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  • It feels like we're all suffering

    目前看起來,

  • from information overload or data glut.

    我們正在承受資訊的過度氾濫。

  • And the good news is there might be an easy solution to that,

    好消息是,現在有一個簡單的方式,

  • and that's using our eyes more.

    讓我們能有效的理解這些資訊。

  • So, visualizing information, so that we can see

    在視覺化資訊中,

  • the patterns and connections that matter

    我們能瞭解資料的模式與關連性,

  • and then designing that information so it makes more sense,

    資訊經過設計,會讓資訊更有意義,

  • or it tells a story,

    甚至陳述某個故事,

  • or allows us to focus only on the information that's important.

    或是引領我們專注在資料的重點上。

  • Failing that, visualized information can just look really cool.

    視覺化資訊可不僅僅是看起來很酷炫的東西。

  • So, let's see.

    讓我們一起來看看。

  • This is the $Billion Dollar o-Gram,

    這是"十億美元圖表(Billion Dollar Gram)",

  • and this image arose

    這張圖是在與媒體界接觸了

  • out of frustration I had

    各種以十億美元為單位的事件後,

  • with the reporting of billion-dollar amounts in the press.

    讓我感到沮喪的情形下,所繪製出來的。

  • That is, they're meaningless without context:

    然而,沒有內容,數字就沒有意義。

  • 500 billion for this pipeline,

    輸油管花了5千億美金。

  • 20 billion for this war.

    戰爭花了2百億美金。

  • It doesn't make any sense, so the only way to understand it

    為了體會這些金額大小的意義,我們只能透過

  • is visually and relatively.

    視覺化還有相對性。

  • So I scraped a load of reported figures

    所以,我從各種不同的來源

  • from various news outlets

    蒐集了許多相關報導的數字,

  • and then scaled the boxes according to those amounts.

    然後根據數字設定格子大小。

  • And the colors here represent the motivation behind the money.

    而顏色代表的是使用這些金錢的動機。

  • So purple is "fighting,"

    像紫色是戰爭,

  • and red is "giving money away," and green is "profiteering."

    紅色是贈送,綠色是收益。

  • And what you can see straight away

    這樣就讓各位能直接了解

  • is you start to have a different relationship to the numbers.

    這些數字之間的差異。

  • You can literally see them.

    讓各位能更快的了解。

  • But more importantly, you start to see

    但更重要的是,

  • patterns and connections between numbers

    這能讓各位發現,在過去各種報導中,

  • that would otherwise be scattered across multiple news reports.

    這些數字間未被提起的模式與關連性。

  • Let me point out some that I really like.

    讓我來告訴各位其中隱藏的事實。

  • This is OPEC's revenue, this green box here --

    這塊綠色是OPEC(石油輸出國組織)的總收益,

  • 780 billion a year.

    一年7800億美金。

  • And this little pixel in the corner -- three billion --

    右下角這一小塊,30億美金,

  • that's their climate change fund.

    是該組織投資的氣候變遷基金。

  • Americans, incredibly generous people --

    而極度慷慨的美國人,

  • over 300 billion a year, donated to charity every year,

    每年做慈善的金額都超過3000億美金,

  • compared with the amount of foreign aid

    相較於其他前17大工業國,

  • given by the top 17 industrialized nations

    它們每年所捐增的總額

  • at 120 billion.

    也不過1200億美金。

  • Then of course,

    當然,

  • the Iraq War, predicted to cost just 60 billion

    伊拉克戰爭,在2003年時,

  • back in 2003.

    預計只需要花600億美金。

  • And it mushroomed slightly. Afghanistan and Iraq mushroomed now

    這數字後來爆增。阿富汗/伊拉克戰爭目前開銷

  • to 3,000 billion.

    已經來到3兆美金。

  • So now it's great

    非常龐大的數字,

  • because now we have this texture, and we can add numbers to it as well.

    因為我們有前車之鑑,這個數字也會再往上調整。

  • So we could say, well, a new figure comes out ... let's see African debt.

