a number of different ways.

    在不同方面打分。

  • We looked at psychological involvement --

    我們考慮了心理的投入度--

  • how much empathy did you feel for the other person?

    多設身處地他們為另一個人(遠程合作者)考慮?

  • We looked at overall engagement.

    我們看了整體的參與度。

  • We looked at their desire to cooperate.

    我們考慮了他們合作的慾望度。

  • And this is what we see when they use just the screen.

    這是他們只使用屏幕的結果。

  • It turns out, when you add mobility -- the ability to roll around the table --

    如果你加入移動性-在桌子上轉動的能力-

  • you get a little more of a boost.

    你能得到一點提高

  • And you get even more of a boost when you add the full expression.

    但如果加入完全的表達,你得到更多的提高

  • So it seems like this physical, social embodiment

    所以看上去實體的交流化身

  • actually really makes a difference.

    能起重要的作用。

  • Now let's try to put this into a little bit of context.

    現在把這個放入大一點的社會環境。

  • Today we know that families are living further and further apart,

    我們知道如今家族之間住得越來越遠,

  • and that definitely takes a toll on family relationships

    這距離確實給我們的家庭關係

  • and family bonds over distance.

    和家庭聯結打了折扣。

  • For me, I have three young boys,

    對我而言,我有三個小兒子

  • and I want them to have a really good relationship

    我想讓他們和他們的爺爺奶奶

  • with their grandparents.

    有真正好的關係。

  • But my parents live thousands of miles away,

    但是我父母住的遠隔千里

  • so they just don't get to see each other that often.

    所以他們并不能那麼經常見到彼此。

  • We try Skype, we try phone calls,

    我們試過電話,Skype(網路視頻電話),

  • but my boys are little -- they don't really want to talk;

    但是我的孩子還小-他們並不想說話

  • they want to play.

    他們想玩。

  • So I love the idea of thinking about robots

    他們會喜歡這個機器人成為

  • as a new kind of distance-play technology.

    一種遠程遊戲科技的概念。

  • I imagine a time not too far from now --

    所以我想像不遠的將來--

  • my mom can go to her computer,

    我的媽媽可以到她的電腦前,

  • open up a browser and jack into a little robot.

    打開瀏覽器,化身為一個小機器人。

  • And as grandma-bot,

    作為奶奶機器人

  • she can now play, really play,

    她可以真正

  • with my sons, with her grandsons,

    和我的兒子她孫子一起玩

  • in the real world with his real toys.

    在真實的世界和他們真正的玩具一起玩

  • I could imagine grandmothers being able to do social-plays

    我可以想像祖母們和他們的孫子孫女

  • with their granddaughters, with their friends,

    朋友,一起社交遊戲

  • and to be able to share all kinds of other activities around the house,

    一起分享在屋子里各種各樣的活動,

  • like sharing a bedtime story.

    比如,分享床頭故事

  • And through this technology,

    通過這種科技

  • being able to be an active participant

    他們能夠以成為他們

  • in their grandchildren's lives

    孫子孫女生活中的活躍的一部份

  • in a way that's not possible today.

    而這在今日尚不可能。

  • Let's think about some other domains,

    讓我們再考慮一下其他方面,

  • like maybe health.

    比如健康醫療。

  • So in the United States today,

    在今日的美國

  • over 65 percent of people are either overweight or obese,

    超過百分之65的人超重,肥胖

  • and now it's a big problem with our children as well.

    這也正成為我們孩子中的大問題。

  • And we know that as you get older in life,

    我們知道當你漸漸變老時,

  • if you're obese when you're younger, that can lead to chronic diseases

    如果你早年肥胖的話,可能會導致愈多慢性病

  • that not only reduce your quality of life,

    這不僅降低我們生活的質量,

  • but are a tremendous economic burden on our health care system.

