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  • I've been working on issues of poverty for more than 20 years,

    我研究貧窮的問題二十多年了

  • and so it's ironic that the problem that and question that I most grapple with

    諷刺的是,我覺得最困難之處

  • is how you actually define poverty. What does it mean?

    在於如何界定貧窮,貧窮所指為何?

  • So often, we look at dollar terms --

    通常我們會用收入衡量

  • people making less than a dollar or two or three a day.

    窮人就是一天賺不到兩三塊美金的人

  • And yet the complexity of poverty really has to look at

    但貧窮牽涉的層面很多

  • income as only one variable.

    收入只是其中之一

  • Because really, it's a condition about choice,

    因為貧窮代表無力選擇

  • and the lack of freedom.

    以及缺乏個人自由

  • And I had an experience that really deepened and elucidated for me

    而某次經歷讓我更瞭解貧窮

  • the understanding that I have.

    以及其背後的真義

  • It was in Kenya, and I want to share it with you.

    那時我人在肯亞,在此和各位分享

  • I was with my friend Susan Meiselas, the photographer,

    我和攝影師朋友蘇珊

  • in the Mathare Valley slums.

    前往馬沙爾谷的貧民窟

  • Now, Mathare Valley is one of the oldest slums in Africa.

    它是非洲歷史最久的貧民窟之一

  • It's about three miles out of Nairobi,

    大約離奈洛比五公里

  • and it's a mile long and about two-tenths of a mile wide,

    佔地約1.5公里長,300公尺寬

  • where over half a million people

    卻住了超過50萬人

  • live crammed in these little tin shacks,

    全擠在小小的鐵皮屋裡

  • generation after generation, renting them,

    一代代就這麼租著鐵皮屋

  • often eight or 10 people to a room.

    一間屋子塞八到十人

  • And it's known for prostitution, violence, drugs:

    在那裡賣淫、暴力和毒品猖獗

  • a hard place to grow up.

    成長環境非常艱辛

  • And when we were walking through the narrow alleys,

    我們穿越一條條窄巷

  • it was literally impossible not to step in the

    腳下踩著的都是

  • raw sewage and the garbage alongside the little homes.

    小屋旁的骯髒穢物和垃圾

  • But at the same time it was also

    然而於此同時

  • impossible not to see the human vitality,

    我也見到了人的生命力

  • the aspiration and the ambition of the people who live there:

    以及心懷理想和抱負的居民

  • women washing their babies, washing their clothes, hanging them out to dry.

    許多婦女在替孩子洗澡、洗晾衣物

  • I met this woman, Mama Rose,

    我遇到一位叫蘿絲的媽媽

  • who has rented that little tin shack for 32 years,

    她租小鐵皮屋已有32年之久

  • where she lives with her seven children.

    和七個孩子同住

  • Four sleep in one twin bed,

    其中四個擠在一張床上

  • and three sleep on the mud and linoleum floor.

    三個睡在滿是泥巴的油地氈上

  • And she keeps them all in school by selling water from that kiosk,

    七個孩子都有上學,全靠她在那個小亭子賣水

  • and from selling soap and bread from the little store inside.

    還有在裡面那家小商店賣肥皂和麵包

  • It was also the day after the inauguration,

    那天剛好是歐巴馬就職的隔天

  • and I was reminded how Mathare is still connected to the globe.

    我發現馬沙爾並未和世界脫軌

  • And I would see kids on the street corners,

    因為一些街上的小朋友

  • and they'd say "Obama, he's our brother!"

    會對我說「歐巴馬是我們同胞耶!」

  • And I'd say "Well, Obama's my brother, so that makes you my brother too."

    我便答「他也是我的同胞,所以我們大家都是同胞」

  • And they would look quizzically, and then be like, "High five!"

    他們先一臉疑惑,然後開心地要跟我擊掌

  • And it was here that I met Jane.

    我就是在這裡遇到了珍

  • I was struck immediately by the kindness and the gentleness in her face,

    她臉上溫柔親切的神情立刻打動了我

  • and I asked her to tell me her story.

    我便請她跟我分享她的故事

  • She started off by telling me her dream. She said, "I had two.

    她先從她的兩個夢想說起

  • My first dream was to be a doctor,

    第一個夢想是當醫生

  • and the second was to marry a good man

    第二個是嫁給好男人

  • who would stay with me and my family,

    「一個能長伴我和家人左右的男人」

  • because my mother was a single mom,

    「由於我母親是單親媽媽」

  • and couldn't afford to pay for school fees.

