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  • Thank you very much for that generous introduction.

    謝謝你們榮重的介紹

  • It's a pleasure to be here.

    我很榮幸能夠來到這裡

  • Today my subject is "Enhancing Brain Plasticity."

    今天的主題是 " 強化大腦的可塑性"

  • And what I'm going to do in the next few minutes hopefully is

    接下來幾分鐘, 我希望能夠告訴你們

  • to tell you a little bit about what brain plasticity is, how it works,

    何謂大腦的可塑性、它如何運作

  • what we're doing to try to enhance it,

    以及我們目前正採取什麼方法來試著強化大腦

  • and what you can do to enhance the plasticity of your brain.

    並且透過練習來強化大腦的可塑性

  • So at end of these 18 minutes,

    所以,在18分鐘的演講後

  • I hope that all of that will transpire.

    我希望你們都能夠驗證我所說的

  • So, what is brain plasticity?

    所以,何謂大腦的可塑性?

  • Well, brain plasticity is the process by which your brain changes

    大腦的可塑性是大腦改變的過程,

  • depending on what has happened to it.

    而這個改變取決於發生的事物。

  • And brain plasticity would include, for instance, memory.

    舉例來說,大腦的可塑性會包括記憶

  • If you remember this lecture tomorrow - and I hope you will -

    如果你明天還記得這場演講-----我希望你還有印象

  • it's because of brain plasticity.

    那是因為大腦的可塑性關係。

  • But brain plasticity is more than memory.

    但,大腦的可塑性比記憶還有更多功能

  • It's the process by which your brain is involved in learning,

    它是一種刺激大腦知識學習的過程,

  • say a new skill, learning to ski or play Sudoku; do things like that.

    學習技術,學習滑雪,或者玩數獨 等以上的事情

  • It's the process by which you recover from brain damage of various sorts,

    它亦是一種幫助恢復大腦損害的過程

  • for instance, after a neurotrauma or a stroke.

    例如:神經損害或者中風

  • and it's also how you adapt to the fact

    還有 大腦的可塑性也包含了

  • that you now weight 20 pounds more after Christmas,

    如何適應你在聖誕節假期後增加了超過20磅

  • and all your biomechanics are different, yet you still have to walk gracefully.

    你的生物機制有別於以往,但,你仍然需要自在地走路

  • So all of that is brain plasticity.

    所以,這都是大腦的可塑性。

  • Now, most of what you need to learn about brain plasticity in this talk

    現在,你們需要學習大腦的可塑性並且在這場演講中

  • can be summarized in the following slogan

    概括以下的標語

  • - OK? So after this, you can just go to sleep -

    OK? 那在這之後,你就可以去睡覺了

  • slogan is "Neurons that fire together wire together."

    標語是:神經元細胞會彼此互相激發並且連接

  • Contiguity breeds connectivity.

    因此一連串的事物帶來彼此連結

  • And this is a lesson that has been learn in the last 20 or 30 years of neuroscience research.

    這是在過去二十或三十年前神經研究中, 我們所需要研究的地方

  • I'm going to tell you a little bit about just how that actually works.

    我會告訴你,事實上大腦如何運作

  • So let's focus at the beginning on one part of neuroplasticity,

    所以,一開始我會著重於神經可塑性的部分

  • the plasticity that we think of as memory.

    而可塑性,我們都會想到記憶

  • So what's a memory anyway? What is a memory?

    那除了記憶以外呢? 甚麼是記憶呢?

  • Well, I submit to you that a memory is nothing more than your ability to relconstruct the whole from a degraded fragment.

    嗯...我個人認為記憶只是自行重組消失的片段而已

  • Nothing more than that. So what do I mean by that?

    僅僅如此。那這又意味著什麼呢?

  • Let's talk about a specific memory.

    我們來談談一段具體的記憶好了

  • How about the memory of, I don't know, your grandmother?

    你的記憶會如何,,我不確定,,,,你的奶奶嗎?