    也正成為我們醫療系統的重大經濟負擔。

  • But if robots can be engaging,

    所以如果機器人可以是有趣的,

  • if we like to cooperate with robots,

    如果我們喜歡和機器人合作,

  • if robots are persuasive,

    同時機器人是有說服力的,

  • maybe a robot can help you

    那麼也許機器人可以幫助你

  • maintain a diet and exercise program,

    保持你的健康飲食和鍛煉計劃,

  • maybe they can help you manage your weight.

    也許他們能幫你控制你的體重。

  • Sort of like a digital Jiminy --

    這有點像那個有名童話故事中的

  • as in the well-known fairy tale --

    電子吉米尼,

  • a kind of friendly, supportive presence that's always there

    機器人作為一種友好支持的存在

  • to be able to help you make the right decision

    總能在那裡幫你做出正確抉擇

  • in the right way at the right time

    以合適的方式,在合適的時間

  • to help you form healthy habits.

    幫你養成健康的習慣。

  • So we actually explored this idea in our lab.

    我們事實上已經探索了這個主意。

  • This is a robot, Autom.

    這是一個機器人,叫Autom.

  • Cory Kidd developed this robot for his doctoral work.

    Cory Kidd為他的博士論文發明了這個機器人。

  • And it was designed to be a robot diet-and-exercise coach.

    它被設計為一個機器人健康飲食鍛煉教練。

  • It had a couple of simple non-verbal skills it could do.

    它有一些簡單的非語言技巧。

  • It could make eye contact with you.

    它可以與你眼神交流

  • It could share information looking down at a screen.

    它可以低頭看屏幕與你分享信息。

  • You'd use a screen interface to enter information,

    你將用一個屏幕介面輸入信息,

  • like how many calories you ate that day,

    像你今天吃了多少卡路里

  • how much exercise you got.

    運動了多少

  • And then it could help track that for you.

    它就能追蹤記錄那些

  • And the robot spoke with a synthetic voice

    同時機器人可以用它人造的合成聲音

  • to engage you in a coaching dialogue

    與你進行指導對話。

  • modeled after trainers

    這對話模擬真實的

  • and patients and so forth.

    訓練者與病人的交流。

  • And it would build a working alliance with you

    所以通過對話,它可以與你形成

  • through that dialogue.

    一種工作同盟。

  • It could help you set goals and track your progress,

    它幫你建立目標,記錄你的進展,

  • and it would help motivate you.

    鼓勵你。

  • So an interesting question is,

    所以一個有趣的問題是

  • does the social embodiment really matter? Does it matter that it's a robot?

    這種實體化的交流化身真那麼不同嗎?機器人真有影響嗎?

  • Is it really just the quality of advice and information that matters?

    還是只是建議和信息的質量有影響?

  • To explore that question,

    來解決這個問題,

  • we did a study in the Boston area

    我們在波斯頓做了一項研究

  • where we put one of three interventions in people's homes

    在幾周的時間里,我們把三種介入方式的一種

  • for a period of several weeks.

    放入人們的家中。

  • One case was the robot you saw there, Autom.

    一種是你看過的機器人,Autom.

  • Another was a computer that ran the same touch-screen interface,

    一種是一個有同樣觸目屏介面

  • ran exactly the same dialogues.

    會運行同樣對話的電腦。

  • The quality of advice was identical.

    建議的質量也完全相同。

  • And the third was just a pen and paper log,

    第三種只是筆和紙日誌,

  • because that's the standard intervention you typically get

    因為這是你傳統上開始一項

  • when you start a diet-and-exercise program.

    飲食鍛煉計劃典型的介入方式。

  • So one of the things we really wanted to look at

    我們特別關注的

  • was not how much weight people lost,

    不是人們減少了多少體重

  • but really how long they interacted with the robot.

    而是他們與機器人能維持交流多久。

  • Because the challenge is not losing weight, it's actually keeping it off.

    因為挑戰不是減去重量,而是保持重量下降

  • And the longer you could interact with one of these interventions,

    所以你能越長時間與這些介入方式互動,