    「付不起學費」

  • So I had to give up the first dream, and I focused on the second."

    「所以我只得放棄第一個夢,努力實現另一個夢」

  • She got married when she was 18, had a baby right away.

    珍在18歲時結婚,很快生了個小孩

  • And when she turned 20, found herself pregnant with a second child,

    她20歲時發現自己懷第二胎

  • her mom died and her husband left her -- married another woman.

    母親卻在這時過世,先生也另娶新歡

  • So she was again in Mathare, with no income, no skill set, no money.

    她待在馬沙爾,毫無收入或一技之長

  • And so she ultimately turned to prostitution.

    最後只好選擇出賣肉體

  • It wasn't organized in the way we often think of it.

    賣淫並非如我們想像得那麼容易

  • She would go into the city at night with about 20 girls,

    她晚上和大約20個女子一起進城

  • look for work, and sometimes come back with a few shillings,

    努力拉客,有時一晚才賺幾角美金

  • or sometimes with nothing.

    有時一毛錢都賺不到

  • And she said, "You know, the poverty wasn't so bad. It was the humiliation

    她說「其實窮倒還好,出賣肉體受的屈辱

  • and the embarrassment of it all."

    才是最令人難受的事

  • In 2001, her life changed.

    2001年是她生命的轉捩點

  • She had a girlfriend who had heard about this organization, Jamii Bora,

    她的朋友跟她提起Jamii Bora信貸機構

  • that would lend money to people no matter how poor you were,

    該機構願意借錢給任何窮人

  • as long as you provided a commensurate amount in savings.

    前提是借的錢不得多於現有存款

  • And so she spent a year to save 50 dollars,

    所以珍花一年存了50美金

  • and started borrowing, and over time she was able to buy a sewing machine.

    便開始貸款,過一陣子她買了縫紉機

  • She started tailoring.

    開始幫人做衣服

  • And that turned into what she does now,

    然後逐漸變成現在的工作

  • which is to go into the secondhand clothing markets,

    就是經營二手衣市場

  • and for about three dollars and 25 cents she buys an old ball gown.

    她只花三塊多就可以買到舊的晚禮服

  • Some of them might be ones you gave.

    有些可能是各位捐的

  • And she repurposes them with frills and ribbons,

    她把禮服重新修改,加上緞帶和花邊

  • and makes these frothy confections that she sells to women

    做成一件件蓬蓬的洋裝賣給其他婦女

  • for their daughter's Sweet 16 or first Holy Communion --

    供她們參加女兒的成年禮或聖餐禮穿

  • those milestones in a life that people want to celebrate

    因為在這些人生的重要場合

  • all along the economic spectrum.

    即使是窮人也會想辦法盛裝慶祝

  • And she does really good business. In fact, I watched her

    她的生意相當好

  • walk through the streets hawking. And before you knew it,

    我看著她沿街叫賣沒多久

  • there was a crowd of women around her, buying these dresses.

    身旁就圍了一群婦女要買洋裝

  • And I reflected, as I was watching her sell the dresses,

    我看著珍忙著賣衣服

  • and also the jewelry that she makes,

    還有親手做的首飾

  • that now Jane makes more than four dollars a day.

    我便想到,她現在一天賺超過4美金了

  • And by many definitions she is no longer poor.

    已不太符合「貧窮」的定義了

  • But she still lives in Mathare Valley.

    但她仍住在馬沙爾谷

  • And so she can't move out.

    無法搬離那裡

  • She lives with all of that insecurity,

    每天都得提心吊膽

  • and in fact, in January, during the ethnic riots,

    今年一月的種族暴動

  • she was chased from her home and had to find a new shack

    她從自家被趕出,只得另尋鐵皮屋

  • in which she would live.

    不然就無處可住

  • Jamii Bora understands that and understands

    Jamii Bora信貸機構很清楚這點

  • that when we're talking about poverty,

    也知道所謂的貧窮

  • we've got to look at people all along the economic spectrum.

    不能只靠收入來判斷

  • And so with patient capital from Acumen and other organizations,

    所以該機構和Acumen等組織合資

  • loans and investments that will go the long term with them,

    釋出長期貸款和投資方案

  • they built a low-cost housing development,

    共同打造低價的住宅區

  • about an hour outside Nairobi central.