  • You see all these points of light behind you.

    你可以看到身後有許多亮點

  • Imagine that they're all points of activity inside your brain.

    想像一下他們已經在大腦裡面運作

  • If you look at this part of the brain here in the back, the visual cortex...

    你可以看看腦袋後方,有個視覺皮質層

  • Imagine that this is what your grandmother looked like,

    想像一下這是你奶奶的模樣

  • the activity that your grandmother evokes in your visual cortex,

    這樣的行為會喚起你對奶奶的印象出現在視覺皮質層

  • during your interaction with her.

    並且想起與奶奶之間的互動

  • Here's the auditory cortex, and this is the sound of her voice,

    這裡是聽覺皮質層,主要是會聽到奶奶的聲音

  • or the things, the wise things she said to you.

    或關於奶奶的事情,甚至是她對你說過的智慧箴言

  • You know, this is the parietal cortex, the somatosensory cortex,

    就你所知,這裡是頂葉皮質層是軀體感覺皮質層

  • this is the touch of her skin, the texture of her clothes.

    能夠感覺到她的皮膚,甚至她衣服的質料

  • Up here in the smell cortex is the smell of her perfume, things like these.

    而上面的小皮質區能聞她的味道,就像這樣

  • All of these points of light represent activity that occurs in your brain

    這些小光點都代表了

  • while you're interacting with your grandmother.

    你與奶奶互動時,腦部的活絡

  • And now remember the slogan: "Neurons that fire together wire together."

    你現在還記得那標語:神經元細胞會彼此互相激發與連接

  • So as you interact with your grandmother over the years,

    所以這些年來, 妳跟互動時

  • the sound of her voice, the texture of her clothes,

    都能感受到她的聲音,她衣服的質料

  • what she looks like, the smell of her perfume,

    甚至她的模樣,聞到她身上的香味

  • the taste of her cookies, all those things associate.

    她做的餅乾口感,所有的事情彼此互相連結著

  • They come together, they're active at the same time,

    所有的事物都在同時間一起運作著

  • and neurons that fire together wire together.

    並且神經元會彼此互相激發甚至產生連結

  • Many of you have probably not seen your grandmother for a very long time.

    對很多人來說,可能沒有和奶奶相處很長的時間

  • She may be dead. So what happens?

    她可能過世了,那麼發生甚麼事情呢?

  • You're walking, I don't know, along Robson Street,

    當你走在.....可能是洛遜街道上

  • and you walk past the store, and you smell the perfume.

    你走到商店,你聞到香水味

  • Out of that store comes the perfume.

    離開商店後 香水味仍然還存在

  • And what happens? Your grandmother is right there.

    發生什麼事情?你的奶奶彷彿就在那裡

  • All of her is right there: the sound of her voice,

    她的身影就出現在那裡,無論是聲音

  • what she looks like, the texture of her clothes,

    模樣,甚至她所穿的衣服

  • all the other attributes of your grandmother

    所以有關奶奶的事物

  • can be evoked just by stimulating one part of it.

    全部浮現並且刺激腦部的某一部分

  • And that's because neurons that have been firing together for years

    那是因為神經元長久一來接受了激發

  • have now wired together.

    然後現在彼此間互相發生連結

  • You can enter the circuit at any point.

    你會因為各種原因啟動循環

  • A piece of music that your grandmother liked

    像是你的奶奶喜歡的音樂

  • is enough to activate that circuit as well.

    就足以啟動連結

  • A picture of her is enough to activate it.

    一張奶奶的照片也能夠啟動它

  • And that's what we think is a key part of the memory process,

    這就是我們所認為刺激記憶過程的主要關鍵

  • and that's why neurons firing together are so important.

    那正是為什麼神經元的活化是如此的重要

  • In neuroscience now we can actually make neurons...

