Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Where did Russia come from,

    俄羅斯從何而來?

  • why is it so big,

    為何它幅員如此遼闊?

  • and what are the differences between it and its neighbors?

    而且它和鄰近國家有何不同?

  • The answers lie in an epic story of seafaring warriors,

    答案隱藏於一個壯麗故事, 故事包括一群海上戰士

  • nomadic invaders,

    遊牧的侵略者

  • and the rise and fall of a medieval state known as Kievan Rus.

    和一個中世紀國家(基輔羅斯)的興衰

  • In the first millennium,

    在第一個千年

  • a large group of tribes spread through the dense woodlands of Eastern Europe.

    一大群部落散佈於東歐的茂密林地

  • Because they had no writing system,

    因為他們沒有書寫文字

  • much of what we know about them comes from three main sources:

    我們主要透過三類資料來認識他們:

  • archaeological evidence,

    考古證據

  • accounts from literate scholars of the Roman Empire and the Middle East,

    羅馬帝國和中東學者的文字描述

  • and, lastly, an epic history called the Primary Chronicle

    和一個宏大的歷史記錄 《往年紀事:古羅斯第一部編年史》

  • compiled in the 12th century by a monk named Nestor.

    由12世紀一位名叫涅斯托爾的僧侶 編集而成

  • What they tell us is that these tribes who shared a common Slavic language

    這些資料告訴我們這些部落 有著共同的斯拉夫語言

  • and polytheistic religion

    並且信奉共同的多神宗教

  • had by the 7th century split into western, southern and eastern branches,

    在7世紀以前, 分裂成西部、南部和東部

  • the latter stretching from the Dniester River

    後者從德涅斯特河伸展至

  • to the Volga and the Baltic Sea.

    伏加河和波羅的海

  • As Nestor's story goes, after years of subjugation by Vikings from the north,

    據涅斯托爾記載, 多年被北方來的維京人征服後

  • who, by the way, did not wear horned helmets in battle,

    順便一提, 這些維京人在戰爭中不戴有角頭盔

  • the region's tribes revolted and drove back the Northmen,

    地區部落群起革命, 把維京人逐回北方

  • but left to their own devices, they turned on each other.

    但後來,部落間兵戎相見

  • Such chaos ensued that, ironically,

    諷刺地,這樣的混亂導致

  • the tribes reached out to the foreigners they had just expelled,

    眾部落聯絡剛被他們驅逐的外國人

  • inviting them to return and establish order.

    邀請他們回來建立秩序

  • The Vikings accepted, sending a prince named Rurik and his two brothers to rule.

    維京人接受邀請, 派遣魯里克王子和他兩名兄弟前來統治

  • With Rurik's son, Oleg, expanding his realm into the south,

    魯里克王子的兒子奥列格向南擴展國土

  • and moving the capitol to Kiev,

    並遷都基輔

  • a former outpost of the Khazar Empire,

    這曾是可薩汗國的前哨基地

  • the Kievan Rus was born,

    基輔羅斯正式誕生

  • "Rus" most likely deriving from an old Norse word for "the men who row."

    「Rus」大概源自古納維亞語, 意為「划船的人們」

  • The new princedom had complex relations with its neighbors,

    這個新王國與鄰國關係複雜

  • alternating between alliance and warfare with the Khazar and Byzantine Empires,

    與可薩汗國和拜占庭帝國 徘徊於結盟和戰爭之間

  • as well as neighboring tribes.

    和其他鄰近部落的關係亦如是

  • Religion played an important role in politics,

    宗教在政治扮演重要的角色

  • and as the legend goes, in 987,

    在公元987年

  • the Rus prince Vladamir I decided it was time to abandon Slavic paganism,

    當時的羅斯王子(維拉基米爾一世) 決定摒棄斯拉夫的異教信仰

  • and sent emissaries to explore neighboring faiths.

    並且派遣使者到鄰國尋找其他信仰

  • Put off by Islam's prohibition on alcohol

    得知伊斯蘭教禁酒

  • and Judaism's expulsion from its holy land,

    並有見猶太教被逐出自己的聖地

  • the ruler settled on Orthodox Christianity

    他最後決定採納東正教

  • after hearing odd accounts of its ceremonies.