    離奈洛比市區約一小時車程

  • And they designed it from the perspective of

    此住宅區旳設計理念

  • customers like Jane herself,

    是基於像珍這類客戶的需求

  • insisting on responsibility and accountability.

    且堅守對客戶的責任和義務

  • So she has to give 10 percent of the mortgage --

    珍得先付房貸的一成

  • of the total value, or about 400 dollars in savings.

    大約是她存的四百美金

  • And then they match her mortgage to what she paid in rent for her little shanty.

    該機構會把房貸和原租金兩相對照

  • And in the next couple of weeks, she's going to be

    再過幾個禮拜,珍和她孩子

  • among the first 200 families to move into this development.

    連同近200個家庭,將搬進此住宅區

  • When I asked her if she feared anything,

    我問她心裡怕不怕

  • or whether she would miss anything from Mathare,

    會不會想念馬沙爾

  • she said, "What would I fear

    她說「我有什麼好怕

  • that I haven't confronted already?

    什麼大風大浪沒見過

  • I'm HIV positive. I've dealt with it all."

    我還患有愛滋,該吃的苦都吃過了」

  • And she said, "What would I miss?

    她又說「有什麼好想念的?

  • You think I will miss the violence or the drugs? The lack of privacy?

    難道我會想念暴力、毒品或缺乏隱私嗎?

  • Do you think I'll miss not knowing if my children are going to come home

    難道我會想念老是擔心孩子安危的日子?

  • at the end of the day?" She said "If you gave me 10 minutes

    只要給我十分鐘

  • my bags would be packed."

    我立刻可以打包走人」

  • I said, "Well what about your dreams?"

    我問到她的夢想

  • And she said, "Well, you know,

    她說「我的夢想

  • my dreams don't look exactly like I thought they would when I was a little girl.

    已經和小時候想的不太一樣了

  • But if I think about it, I thought I wanted a husband,

    現在仔細想想,我以前想嫁個老公

  • but what I really wanted was a family

    但其實是想組個充滿愛的家庭

  • that was loving. And I fiercely love my children, and they love me back."

    我好愛我的孩子,他們也很愛我」

  • She said, "I thought that I wanted to be a doctor,

    她還說「我以前想當醫生

  • but what I really wanted to be was somebody

    但其實我真正想做的是服務人群

  • who served and healed and cured.

    療癒別人的傷痛

  • And so I feel so blessed with everything that I have,

    所以我很感激現有的一切

  • that two days a week I go and I counsel HIV patients.

    我每星期輔導愛滋患者兩次

  • And I say, 'Look at me. You are not dead.

    我對他們說「看看我,你還沒死

  • You are still alive. And if you are still alive you have to serve.'"

    還活得好好的,那就要幫助別人」

  • And she said, "I'm not a doctor who gives out pills.

    「我雖然不是開藥的醫生

  • But maybe me, I give out something better

    但我給的東西或許更有用

  • because I give them hope."

    因為我給他們希望」

  • And in the middle of this economic crisis,

    現在經濟不景氣

  • where so many of us are inclined to pull in

    我們很容易就畏縮

  • with fear, I think we're well suited to

    但我覺得我們需要的是

  • take a cue from Jane and reach out,

    學習珍的精神,幫助他人

  • recognizing that being poor doesn't mean being ordinary.

    要知道貧窮不代表甘於平凡

  • Because when systems are broken,

    因為一旦制度上有缺失

  • like the ones that we're seeing around the world,

    就像現在世界各地的例子

  • it's an opportunity for invention and for innovation.

    反而給我們革新的機會

  • It's an opportunity to truly build a world

    給我們改變世界的機會

  • where we can extend services and products

    將各種服務和產品

  • to all human beings, so that they can

    提供給全人類,如此一來

  • make decisions and choices for themselves.

    他們才能自己抉擇

  • I truly believe it's where dignity starts.

    我深信這是擁有尊嚴的第一步

  • We owe it to the Janes of the world.

    這樣才算給處境跟珍相同的人一個交代

  • And just as important, we owe it to ourselves.

    也算給自己一個交代

  • Thank you.

    謝謝大家

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

I've been working on issues of poverty for more than 20 years,

我研究貧窮的問題二十多年了

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【TED】傑奎琳-諾沃格拉茨談脫貧之路 (【TED】Jacqueline Novogratz on an escape from poverty)

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    Li Yixi 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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