    讓我們看另一個新的數字... 非洲的負債。

  • How much of this diagram do you think might be taken up

    各位猜猜非洲各國的負債中

  • by the debt that Africa owes to the West?

    西方國家持有多少?

  • Let's take a look.

    讓我們看看。

  • So there it is:

    來了,

  • 227 billion is what Africa owes.

    目前非洲各國的負債金額是2270億美金。

  • And the recent financial crisis,

    而最近的金融風暴....

  • how much of this diagram might that figure take up?

    各位認為這個數字的色塊是怎樣?

  • What has that cost the world? Let's take a look at that.

    這個事件造成的成本是多少?讓我們來瞧瞧。

  • Dooosh -- Which I think is the appropriate sound effect

    夭壽。這大概是最適合的形容詞了。

  • for that much money:

    這麼大一筆的數字。

  • 11,900 billion.

    11兆9000億美金。

  • So, by visualizing this information,

    所以,資訊透過視覺化,

  • we turned it into a landscape

    資訊會呈現為圖像,

  • that you can explore with your eyes,

    你就能用眼睛尋找蛛絲馬跡,

  • a kind of map really, a sort of information map.

    就像是某種資訊地圖。

  • And when you're lost in information,

    當你被大量資訊迷惑時,

  • an information map is kind of useful.

    這種資訊地圖就能派上用場。

  • So I want to show you another landscape now.

    現在,我要給各位看看另一種圖像。

  • We need to imagine what a landscape

    各位想像一下,

  • of the world's fears might look like.

    把世界上令人驚恐的事件,用圖形表示會是怎樣。

  • Let's take a look.

    讓我們來看看。

  • This is Mountains Out of Molehills,

    這圖叫"小題大作(mountains out of mole hills)",

  • a timeline of global media panic.

    這張圖是全球媒體造成恐慌的時間軸。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • So, I'll label this for you in a second.

    讓我很快的講解一下圖表。

  • But the height here, I want to point out,

    色塊的高低起伏,

  • is the intensity of certain fears

    是指某特定事件

  • as reported in the media.

    在某時段被媒體報導的強度。

  • Let me point them out.

    讓我為各位說明顏色的意義。

  • So this, swine flu -- pink.

    粉紅色的是豬流感。

  • Bird flu.

    這是禽流感。

  • SARS -- brownish here. Remember that one?

    SARS,是這個淡褐色的,

  • The millennium bug,

    這是千禧蟲事件,

  • terrible disaster.

    可怕的電腦病毒。

  • These little green peaks

    這些小小的綠色部分,

  • are asteroid collisions.

    是小行星撞擊地球的消息。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And in summer, here, killer wasps.

    這是今年夏天的殺人峰事件。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • So these are what our fears look like

    這些是從媒體開始報導到結束之間

  • over time in our media.

    對這些事件報導的程度。

  • But what I love -- and I'm a journalist --

    因為我是個記者,

  • and what I love is finding hidden patterns; I love being a data detective.

    所以我喜歡尋找那隱藏的模式,我喜歡當個資料偵探。

  • And there's a very interesting and odd pattern hidden in this data

    資料中總是隱藏著有趣且古怪的模式,

  • that you can only see when you visualize it.

    除了把資料視覺化,不然根本沒辦法發覺。

  • Let me highlight it for you.

    讓我為各位點出這些地方。

  • See this line, this is a landscape for violent video games.

    紅色部分,是針對暴力電玩的報導強度。

  • As you can see, there's a kind of odd, regular pattern in the data,

    各位可以看到,有點奇怪,資料出現了一些規律,

  • twin peaks every year.

    每年的報導都出現2次尖峰。

  • If we look closer, we see those peaks occur

    若我們仔細看,我們能發現這2次尖峰,

  • at the same month every year.

    都是發生在特定的月份。

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Well, November, Christmas video games come out,

    因為耶誕節前,電玩遊戲會紛紛在11月推出,

  • and there may well be an upsurge in the concern about their content.

