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  • It is a thrill to be here at a conference

    各位可以想像 — 能在這裡參加這個討論

  • that's devoted to "Inspired by Nature" -- you can imagine.

    「自然的啟發」的研討會實在非常榮幸。

  • And I'm also thrilled to be in the foreplay section.

    我也很開心被安排在「導論」這一節。

  • Did you notice this section is foreplay?

    你們有沒有注意到這一節演說是導論?

  • Because I get to talk about one of my favorite critters,

    因為我可以談談我最喜歡的生物之一,

  • which is the Western Grebe. You haven't lived

    那就是北美鷿鷈。你一輩子一定要看過

  • until you've seen these guys do their courtship dance.

    這些傢伙跳求偶舞才算真正活過。

  • I was on Bowman Lake in Glacier National Park,

    我當時在蒙大拿冰河國家公園的波曼湖上,

  • which is a long, skinny lake with sort of mountains upside down in it,

    那是一個狹長的湖,湖面上有群峰的倒影,

  • and my partner and I have a rowing shell.

    我和我的伴侶有一艘小船。

  • And so we were rowing, and one of these Western Grebes came along.

    當我們在划船的時候,來了一隻北美鷿鷈。

  • And what they do for their courtship dance is, they go together,

    他們的求偶舞就是,兩隻北美鷿鷈,

  • the two of them, the two mates, and they begin to run underwater.

    兩隻這樣併排在一起,開始在水面下奔跑。

  • They paddle faster, and faster, and faster, until they're going so fast

    牠們的雙蹼愈划愈快,愈划愈快,

  • that they literally lift up out of the water,

    快到最後身體從水中騰起,

  • and they're standing upright, sort of paddling the top of the water.

    身體直立,就像是輕功水上飄一般,在水面上奔跑。

  • And one of these Grebes came along while we were rowing.

    我們划船的時候,來了一隻北美鷿鷈。

  • And so we're in a skull, and we're moving really, really quickly.

    我們划著小船,划得非常非常快。

  • And this Grebe, I think, sort of, mistaked us for a prospect,

    而這隻鷿鷈,我猜,大概是把我們誤認為可能的對象,

  • and started to run along the water next to us,

    開始在我們旁邊的水域跑了起來,

  • in a courtship dance -- for miles.

    跳著求偶舞,跑了好幾英里。

  • It would stop, and then start, and then stop, and then start.

    牠會停下來,又開始,停下來,又開始。

  • Now that is foreplay.

    這,才叫前戲吧!(註:原文與導論同)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I came this close to changing species at that moment.

    好,我承認,我當時差一點就要改當鷿鷈了。

  • Obviously, life can teach us something

    在娛樂方面,生命顯然可以教導我們一些事情

  • in the entertainment section. Life has a lot to teach us.

    生命可以教導我們的其實很多。

  • But what I'd like to talk about today

    但是我今天所要談的,

  • is what life might teach us in technology and in design.

    是在科技與設計領域,生命可以教我們什麼。

  • What's happened since the book came out --

    自從我的書出版以後,

  • the book was mainly about research in biomimicry --

    書中主要談的是仿生學的研究。

  • and what's happened since then is architects, designers, engineers --

    書出版了以後,建築師、設計師、工程師

  • people who make our world -- have started to call and say,

    那些打造我們這個世界的人,開始打電話給我說,

  • we want a biologist to sit at the design table

    我們想要一個生物學家跟我們一起坐在設計桌旁,

  • to help us, in real time, become inspired.

    即時幫助我們啟發靈感。

  • Or -- and this is the fun part for me -- we want you to take us out

    或者,這是我喜歡的部份,我們希望你帶我們

  • into the natural world. We'll come with a design challenge

    到自然界中探險。我們會提出設計上的難題

  • and we find the champion adapters in the natural world, who might inspire us.

    然後在自然界中找到那些可以提供靈感的適存者。

  • So this is a picture from a Galapagos trip that we took

    這張照片是我們去加拉巴哥旅行時拍的。

  • with some wastewater treatment engineers; they purify wastewater.