    現在神經科學中,我們能夠製造神經元

  • Here we have two neurons,

    這張圖片中有兩個神經元細胞

  • and these neurons are in a mouse brain, but what we've done is

    這些神經元來自老鼠的大腦,但我們要做的是

  • we've taken two neurons, and we've stuck into them a gene that we borrowed from jellyfish.

    將水母的基因鑲嵌在兩個神經元細胞上

  • It's the gene that makes jellyfish glow green at night,

    而這個基因能讓水母在晚上發出螢光

  • and we've stuck it into these two neurons, and now they too are glowing green,

    我們將這個基因鑲嵌神經元細胞,現在他們也會發出綠色

  • and you can see two neurons connected to each other.

    你也可看到兩個神經元細胞彼此互相連結

  • The soma is the cell body, the axon is the sending end of the neuron,

    母體細胞又稱為細胞體,軸突會發出訊息到神經元末端

  • the dendrite is the receiving end of the neuron.

    樹突是接收神經元末端的訊息

  • And what we can do is we can take these two neurons,

    我們要做的是將兩個神經元細胞

  • and force them to associate.

    迫使彼此互相連結

  • We can take the neuron on the left and tickle it with an electrical stimulus,

    我們將神經元細胞放在左側,並且利用電刺激它

  • zap! zap! zap!, we make it fire.

    滋滋茲...我們讓神經元細胞激發活化

  • And if we make it fire hard enough, we can get through the axon,

    如果想要更大的激發活化,就利用軸突去活化下一個神經元細胞

  • we can activate the next neuron, the neuron on the right.

    將神經元細胞置於右側

  • Neurons that fire together wire together.

    神經元細胞就會彼此互相激發活化

  • So we go prrp! prrp! prrp! and after a time, what we find is if we make those two neurons associate

    撲嚕撲嚕撲嚕,我們使得兩個神經元細胞開始互相連結了

  • the connection between them will get stronger,

    而且這個連結會讓神經元彼此間更加的緊密

  • and we're understanding the mechanisms by which that works.

    我們都理解這個機制如何運作

  • Now the way in which the two neurons connect to each other is right over here

    現在可以看到兩個神經元細胞彼此互相的連結

  • at a place called the synapse.

    而連接點就稱為"突觸"

  • Over the last decades, neuroscience has really understood the synapse in ways that were just not possible before.

    過去十年裡,神經科學上認為以"突觸"這種方式是不可行的

  • So the next slide gives you an illustration

    所以,下一張投影片中,將給你實例說明

  • of what the synapse looks like.

    突觸如何作用

  • Those little blue dots on the top are the transmitters released by the axon,

    在上方的藍色小點是軸突釋放出來的傳訊器

  • and then they activate all of these receptors,

    傳訊器會啟動接收器

  • and all of that machinery in the next neuron,

    並且將這樣的機制轉移到下一個神經元上

  • and ultimately that causes the neuron to fire.

    最終,使得神經元活化

  • But you know there is much more to it,

    但是不僅只如此,

  • It's these receptors that are actually very important.

    這些接收器實際上是更加的重要

  • You see this receptor? It's called an AMP receptor.

    有看到這個接收器嗎?它叫做AMP接收器

  • It's kind of boring. If you put more in, more comes out.

    它其實了無新意,你放入越多AMP,就會有更多AMP被釋放

  • In other words, if you give it a weak stimulus, it gives a weak response,

    換言句話說,如果你給予微弱的刺激,就得到微弱的反應

  • if you give it a stronger stimulus, it gives you a stronger response,

    如果給予強烈的刺激,就會得到強烈的反應

  • if you give it a really strong stimulus, it gives you a really strong response called linear.

    如果你給予極大的刺激,就會得到極大的反應

  • Look at this kind, the NR receptor, also called the NMDA receptor.

    看看這裡,它稱為NR接收器,又稱為NMDA接收器

  • It's very interesting. Very undemocratic receptor.

    它非常地有趣,它是一個不民主的接收器

  • It hates weak inputs: you give it a weak input

    它討厭微弱的輸入訊號,如果是微弱的輸入

  • not only does it not respond, but it actually goes negative.