    所以很多媒體就會針對這些遊戲內容做出評論。

  • But April isn't a particularly massive month

    但四月對電玩業者而言,

  • for video games.

    又不是什麼重要的月份。

  • Why April?

    為什麼四月也會這樣?

  • Well, in April 1999 was the Columbine shooting,

    因為1999年4月發生了科倫拜校園槍擊事件,

  • and since then, that fear

    從那時候開始,

  • has been remembered by the media

    這件事情就被媒體銘記,

  • and echoes through the group mind gradually through the year.

    並在每年的這個時候重新報導。

  • You have retrospectives, anniversaries,

    像是回顧展、周年紀念日、

  • court cases, even copy-cat shootings,

    法庭案件、甚至有模仿的槍擊事件,

  • all pushing that fear into the agenda.

    這些助力讓此事件一再的被報導。

  • And there's another pattern here as well. Can you spot it?

    這裡面其實還有一個模式,各位注意到了嗎?

  • See that gap there? There's a gap,

    看到這個缺口了嗎?

  • and it affects all the other stories.

    這個大缺口是其他事件所導致的。

  • Why is there a gap there?

    是什麼事件?

  • You see where it starts? September 2001,

    這缺口從什麼時候開始的? 2001年9月。

  • when we had something very real

    因為這個時間點

  • to be scared about.

    我們有個最令人驚悚的(911)事件。

  • So, I've been working as a data journalist for about a year,

    我作為資料記者大約已經一年的時間。

  • and I keep hearing a phrase

    這期間我常聽到一句話

  • all the time, which is this:

    這句話就是:

  • "Data is the new oil."

    "資料是種新石油"

  • Data is the kind of ubiquitous resource

    資料就像是某種普遍的資源,

  • that we can shape to provide new innovations and new insights,

    我們可以使之塑形,以提供我們新思想跟新洞察,

  • and it's all around us, and it can be mined very easily.

    這種資源就在我們身邊,非常容易取得。

  • It's not a particularly great metaphor in these times,

    現在這時間點,是不太適合把資料比喻成石油,

  • especially if you live around the Gulf of Mexico,

    尤其是如果你住在墨西哥灣附近的話,

  • but I would, perhaps, adapt this metaphor slightly,

    但其實我只對這種比方贊同一點點,

  • and I would say that data is the new soil.

    我認為,"資料是一種新土壤"。

  • Because for me, it feels like a fertile, creative medium.

    對我來說,資料就像是一種肥沃、有創造力的媒介。

  • Over the years, online,

    過去幾年,

  • we've laid down

    我們已經在網路上

  • a huge amount of information and data,

    放置了非常大量的資訊和資料,

  • and we irrigate it with networks and connectivity,

    我們利用網路和連結灌溉它們,

  • and it's been worked and tilled by unpaid workers and governments.

    透過政府和網路志工在這上面不斷耕種。

  • And, all right, I'm kind of milking the metaphor a little bit.

    喔,對啦,我也可以用擠奶作為譬喻。

  • But it's a really fertile medium,

    這是非常豐沃的媒介,

  • and it feels like visualizations, infographics, data visualizations,

    形象、圖表資料、視覺化資料,

  • they feel like flowers blooming from this medium.

    都像是從這媒介中,生長出來的茂盛花海。

  • But if you look at it directly,

    不過,若直接觀看資料圖表,

  • it's just a lot of numbers and disconnected facts.

    看起來就像一堆數字,和一堆不相干的事件。

  • But if you start working with it and playing with it in a certain way,

    如果將這些資訊用特別的方式整理一下,

  • interesting things can appear and different patterns can be revealed.

    有趣的事情就會浮現,各式各樣的模式就會顯露出來了。

  • Let me show you this.

    讓我示範給各位看。

  • Can you guess what this data set is?

    各位能猜到這些資料在陳述什麼嗎?