    同行的是一群廢水處理工程師; 他們的工作是純化廢水。

  • And some of them were very resistant, actually, to being there.

    他們當中有些人其實很不想去。

  • What they said to us at first was, you know, we already do biomimicry.

    一開始他們跟我們說,「我們已經在應用仿生學了」

  • We use bacteria to clean our water. And we said,

    「我們用細菌來處理廢水」

  • well, that's not exactly being inspired by nature.

    我們說,嗯這並不算是從大自然中找靈感。

  • That's bioprocessing, you know; that's bio-assisted technology:

    那是生物處理, 是生物輔助技術:

  • using an organism to do your wastewater treatment

    使用生物來處理廢水

  • is an old, old technology called "domestication."

    是一種非常、非常古老的技術,叫做「馴養。」

  • This is learning something, learning an idea, from an organism and then applying it.

    仿生學是從生物上學習,得到靈感並加以應用。

  • And so they still weren't getting it.

    然而他們還是不懂。

  • So we went for a walk on the beach and I said,

    所以我們在海灘上走著,我說,

  • well, give me one of your big problems. Give me a design challenge,

    提一個你們最大的困難給我。給我一個設計上的難題,

  • sustainability speed bump, that's keeping you from being sustainable.

    永續性的絆腳石, 讓設計達不到永續標準的問題。

  • And they said scaling, which is the build-up of minerals inside of pipes.

    他們回答:水垢,也就是礦物質在水管裡沈積。

  • And they said, you know what happens is, mineral --

    大家知道

  • just like at your house -- mineral builds up.

    就跟家裡的水垢一樣,礦物質會沈積。

  • And then the aperture closes, and we have to flush the pipes with toxins,

    然後水管會被阻塞,我們就必須用有毒的溶劑去沖洗水管,

  • or we have to dig them up.

    或是使用物理方法把它們挖出來。

  • So if we had some way to stop this scaling --

    所以如果能夠阻止水垢沈積...

  • and so I picked up some shells on the beach. And I asked them,

    聽完以後我撿起海灘上的一 些貝殼。我問他們,

  • what is scaling? What's inside your pipes?

    水垢是什麼?水管裡的東西是什麼?

  • And they said, calcium carbonate.

    他們說,碳酸鈣。

  • And I said, that's what this is; this is calcium carbonate.

    然後我就說,這就是了; 貝殼也是碳酸鈣。

  • And they didn't know that.

    他們本來不知道這件事。

  • They didn't know that what a seashell is,

    他們不知道貝殼其實是

  • it's templated by proteins, and then ions from the seawater

    先有蛋白質組成的模板,然後海水中的離子

  • crystallize in place to create a shell.

    照著模板結晶,就這樣形成貝殼。

  • So the same sort of a process, without the proteins,

    所以類似的程序,只是少了蛋白質,

  • is happening on the inside of their pipes. They didn't know.

    也在他們的水管中發生,但他們並不曉得。

  • This is not for lack of information; it's a lack of integration.

    這並不是資訊不足,而是缺乏整合 。

  • You know, it's a silo, people in silos. They didn't know

    是不同領域各自為政,缺乏交流。他們不知道

  • that the same thing was happening. So one of them thought about it

    同樣的事情也在其他領域發生。他們當中有個人

  • and said, OK, well, if this is just crystallization

    想了想說,好,如果這只是結晶現象

  • that happens automatically out of seawater -- self-assembly --

    在海水中自然產生,自我組裝,

  • then why aren't shells infinite in size? What stops the scaling?

    為什麼貝殼不會長到無限大?是什麼停止了沈積過程?

  • Why don't they just keep on going?

    貝殼為甚麼不會長個不停?

  • And I said, well, in the same way

    我說,就像它們釋放蛋白質

  • that they exude a protein and it starts the crystallization --

    來啟動結晶現象...

  • and then they all sort of leaned in --

    這時工程師們都靠了過來,

  • they let go of a protein that stops the crystallization.

