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  • Let me start by asking you a question, just with a show of hands:

    譯者: Geoff Chen 審譯者: Yuwei Cao 讓我先開始問你們一個問題,舉手就可以,

  • Who has an iPhone?

    誰有iPhone?

  • Who has an Android phone?

    誰有安卓手機?

  • Who has a Blackberry?

    誰有黑莓手機?

  • Who will admit in public to having a Blackberry?

    誰會想要公開承認 想有個黑莓手機啊?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And let me guess, how many of you,

    讓我猜猜,你們中多少人,

  • when you arrived here, like me, went and bought

    你們來這兒的時候,像我一樣,會去買

  • a pay-as-you-go SIM card? Yeah?

    充值Sim卡?啊?

  • I'll bet you didn't even know

    我想你們可能都不知道,

  • you're using African technology.

    你們用的是來自非洲的技術。

  • Pay-as-you-go was a technology, or an idea,

    充值是一項科技,或者說一個創意,

  • pioneered in Africa by a company called Vodacom

    由一個叫Vodacom的非洲公司最先開始的

  • a good 15 years ago,

    在15年前,

  • and now, like franchising,

    現在,像特許經營,

  • pay-as-you-go is one of the most dominant forces

    充值方法是 在世界的經濟活動中

  • of economic activity in the world.

    最主要的動力。

  • So I'm going to talk about innovation in Africa,

    我這裡要講的就是來自非洲的創新,

  • which I think is the purest form,

    我認為是最純粹的,

  • innovation out of necessity.

    建立在需要上的創新。

  • But first, I'm going to ask you some other questions.

    但首先,我要問你們其他幾個問題。

  • You don't have to put your hands up.

    你們不需要舉手,

  • These are rhetorical.

    這只是些設問。

  • Why did Nikola Tesla have to invent

    為甚麼尼古拉.特斯拉要發明

  • the alternating current that powers the lights

    交流電?

  • in this building or the city that we're in?

    在這個大樓裡,或者說 我們所在的這個城市裡?

  • Why did Henry Ford have to invent the production line

    為甚麼亨利.福特要發明生產線,

  • to produce these Fords that came in anything

    生產這些福特車?

  • as long as they were black?

    黑色的福特車?

  • And why did Eric Merrifield have to invent the dolos?

    為甚麼埃里克.麥瑞菲爾德 要發明(防波堤護面用的)扭工字塊?

  • Blank stares. That is what a dolos looks like,

    一臉茫然。這就是扭工字塊的樣子,

  • and in the background, you can see Robben Island.

    在背景畫面,你可以看到羅本島。

  • This is a small dolos, and Eric Merrifield

    這是一個小的扭工字塊, 而埃里克.麥瑞菲爾德

  • is the most famous inventor you've never heard of.

    是你所沒聽過的最著名的發明家。

  • In 1963, a storm ripped up the harbor

    在1963年,暴風雨拍打著港口,

  • in a small South African town called East London,

    在南非一個叫東倫敦的小鎮,

  • and while he was watching his kids playing

    當他看著他的孩子們在玩

  • with toys made from oxen bones called dolosse,

    牛骨頭做的叫扭工字塊的玩具,

  • he had the idea for this.

    他就是從這裡得到了靈感。

  • It's a bit like a huge jumping jack,

    它有些像巨大的跳娃娃,

  • and they have used this in every harbor in the world

    現在他們廣泛用於世界上的每個港口

  • as a breakwater.

    用作防波堤。

  • The global shipping economy would not be possible

    世界航運經濟離不開

  • without African technology like this.

    這樣的非洲科技。

  • So whenever you talk about Africa,

    一般你們在談論非洲時,

  • you have to put up this picture of the world from space,

    你會從外層空間來的世界照片,

  • and people go, "Look, it's the Dark Continent."

    然後人們說,“看,這是個黑暗的大陸!”

  • Actually, it isn't.

    實際上,它不是。

  • What it is is a map of innovation.

    這是一個發明創新的地圖。

  • And it's really easy to see where innovation's going on.

    很容易看出來在有發明創新的地方,

  • All the places with lots of electricity, it isn't.

    是那些燈亮的地方麼,不是。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • And the reason it isn't is because everybody's

    它不是創新的地方是因為每個人

  • watching television or playing Angry Birds.

    都在看電視或者玩憤怒的小鳥。

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • So where it's happening is in Africa.

    所以非洲才有發明創造。

  • Now, this is real innovation,

    這是真的創新,

  • not the way people have expropriated the word

    不是人們徵用來的詞

  • to talk about launching new products.