  • What rises twice a year,

    1年內會出現2次尖峰,

  • once in Easter

    一次是在復活節(3、4月),

  • and then two weeks before Christmas,

    另一次是聖誕節的前2周,

  • has a mini peak every Monday,

    而每星期的星期一都會有一次小高峰,

  • and then flattens out over the summer?

    然後在夏天的時候特別平穩。

  • I'll take answers.

    有人要猜猜看嗎?

  • (Audience: Chocolate.) David McCandless: Chocolate.

    觀眾:巧克力。

  • You might want to get some chocolate in.

    這跟巧克力有一點點相關。

  • Any other guesses?

    有其他答案嗎?

  • (Audience: Shopping.) DM: Shopping.

    觀眾:購物。

  • Yeah, retail therapy might help.

    購物也許能紓緩這件事。

  • (Audience: Sick leave.)

    觀眾:請病假。

  • DM: Sick leave. Yeah, you'll definitely want to take some time off.

    請病假。對,這時候會想要休息一下。

  • Shall we see?

    答案揭曉摟。

  • (Laughter)

    (分手潮---資料來源:Facebook的狀態更新)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • So, the information guru Lee Byron and myself,

    Lee Byron和我一起做這項統計,

  • we scraped 10,000 status Facebook updates

    我們抓了1萬筆Facebook上的個人狀態,

  • for the phrase "break-up" and "broken-up"

    關鍵字是"分手",

  • and this is the pattern we found --

    然後我們發現了這個模式,

  • people clearing out for Spring Break,

    春假前先分手(才能玩樂)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • coming out of very bad weekends on a Monday,

    在度過了幾個糟糕週末後的星期一,

  • being single over the summer,

    然後單身渡過整個夏天。

  • and then the lowest day of the year, of course: Christmas Day.

    接下來是一整年分手數的最低點,聖誕節。

  • Who would do that?

    誰會在這時候分手阿?

  • So there's a titanic amount of data out there now,

    現在我們有許多的數據,

  • unprecedented.

    是前所未有的。

  • But if you ask the right kind of question,

    不過,若你的質疑正確,

  • or you work it in the right kind of way,

    或是你蒐集正確的資料,

  • interesting things can emerge.

    有趣的事情就會跑出來。

  • So information is beautiful. Data is beautiful.

    資訊是美麗的,資料是美麗的。

  • I wonder if I could make my life beautiful.

    我希望將我的人生弄的很美麗。

  • And here's my visual C.V.

    這是我的"視覺履歷"(visual C.V)。

  • I'm not quite sure I've succeeded.

    我不太確定是否成功了。

  • Pretty blocky, the colors aren't that great.

    上色的小方塊。顏色不是這麼好看。

  • But I wanted to convey something to you.

    但我想傳達一些訊息給各位。

  • I started as a programmer,

    我第一份工作是程式設計師,

  • and then I worked as a writer for many years, about 20 years,

    然後我當作家大約20年,

  • in print, online and then in advertising,

    作品出版後,我又進了廣告業,

  • and only recently have I started designing.

    直到最近我才開始從事設計。

  • And I've never been to design school.

    我從未接受設計方面的教育。

  • I've never studied art or anything.

    也從來沒學過任何美術學科。

  • I just kind of learned through doing.

    我透過實作來學習。

  • And when I started designing,

    當我開始從事設計的時候,

  • I discovered an odd thing about myself.

    我就發現自己有些怪怪的。

  • I already knew how to design,

    雖然我已經知道該如何設計,

  • but it wasn't like I was amazingly brilliant at it,

    但是結果並不如我想像中的令人驚奇,

  • but more like I was sensitive

    而我對某些元素相當敏感,

  • to the ideas of grids and space

    像是方格、空間、

  • and alignment and typography.

    直線對齊、排版設計。

  • It's almost like being exposed

    可能是因為

  • to all this media over the years

    我過去這幾年都在媒體界工作

  • had instilled a kind of dormant design literacy in me.

    而那類型的設計素養就被深植在腦中。

  • And I don't feel like I'm unique.

    我不覺得我是獨一無二的。

  • I feel that everyday, all of us now

    我只是感覺到,人們每天

  • are being blasted by information design.