    貝殼也會釋放蛋白質來中止結晶現象。

  • It literally adheres to the growing face of the crystal.

    蛋白質會吸附在結晶生長的那一面。

  • And, in fact, there is a product called TPA

    事實上,有一種叫做 TPA 的產品

  • that's mimicked that protein -- that stop-protein --

    模仿了這個終止蛋白。

  • and it's an environmentally friendly way to stop scaling in pipes.

    這是一個環保的方法,可以避免水管長水垢。

  • That changed everything. From then on,

    這改變了一切。在那之後,

  • you could not get these engineers back in the boat.

    這些工程師都捨不得回到船上。

  • The first day they would take a hike,

    行程第一天他們會走一小段路,

  • and it was, click, click, click, click. Five minutes later they were back in the boat.

    喀嚓、喀嚓、喀嚓,拍個五分鐘後就回到船上。

  • We're done. You know, I've seen that island.

    「好了,這個島看過了。」

  • After this,

    但在這之後,

  • they were crawling all over. They would snorkel

    他們到處爬來爬去。

  • for as long as we would let them snorkel.

    他們一直浮潛,潛到最後一刻非走不可才起來。

  • What had happened was that they realized that there were organisms

    因為他們體會到自然界中

  • out there that had already solved the problems

    已經有生物體

  • that they had spent their careers trying to solve.

    解決了他們一輩子努力想解決的難題。

  • Learning about the natural world is one thing;

    認識自然界是一回事,

  • learning from the natural world -- that's the switch.

    向自然界學習,這才是轉變的開始。

  • That's the profound switch.

    這是一個深負意涵的轉變。

  • What they realized was that the answers to their questions are everywhere;

    他們了解到,問題的答案俯仰皆是;

  • they just needed to change the lenses with which they saw the world.

    只需要改變觀察這個世界的觀點。

  • 3.8 billion years of field-testing.

    38 億年的實地測驗。

  • 10 to 30 -- Craig Venter will probably tell you;

    克萊格•凡特可能會跟你說有 1-3 億,

  • I think there's a lot more than 30 million -- well-adapted solutions.

    我則認為自然界裡有遠遠超過三億種適應良好的解決方案。

  • The important thing for me is that these are solutions solved in context.

    對我來說重點在於,這些解決方案考慮了整體環境

  • And the context is the Earth --

    這個整體環境就是地球。

  • the same context that we're trying to solve our problems in.

    我們要解決的問題,也存在同樣的整體環境裡。

  • So it's the conscious emulation of life's genius.

    我們要有意識地向自然界的天才學習,

  • It's not slavishly mimicking --

    而不是全盤照抄。

  • although Al is trying to get the hairdo going --

    雖然說愛因斯坦的髮型是想要模仿...

  • it's not a slavish mimicry; it's taking the design principles,

    不是全盤照抄,而是找出設計原則,

  • the genius of the natural world, and learning something from it.

    找出自然界的天才,從中學習。

  • Now, in a group with so many IT people, I do have to mention what

    在場有許多資訊界的人士,我必須提一下

  • I'm not going to talk about, and that is that your field

    演講正文不會提到的,也就是

  • is one that has learned an enormous amount from living things,

    資訊界向生物界借鏡,在軟體方面已經學到很多。

  • on the software side. So there's computers that protect themselves,

    所以有能自我保護的電腦,就像免疫系統一樣。

  • like an immune system, and we're learning from gene regulation

    其他效法的對象還有基因調控、

  • and biological development. And we're learning from neural nets,

    生物發展、神經網路、

  • genetic algorithms, evolutionary computing.

    基因演算法、演化計算。

  • That's on the software side. But what's interesting to me

    這是軟體層面。但我覺得有趣的是

  • is that we haven't looked at this, as much. I mean, these machines

    我們還沒有開始考慮這個(硬體部份),這些機器

  • are really not very high tech in my estimation

    在我看來不算高科技

  • in the sense that there's dozens and dozens of carcinogens

    因為矽谷的水裡

  • in the water in Silicon Valley.