    當談論推出新產品時。

  • This is real innovation, and I define it as problem-solving.

    這是真正的創新, 我把它定義為問題解決方案。

  • People are solving real problems in Africa.

    在非洲人們在解決真正的問題。

  • Why? Because we have to.

    為甚麼?因為我們必須這樣。

  • Because we have real problems.

    因為我們有真正的問題。

  • And when we solve real problems for people,

    當我們為人們解決真正的問題時,

  • we solve them for the rest of the world

    我們同時為全世界

  • at the same time.

    解決了問題。

  • So in California, everybody's really excited

    在加州,每個人都為

  • about a little square of plastic that you plug into a phone

    一個插進手機的小方塊而興奮

  • and you can swipe your credit card,

    你可以用手機刷卡購物,

  • and people say, "We've liberated the credit card

    人們說,

  • from the point of sale terminal."

    “我們從銷售終端解放了信用卡。”

  • Fantastic. Why do you even need a credit card?

    棒極了!為甚麼非得需要信用卡?

  • In Africa, we've been doing that for years,

    在非洲,我們早就這樣做了,

  • and we've been doing it on phones like this.

    我們一直這樣用手機。

  • This is a picture I took at a place called Kitengela,

    這張圖片是我在一個 叫基騰格拉的地方拍的,

  • about an hour south of Nairobi,

    在奈洛比南面一小時車程的地方,

  • and the thing that's so remarkable about the payment system

    有種支付系統非常了不起

  • that's been pioneered in Africa called M-Pesa

    是非洲支付系統的先驅,叫M-Pesa

  • is that it works on phones like this.

    它可以在這樣的手機上使用。

  • It works on every single phone possible,

    它可以在幾乎每個手機上使用,

  • because it uses SMS.

    因為它採用SMS系統。

  • You can pay bills with it, you can buy your groceries,

    你可以用它付錢,賣雜貨,

  • you can pay your kids' school fees,

    可以付學費,

  • and I'm told you can even bribe customs officials.

    我告訴你,你甚至可以 用它賄賂海關官員。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Something like 25 million dollars a day

    一天大約有2千5百萬美金

  • is transacted through M-Pesa.

    通過M-Pesa轉賬。

  • Forty percent of Kenya's GDP

    肯亞GDP的4%的份額

  • moves through M-Pesa using phones like this.

    是用手機通過M-Pesa實現的。

  • And you think this is just a feature phone.

    你覺得這只是個功能性手機,

  • Actually it's the smartphone of Africa.

    實際上它是非洲的智慧型手機。

  • It's also a radio, and it's also a torch,

    它還是廣播,是照明器,

  • and more than anything else,

    以及更多的用途。

  • it has really superb battery life.

    它的電池壽命非常長。

  • Why? Because that's what we need.

    為甚麼?因為我們需要這樣,

  • We have really severe energy problems in Africa.

    非洲有很嚴重的能源問題

  • By the way, you can update Facebook

    順便說一句,你可以 用這樣的手機更新臉書、

  • and send Gmail from a phone like this.

    發送電郵。

  • So we have found a way to use

    我們已經發現一種

  • the available technology to send money via M-Pesa,

    可行的科技來通過M-Pesa來轉賬,

  • which is a bit like a check system

    有些像移動時代的

  • for the mobile age.

    支票付款系統。

  • I come from Johannesburg, which is a mining town.

    我來自約翰尼斯堡,一個採礦的城市,

  • It's built on gold.

    它建在金礦上。

  • This is a picture I Instagrammed earlier.

    這是一張我以前放在Instagram上的照片,

  • And the difference today is that the gold of today is mobile.

    不同的是現在的金礦是移動通訊。

  • If you think about the railroad system in North America and how that worked,

    如果你想想北美的 鐵路系統以及它的運作,

  • first came the infrastructure,

    首先想到它是基礎設施,

  • then came the industry around it, the brothels --

    然後想到於它有關的行業,妓院甚麼的,

  • it's a bit like the Internet today, right? —

    有點像今天的網路,對吧?

  • and everything else that worked with it:

    所有和它有關的

  • bars, saloons, etc.

    酒吧、沙龍等等。

  • The gold of today is mobile,

    現在的金礦是移動通訊,

  • and mobile is the enabler that makes all of this possible.

    手機可以使這些成為可能,

  • So what are some of the things that you can do with it?