    它不只沒有反應,甚至會產生反效果

  • You give it a slightly stronger input; still not very interesting.

    若給予稍強的刺激,它不會有什麼反應

  • You give a strong input; it goes crazy.

    給予強烈的刺激,便會得到強烈的反應

  • And when it goes crazy, what it does is it activates all this machinery down here,

    當有強烈反應時,所有以下的機制都會啟動

  • and the effect of all that machinery is

    並且影響所有的機制

  • to put in more of these ordinary boring receptors.

    尤其是釋放的AMP接收器

  • What that means is if you can tickle the fancy of this NMDA receptor,

    這意味著,如果你觸動NMDA接收器

  • you'll put in more of these ordinary AMPA receptors into the synapse,

    更多的AMPA接收器會傳到突觸上

  • and then the synapse will become stronger.

    而突觸就會變得很強大

  • And that actually seems to be the core mechanism of memory,

    這就是所謂的記憶的核心機制

  • of strengthening connections between two neurons,

    刺激強化兩個神經元細胞彼此之間的連結

  • of how strong inputs and contiguity can result in a stronger synapse.

    越強烈的輸入訊號及連結事物會形成更強大的突觸

  • And that's actually how we think you remember today's lecture.

    這也是你會記得這場演講的理由

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • "So OK Max. That's all been great biochemistry.

    『好,我學到了這些很棒的生物化學機制

  • I'm all excited. Fine. Good. Well, what have you done for me lately?

    我也覺得很興奮且棒透了,那你們現在要做什麼呢?

  • How's my memory going to improve from all this?"

    但是這個機制將如何提升我的記憶?

  • I can tell you that scientists are working very hard.

    我要說的是,科學家努力地研究

  • All of this understanding is leading to new strategies and therapies.

    理解這些機制來達到新的策略和治療方式

  • If you actually look here, it turns out that if you block this,

    你看這裡,結果證實如果阻斷這裡

  • this is very important in getting this whole process to happen.

    它是非常重要的部分,會促成整個過程啟動

  • We're working on drugs that will tickle this pathway

    我們努力研究藥物來啟動這條通道

  • to give you a better memory.

    因此可以增加更好的記憶力

  • But we're not there yet.

    但至今我們仍然還在努力當中

  • It turns out that there's a crucial structure in your brain

    結果證實,大腦內有一個非常重要的結構

  • that seems to be actually very important for your memory.

    並且著實地會增加你的記憶力

  • It's called the hippocampus.

    稱為海馬迴的構造

  • So they're all these points of light on the outside of your cortex.

    它們主要在大腦皮質層外側的亮點

  • They all funneled down to the hippocampus

    它會通過狹窄處到海馬迴結構

  • which again represents the memory trace

    形成所謂的記憶的路徑

  • in a compressed and higher form.

    並且處於高度擠壓的模式

  • We can now record the activity of hundreds of points in the hippocampus,

    我們發現有數百個亮點在海馬迴中運作

  • hundreds of cells, as animals, for instance, run through a maze.

    數百個神經細胞,像是跑過迷宮的動物們

  • What we can do now is we an understand the functions of the hippocampus so well

    我們現在清楚知道關於海馬迴的功能

  • that we can actually, without knowing where the animal is, we can say:

    我們不用知道動物切確在何處,便可以說

  • "These are the cells that are active now - the animals of the first choice point -

    『這些細胞有活動力。』 並知道他們在第一個選擇點、

  • Now is at the second choice point. Now is at the third choice point."

    現在在第二個、或第三個選擇點。

  • And we can hear all this simply by recording the activity of all these neurons inside the hippocampus.

    我都可以清楚聽到並且記錄下所有神經元細胞在海馬迴內的活動

  • I want to tell you about an experiment that was done at MIT about ten years ago by Matt Wilson.