    有好幾十種致癌物。

  • So the hardware

    因此硬體部份

  • is not at all up to snuff in terms of what life would call a success.

    以生命的觀點來看根本稱不上成功的設計。

  • So what can we learn about making -- not just computers, but everything?

    在製造方面,我們可以學到什麼?不只針對電腦,我指所有東西的製造。

  • The plane you came in, cars, the seats that you're sitting on.

    大家搭的飛機、汽車、坐的椅子。

  • How do we redesign the world that we make, the human-made world?

    我們如何重新設計我們所製造的世界,這個人造世界?

  • More importantly, what should we ask in the next 10 years?

    更重要的是,未來十年,我們的目標應該是什麼?

  • And there's a lot of cool technologies out there that life has.

    自然界的生命有數不清的有趣科技。

  • What's the syllabus?

    我們的課程大綱該是什麼?

  • Three questions, for me, are key.

    對我來說,有三個問題是關鍵。

  • How does life make things?

    生命如何製造東西?

  • This is the opposite; this is how we make things.

    我們製造東西的方法與自然恰是兩個極端。

  • It's called heat, beat and treat --

    我們的方法是加熱、加壓、化學處理,

  • that's what material scientists call it.

    這是材料科學家的說法。

  • And it's carving things down from the top, with 96 percent waste left over

    這個方法從開始到結束,產生了 96% 的廢物

  • and only 4 percent product. You heat it up; you beat it with high pressures;

    只有 4% 是成品。加熱,施加高壓,

  • you use chemicals. OK. Heat, beat and treat.

    再用化學藥物處理。加熱、加壓、化學處理。

  • Life can't afford to do that. How does life make things?

    生命沒辦法這麼浪費。那生命如何製造東西?

  • How does life make the most of things?

    生命製造東西都是怎麼做的?

  • That's a geranium pollen.

    這是天竺葵花粉。

  • And its shape is what gives it the function of being able

    它的形狀讓它能輕易地在空中漂浮。

  • to tumble through air so easily. Look at that shape.

    看看它的形狀。

  • Life adds information to matter.

    生命在物質上加入資訊。

  • In other words: structure.

    換言之就是結構。

  • It gives it information. By adding information to matter,

    結構包含資訊。物質加上資訊,

  • it gives it a function that's different than without that structure.

    就有了功能,如果沒有結構就會有不同的功能。

  • And thirdly, how does life make things disappear into systems?

    第三,生命如何讓東西消失到系統裡?

  • Because life doesn't really deal in things;

    因為生命處理的並不是東西

  • there are no things in the natural world divorced

    自然界中沒有什麼東西

  • from their systems.

    是與系統脫節的。

  • Really quick syllabus.

    一個很簡短的課程大綱。

  • As I'm reading more and more now, and following the story,

    當我順著這個題材,閱讀愈來愈多相關資料的同時,

  • there are some amazing things coming up in the biological sciences.

    生物科學界有了一些驚奇的發現。

  • And at the same time, I'm listening to a lot of businesses

    在此同時,我傾聽許多企業的聲音

  • and finding what their sort of grand challenges are.

    了解他們面臨什麼樣的大挑戰。

  • The two groups are not talking to each other.

    這兩個團體缺乏對話。

  • At all.

    完全沒有。

  • What in the world of biology might be helpful at this juncture,

    此時此刻,生物學的世界也許能幫上忙

  • to get us through this sort of evolutionary knothole that we're in?

    幫助我們在這演化的節骨眼渡過難關。

  • I'm going to try to go through 12, really quickly.

    下面我會很快地帶過 12 個重點。

  • One that's exciting to me is self-assembly.

    好,我很有興趣的是自我組裝。

  • Now, you've heard about this in terms of nanotechnology.

    大家在奈米科技的領域裡面聽過這個名詞。

  • Back to that shell: the shell is a self-assembling material.

    回到貝殼:貝殼本身就是一個自我組裝的材料。

  • On the lower left there is a picture of mother of pearl

    左下方是珠母貝的照片。