    都被資訊設計(information design)所轟炸。

  • It's being poured into our eyes through the Web,

    透過網頁不斷注入到我們的眼睛裡,

  • and we're all visualizers now;

    我們都善於在腦海中想像,

  • we're all demanding a visual aspect

    因此我們需要將資訊

  • to our information.

    呈現為視覺化的面貌。

  • There's something almost quite magical about visual information.

    視覺資訊有一些地方是很不可思議的。

  • It's effortless, it literally pours in.

    它很簡單,確實地融入我們。

  • And if you're navigating a dense information jungle,

    若你想引領人們在濃密的資訊叢林中航行,

  • coming across a beautiful graphic

    透過華麗的圖像

  • or a lovely data visualization,

    或是美麗的視覺化資訊,

  • it's a relief, it's like coming across a clearing in the jungle.

    那就輕鬆多了,這就變成像是通過叢林中的空地。

  • I was curious about this, so it led me

    我對這方面的知識相當好奇,

  • to the work of a Danish physicist

    因此我與一位丹麥物理學家合作

  • called Tor Norretranders,

    他叫Tor Norretranders,

  • and he converted the bandwidth of the senses into computer terms.

    他將人的感官寬帶轉換成電腦用語。

  • So here we go. This is your senses,

    開始了,這是你的感官,

  • pouring into your senses every second.

    你的感官時時刻刻都在接受資訊。

  • Your sense of sight is the fastest.

    視覺對資訊的反應是最快的。

  • It has the same bandwidth as a computer network.

    就像是電腦寬頻網路的速度。

  • Then you have touch, which is about the speed of a USB key.

    然後是觸覺,大概像USB傳輸的速度。

  • And then you have hearing and smell,

    接下來才是你的聽覺和嗅覺,

  • which has the throughput of a hard disk.

    這就像硬碟的存取速度。

  • And then you have poor old taste,

    然後是緩慢的味覺,

  • which is like barely the throughput of a pocket calculator.

    它的反應速度大概就像計算機的存取速度。

  • And that little square in the corner, a naught .7 percent,

    在角落有個小方塊,大概佔感官的0.7%,

  • that's the amount we're actually aware of.

    這是我們真正的意識。

  • So a lot of your vision --

    你透過眼睛接受的大量資訊,

  • the bulk of it is visual, and it's pouring in.

    像圖中的大方塊般龐大,不停的灌入。

  • It's unconscious.

    這過程是無意識的。

  • The eye is exquisitely sensitive

    而且眼睛對於圖形的顏色、形狀、組合模式,

  • to patterns in variations in color, shape and pattern.

    是非常敏感的。

  • It loves them, and it calls them beautiful.

    眼睛喜愛這些圖形,認為它們很美麗。

  • It's the language of the eye.

    這是眼睛的語言。

  • If you combine the language of the eye with the language of the mind,

    若你把眼睛和心靈的語言組合起來,

  • which is about words and numbers and concepts,

    這二者都針對文字、數字、概念的陳述,

  • you start speaking two languages simultaneously,

    你便能同時述說二種語言,

  • each enhancing the other.

    就能增加兩者的感受。

  • So, you have the eye, and then you drop in the concepts.

    所以,用眼睛看某事物時,心裡就會出現概念。

  • And that whole thing -- it's two languages

    而這整個過程,是因為

  • both working at the same time.

    這二種語言同時運作的關係。

  • So we can use this new kind of language, if you like,

    若你願意,我們能用另一種新語言,

  • to alter our perspective or change our views.

    這種語言可以改變我們的認知和觀點。

  • Let me ask you a simple question

    讓我問各位一個簡單的問題,

  • with a really simple answer:

    只需要簡短的答案。

  • Who has the biggest military budget?

    哪個國家的軍事預算最高?

  • It's got to be America, right?

    就是美國了,對吧?

  • Massive. 609 billion in 2008 --

    非常龐大的數字。2008年的6090億..