    在聽說其奇怪儀式之後

  • With Vladimir's conversion and marriage to the Byzantine emperor's sister,

    維拉基米爾皈依東正教, 並迎娶拜占庭皇帝的妹妹為妻

  • as well as continued trade along the Volga route,

    往來「㐲加之路」的貿易日益頻繁

  • the relationship between the two civilizations deepened.

    這些都使兩個文明的關係日漸緊密

  • Byzantine missionaries created an alphabet for Slavic languages

    拜占庭的傳教士為斯拉夫語創造字母

  • based on a modified Greek script

    建基於一套改良後的希臘字母系統

  • while Rus Viking warriors served as the Byzantine Emperor's elite guard.

    與此同時,羅斯的維京戰士 聘為拜占庭皇帝的精銳守衛

  • For several generations,

    數世代以來

  • the Kievan Rus flourished from its rich resources and trade.

    基輔羅斯受益於豐富資源和貿易, 社會經濟蓬勃發展

  • Its noblemen and noblewomen married prominent European rulers,

    貴族紛紛與顯赫的歐洲皇室 結成姻親

  • while residents of some cities enjoyed great culture,

    部分城市的居民享有豐富的文化生活

  • literacy, and even democratic freedoms uncommon for the time.

    高文化水平, 甚至享有當時少見的民主自由

  • But nothing lasts forever.

    但沒有東西是恒久不變的

  • Fratricidal disputes over succession began to erode central power

    針對王位繼承權的爭辯和互相殘殺, 開始削弱中央權力

  • as increasingly independent cities ruled by rival princes vied for control.

    王子們爭奪控制權,各據城市

  • The Fourth Crusade and decline of Constantinople

    第四次十字軍東征 和君士坦丁堡的衰落

  • devastated the trade integral to Rus wealth and power,

    徹底破壞了貿易 羅斯的財富和權力的命脈

  • while Teutonic crusaders threatened northern territories.

    同時,條頓騎士團進犯北部地區

  • The final blow, however, would come from the east.

    但最後一擊來自東方

  • Consumed by their squabbles,

    耗盡心力於內部爭鬥

  • Rus princes paid little attention to the rumors

    羅斯的王子們忽視

  • of a mysterious unstoppable hoard

    關於一隊萬夫莫敵的 神秘大軍的傳聞

  • until 1237, when 35,000 mounted archers led by Batu Khan

    直至1237年,拔都汗率領3,500名騎射手

  • swept through the Rus cities,

    橫掃羅斯眾城

  • sacking Kiev before continuing on to Hungary and Poland.

    洗劫基輔, 後至匈牙利和波蘭

  • The age of Kievan Rus had come to an end, its people now divided.

    基輔羅斯的時代來到尾聲, 國土分裂,人民分屬不同的統治者

  • In the east, which remained under Mongol rule,

    在仍然受蒙古統治的東部

  • a remote trading post, known as Moscow,

    一個荒蕪的貿易站,名為莫斯科

  • would grow to challenge the power of the Khans,

    漸漸強大,威脅蒙古可汗的統治

  • conquering parts of their fragmenting empire,

    佔領正在分裂的蒙古帝國

  • and, in many ways, succeeding it.

    並運用不同方法獲得勝利

  • As it absorbed other eastern Rus territories,

    當它擴張至其他羅斯東部國土

  • it reclaimed the old name in its Greek form, Ruscia.

    它重新運用希臘文舊名: Ruscia(俄羅斯)

  • Meanwhile, the western regions whose leaders had avoided destruction

    與此同時,西部地區的領袖

  • through political maneuvering until the hoard withdrew

    運用種種政治策略而得保據地, 直至蒙古大軍撒離

  • came under the influence of Poland and Lithuania.

    開始受到波蘭和立陶宛的影響

  • For the next few centuries,

    在接下來的數百年

  • the former lands of Kievan Rus

    基輔羅斯的故土

  • populated by Slavs,

    那曾住著斯拉夫人的

  • ruled by Vikings,

    那曾受維京人統治的

  • taught by Greeks,

    那曾得文字於希臘文的

  • and split by Mongols

    那曾被蒙古人分裂的

  • would develop differences in society, culture and language

    發展出社會、文化和語言上各種差異

  • that remain to the present day.

    直至今天

Where did Russia come from,

俄羅斯從何而來?

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 維京人 羅斯 王子 部落 統治

【TED-Ed】俄羅斯從哪裡來?- Alex Gendler (【TED-Ed】Where did Russia come from? - Alex Gendler)

  • 268 46
    周杰 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字