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The optimists will say that this glass is half full,
while the pessimists proclaim it’s half empty.
Of course, others may suggest that it’s completely full of all the atoms that
made up water and air.
Others still might remind you that atoms are 99.99% empty space,
making the glass...mostly nothing!
But in all seriousness,
can science explain your emotional perspective and outlook on life?
It turns out, it may not be in your control.
Research has shown that those with two long alleles on specific genes controlling for serotonin
are more likely to focus on positive images
- like someone enjoying ice cream - compared to those with a short allele on the same gene,
who are more likely to focus on negative images - like someone being robbed.
Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene can also affect your outlook;
Individuals with two copies of guanine are noted to be more optimistic with higher self-esteem,
while those with copies of adenine were less positive.
So it seems that people may be genetically susceptible to pessimism.
Interestingly,
optimists are less likely to be rehospitalized after coronary artery bypass surgery,
show higher academic achievements and even better socioeconomic status.
But it’s not all good; they can overestimate their abilities and underestimate risk.
Pessimists, on the other hand, have a more realistic view of the world,
are more cautious when planning for the future and may even live longer.
A landmark study spanning 20 years found that
pessimists use a cautious approach to their finances and health,
avoiding risky behaviours such as smoking and excessive drinking,
ultimately giving them the last laugh - literally - over optimists.
But, statistically, most of us are hardwired to lean towards optimism.
Known as the Optimism Bias and found in around 80% of the population,
we tend to overestimate the probability of positive events occurring in the future,
while grossly underestimating the probability of negative ones.
For example, even though the divorce rate can be as high as 40%,
most newlyweds predict their probability of getting divorced at...0%.
Chances are, when you imagine your future, it’s usually better than your current situation.
Furthermore, we often imagine ourselves
as being more intelligent, sociable and honest than other people.
When we look at the brain,
we actually see the left half exhibits increased activity when imagining positive events,
whereas during negative events the right half’s activity does increases,
but to a much lesser degree.
This suggests that the brain chooses to ignore
and filter out negative information and focus on positivity.
Our perspective is,
whether you’re genetically predisposed to see the glass as half empty or half full -
don’t waste water and just drink the damn glass already!
This actually reminded us of another common saying though,
that “Giving is better than receiving” -
but is that scientifically accurate?
We answered that one over on AsapTHOUGHT
with a special giveaway which you can click here or use the link in the description to check out.
Special thanks to audible for supporting this episode
and giving you a free audiobook at your choice at "audible.com/asap."
This week we wanted to recommend the book ‘The Wright Brothers’
which is the amazing story behind the brothers who taught the world how to fly -
while staying optimistic through all the challenges they faced!
You can get a free copy at audible.com/asap
or any others of your choice from a massive selection!
We love them as they are great when you’re on the go.
Don’t forget to ask your burning questions, and subscribe for more weekly science videos.
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提示:點選文章或是影片下面的字幕單字,可以直接快速翻譯喔!

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【趣味英文】什麼!基因決定你是樂觀/悲觀?(Is This Glass Half Empty?)

91951 分類 收藏
Diana T. 發佈於 2017 年 9 月 26 日   Diana T. 翻譯   Steven Guan 審核

影片簡介

常常聽到「嘿!你好樂觀喔!」或是「天啊!你也太悲觀了吧!振作點!」類似這樣的話,但你知道一個人樂觀與否除了後天環境的影響,天生的基因竟然也占了舉足輕重的角色嗎?來看看這部有趣的影片,一起探索究竟基因是如何影響我們的吧!

1
optimists0:01
optimist 樂觀主義者、pessimist 悲觀主義者,這兩個是用來形容人。
Cinderella is an optimist who believes that dreams will always come true.
仙杜瑞拉是個堅信心想事成的樂觀主義者。


optimistic 是指「樂觀的」或「樂觀主義的」,形容想法或信念,後面通常連接 positive words 正面的詞彙,相反的 pessimistict 則是「悲觀的」,後面通常連接 negative words 負面的詞彙。
Cinderella is optimistic that the Prince will love her true self.
仙杜瑞拉樂觀地相信王子會愛上真實的自己。

The Prince is pessimistic that he can never find the girl who fits the glass slipper.
王子悲觀地覺得他一定找不到適合這隻玻璃鞋的女孩。


*同場加映:
【TED】樂觀偏見 Tali Sharot: The optimism bias


2
make up0:09
Make up 這個片語有很多意思:

編造
Pinocchio's nose will become longer if he makes up more lies.
如果皮諾丘再編造謊話,他的鼻子就會變得更長。


化妝品
In order to make her face brighter, Snow White puts on make-up every day.
為了讓臉部肌膚更明亮,白雪公主每天都上妝。


make up to 補償
We have to make up to fairy-godmother for stealing her wand.
因為偷了神仙教母的魔杖,所以我們必須補償她。


make up one's mind 下定決心
I made up my mind to become a singer when I was five.
我在五歲時就下定決心要當歌手。


*同場加映:
You're Not What You Think You Are


3
cautious1:16
這個單字意思是「小心、警告」,後面可以接 with、 about 或 of
Ariel told her daughter that she should be cautious with the sea witch.
Ariel told her daughter that she should be cautious about the sea witch.
Ariel told her daughter that she should be cautious of the sea witch.
艾莉兒告訴她女兒說她應該要小心海巫婆。


4
literally1:31
指「字面上的意思」或「逐字」。後來在英文中 literally 幾乎變成了一個強調語氣的語助詞。
逐字
Sometimes you don't have to translate a paragraph literally.
有的時候,你不必逐字去翻譯一篇文章。


強調語氣 (更常用來強調誇飾的東西)
I am literally dying after three consecutive days of exam!
連續考完三天試之後我根本快死掉了!


litera- 相關的字通常都是跟文學有關, 那我們接下來就來看看還有哪些單字跟 literally 相似吧 !
literature 文學
literacy 讀寫能力
literate 有文化素養的
illiterate 文盲 (不識字者)
literati 文人學士


5
perspective2:27
Perspective 指的是看法,觀點。在 perspective 後面可以加 on。可以替換的詞則有 point of view, opinion。

perspective on
Does anyone have a different perspective on this accident?
有任何人對這次的意外有不同的看法嗎?


point of view
From my point of view, this story is too difficult for a child to understand.
從我的觀點來看,這個故事對孩子來說太難理解了。


opinion
I will always respect different opinions.
我會永遠尊重不同的看法。


跟這個單字有關的片語有:

in perspective 正確地
Pocahontas must learn to see things in perspective.
寶嘉康蒂應該要學會正確地觀察事物。


out of perspective 不恰當的
As a princess, her etiquette at the banquet is out of perspective.
身為一個公主,她在餐宴的禮儀是不恰當的。


看完了這篇,知道自己比較傾向悲觀,還是樂觀呢?即使你的基因決定了你的傾向,人生還是自己的。保持樂觀的正面思想,好事會源源不絕地來喔!

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