    我來分享一個十年前 Matt Wilson 在麻繩理工學院(MIT)所做的實驗

  • He was studying the hippocampus

    他致力研究海馬迴

  • as the rat was learning the maze,

    利用老鼠來學習迷宮的行為

  • he was going through the first choice, blah, blah, blah.

    老鼠會做出第一個選擇,等等

  • The experiment ends. He closes up the apparatus,

    實驗最終,他切斷設備的電源

  • the animal sitting in the vestibule of the maze now, not in the maze,

    讓老鼠坐在迷宮的走廊,而不是待在迷宮內

  • and he starts to write up his lab notes.

    並且他開始寫下實驗的筆記

  • He's still listening to all these neurons.

    他仍然繼續聆聽其他的神經元細胞

  • What he finds is while he's writing up the notes, he hears the neurons, you can hear them on loudspeaker.

    他做筆記時,透過喇叭聽到神經元的聲音

  • The animals running through the maze.

    接著老鼠開始開始跑向迷宮

  • How could that be?

    怎麼會這樣呢?

  • Well, it turns out he goes over,

    這結果顯示他重新溫習了迷宮路線

  • he looks at the animal, the animal is asleep,

    他在仔細看著老鼠,老鼠是睡著的狀態

  • but the hippocampus is still running through the maze

    但是海馬迴瀏覽了迷宮路徑

  • while the animal is asleep.

    而動物仍處於睡著的狀態

  • And there is now overwhelming evidence that what actually happens at night,

    而有大量的證據顯示,夜晚確實會發生這種現象

  • every night, after you learned stuff during the day is

    每天晚上,學習了一整天

  • that during sleep you replay and rebroadcast the memories of the day

    你睡覺時便會開始不斷重複你一整天的記憶

  • back out from your hippocampus to the rest of your cerebral cortex,

    並從海馬迴釋放出來到其他的大腦皮質層

  • rehearsing those memories again,

    不斷演練這些記憶

  • strengthening the association among all those points of light.

    並且強化大腦中亮點間的連結

  • So what's my advice if you want to to improve plasticity?

    因此我建議,如果你想提升大腦的可塑性?

  • Get a good night's sleep. It's very important.

    就好好睡一覺吧,這非常的重要

  • Here's another thing you can do if you want to improve your memory capabilities and your brain plasticity,

    另外還有一個方式能提升記憶容量以及大腦的可塑性

  • and that is do physical exercise.

    那就是需要做體格訓練

  • Do physical exercise.It used to be thought that we already had all the brain cells

    體格的訓練...過去,我們認為我們所擁有的大腦細胞

  • we're ever going to have; that's not true.

    不會增加,但事實卻不是這樣

  • We're actually making thousands of new brain cells every day,

    我們每天會製造數以千計的大腦細胞

  • and you can double or triple the number of brain cells

    但是這個大腦細胞會增加兩倍到三倍

  • that you make next week by doing physical exercise.

    只要你在下禮拜開始進行體格訓練

  • Here's an experiment which we did, again, in rats,

    再一次地,我們在老鼠身上做實驗

  • where we can paint the new baby brain cells red,

    我們將新的腦細胞塗成紅色

  • the ordinary cells are green.

    一般的腦細胞塗成綠色

  • We take animals, we put them in an enriched environment,

    我們將一邊的老鼠放置在物質豐富的環境下

  • We have other animals in an impoverished environment,

    而另一邊的老鼠則放置在物質匱乏的環境下

  • we find the enriched environment animals make more cells,

    我們發現物質豐富環境下的老鼠,可以產生更多的大腦細胞

  • and we fractionate the environment;

    我們又依據環境區分好幾個部分;

  • we consider social cues, cognitive stimulation,physical stimulation.

    我們納入社會依存,認知刺激、生理刺激等因素

  • What's important?Physical exercise.

    甚麼是最重要的呢? 那就是"體格訓練"

  • More important than having friends, more important than playing Sudoku,

    相較於擁有許多朋友、玩數獨、

  • more important than all that stuff; do physical exercise.