    所以你可以用它做一些事情。

  • Well, this is by a guy called Bright Simons from Ghana,

    這是加納的一個 叫布萊特·西門子的朋友,

  • and what you do is you take medication,

    你在服用一種

  • something that some people might spend their entire month's salary on,

    有些人要用整月工資才能買到的藥物。

  • and you scratch off the code,

    你刮出號碼,

  • and you send that to an SMS number,

    你用一個SMS號碼發送出去,

  • and it tells you if that is legitimate

    你就會知道這藥是否合法,

  • or if it's expired.

    或者它有沒有過期。

  • Really simple, really effective, really life-saving.

    非常簡單、非常方便、可以挽救生命。

  • In Kenya, there's a service called iCow,

    在肯亞,有種服務叫iCow,

  • which just sends you really important information

    你可以發送非常重要的資訊,

  • about how to look after your dairy.

    關於如何管理你的乳品廠。

  • The dairy business in Kenya

    肯亞的酪農業

  • is a $463 million business,

    是個4億6千3百萬的產業。

  • and the difference between a subsistence farmer

    自給自足的農民

  • and an abundance farmer

    和富農的區別

  • is only a couple of liters of milk a day.

    就在於每天的兩升牛奶。

  • And if you can do that, you can rise out of poverty.

    如果你能做到,你就可以脫貧。

  • Really simple, using a basic phone.

    非常簡單,使用最基本的手機。

  • If you don't have electricity, no problem!

    如果你沒有電,沒問題!

  • We'll just make it out of old bicycle parts

    我們可以拆掉舊自行車零件,

  • using a windmill, as William Kamkwamba did.

    用風車發電,就像威廉·堪姆萬巴那樣。

  • There's another great African that you've heard

    另外一個你們聽過的了不起的非洲人,

  • that's busy disrupting the automobile industry in the world.

    正忙著打亂世界汽車產業。

  • He's also finding a way to reinvent solar power

    他發現了重新用太陽能發電的方法,

  • and the electricity industry in North America,

    改變北美的電力行業。

  • and if he's lucky, he'll get us to Mars,

    如果他幸運,他要帶我們去火星,

  • hopefully in my lifetime.

    希望是我在世的時候。

  • He comes from Pretoria, the capital of [South Africa],

    他來自普利托里亞,南非的首都。

  • about 50 kilometers from where I live.

    離我住的地方有50公里。

  • So back to Joburg, which is sometimes called Egoli,

    約翰内斯堡,有時被叫做Egoli,

  • which means City of Gold.

    是黃金之都的意思。

  • And not only is mobile the gold of today,

    不僅移動通訊是現在的黃金,

  • I don't believe that the gold is under the ground.

    我不相信黃金一定來自地下,

  • I believe we are the gold.

    我相信我們就是黃金。

  • Like you've heard the other economists say,

    你聽過其他經濟學家的話,

  • we are at the point where China was

    我們到了一個中國

  • when its boom years began,

    開始大發展的時代,

  • and that's where we're going.

    就是這樣的時代。

  • So, you hear the West talk about innovation at the edge.

    所以你聽西方人 談論邊緣地區的創新,

  • Well, of course it's happening at the edge,

    當然它會發生在邊緣地區!

  • because in the middle, everybody's updating Facebook,

    因為在其間,人們在忙著更新臉書,

  • or worse still, they're trying to understand

    更糟的是,他們在試圖弄明白

  • Facebook's privacy settings.

    臉書的隱私設置。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • This is not that catchy catchphrase.

    這不是口號,

  • This is innovation over the edge.

    在邊緣地區的創新,

  • So, people like to call Africa a mobile-first continent,

    人們喜歡把非洲 說成是手機第一的大陸,

  • but actually it's mobile-only,

    實際上是只有手機的大陸。

  • so while everybody else is doing all of those things,

    所以每個人都在做於手機有關的事,

  • we're solving the world's problems.

    我們在解決世界的問題。

  • So there's only one thing left to say.

    所以我只剩一句話要說:

  • ["You're welcome"] (Laughter)

    “不客氣” (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Let me start by asking you a question, just with a show of hands:

譯者: Geoff Chen 審譯者: Yuwei Cao 讓我先開始問你們一個問題,舉手就可以,

字幕與單字

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B1 中級 中文 TED 手機 非洲 創新 發明 笑聲

【TED】託比-夏普沙克:你不需要一個應用程序(Toby Shapshak: You don't need an app for that)。 (【TED】Toby Shapshak: You don't need an app for that (Toby Shapshak: You don't need an app for that))

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    Cecilia Zhan 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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