    或者其他所有的事物等等。進行"體格訓練"是最重要的

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So what we're trying to do is to understand what actually happens in the brain when you do exercise.

    所以我們試著去了解到當你在做運動的時候,大腦內會發生甚麼事情呢?

  • And we're understanding there're growth factors that go on,

    我們知道生長激素會不斷地運作

  • parts of these NR2B receptors are turned up,

    而且NR2B接受器會慢慢的上升

  • and the entire plasticity machinery is turned on

    因此,整個大腦的可塑性機制就啟動了

  • along with these new baby cells.

    並且伴隨著新的大腦細胞

  • We have a very good target now,

    我們現在有明確的目標

  • and we're actually working to develop a drug

    也就是也致力於開發藥物

  • that will enhance your neurogenesins, your ability to produce new brain cells.

    來加強神經細胞的形成,使得它能自行生長產生出新的大腦細胞

  • And, by the way, this happens most in hippocampus I told you about.

    順帶一提,神經生長大多發生於前面提到的在海馬迴中

  • And we're working very hard to basically develop that drugs

    我們竭盡所能地開發藥物

  • so you won't have to do all that messy exercise,

    讓你能夠不用大費周章地運動

  • or hopefully, it will be synergistic with exercise.

    同時也希望,藥物能夠與運動相互的搭配

  • So you can make three times as many more brain cells with physical exercise

    透由體格訓練方式, 你就可以產生出三倍以上的大腦細胞,

  • , maybe three times as many,

    也或者是將近三倍

  • again, with the drug and physical exercise.

    再次強調,只要藥物和運動互相的搭配

  • So, there's been a lot of work on understanding...

    所以,我們已經了解許多的作用

  • There's been a lot of work

    有太多的研究數據

  • on looking at what happens in humans who do exercise,

    詳細研究了人們在運動時,腦部會如何運作

  • and this is a longitudinal study that we're involved with.

    而這是個縱軸研究

  • As you get older,

    隨著年紀增長

  • your hippocampus shrinks along with everything else in your brain,

    海馬和其他腦部的結構會縮小

  • but if you look at the red group,

    但你可以看出紅色那組

  • what you can see is that in a one-year longitudinal study,

    在一年的縱軸研究中

  • the control group is doing stretching,

    控制組是延伸增加

  • the experimental group is doing physical exercise,

    而實驗組是有做體格訓練

  • the volume of the hippocampus doesn't shrink,

    海馬迴的體積並沒有縮小

  • and in fact, it even gets bigger.

    實際上,它甚至還變大了

  • So what's my message? Do exercise.

    我要傳達的訊息就是? 要"體格訓練"

  • We're trying to understand what kind of exercises you should be doing.

    我們正試著找出什麼樣的運動最為合適

  • Here's a study by Teresa Liu-Ambrose from our center,working with a group of women in Dunbar.

    這裡有份報告是由Teresa Liu-Ambrose所提出,她主要在 Dunbar 的女性團體服務

  • What she finds actually is that cardio is important,

    她發現心肺訓練非常重要

  • but actually doing weights is also surprisingly important.

    但是重量訓練也出乎意料地十分重要

  • So do both cardio and resistance training,

    所以心肺和阻力訓練兩者皆不可或缺

  • because that will actually enhance your cognitive performance.

    這樣可以增加我們的認知能力。

  • One of the things we've been able to achieve in the last few years in the field of brain imaging,

    過去幾年,我們已經發展出大腦影像處理,

  • is that not only we can see what parts of the brain are active,

    不只可以看到大腦部分的活耀狀況,

  • but we can now actually see the pathways in the brain.

    也可以看到大腦內訊號的通道

  • And we can see how they change as a function of usage.

    我們也可以看出其功能運作是如何改變的

  • And this slide shows you this.

    這張投影片告訴你這一切

  • Now, what we're learning then is under certain circumstances,

    現在,我們了解在特定的情況下