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  • [Singing]

    [唱歌]

  • E, what you...? Hi. James from engVid. I've noticed my friend, E, is putting butter

    E,你。。。?嗨,我是engVid的James。我注意到我的朋友,E,正在用黃油

  • all over his little wormy body, and standing in the sun. I think he wants to be tanned.

    塗滿他小小的蟲身,然後站在太陽底下。我想,他是想做日光浴吧

  • This is not the best way to get a tan, by the way. I'm just telling you. Don't put butter

    不過,我跟你說,這並不是最好的做日光浴的方法。不要在身上塗滿黃油,

  • on yourself and sit in the sun. But this is strange: "Butter me up, baby." Hmm. And then:

    然後坐在太陽底下。不過,卻有這句用語:「阿謏奉承我吧,寶貝」。然後還有:

  • "Flattery will get you everywhere with Mr. E." What does that mean? That's today's lesson.

    「奉承能讓你通行無阻。」這是什麼意思呢?這就是今天的課程

  • What we want to talk about is "criticism" and "praise", or "criticize" and "praise".

    我們今天要討論的是名詞的「批評;評論」和「稱讚;讚美」或動詞「批評;批判」和「讚美;稱讚」

  • We have synonyms we're going to work with, and then some common popular expressions.

    我們先來討論同義字,再來講一些常見的流行用語

  • Right? To help you be able to use them in real life, so you can become like a native

    好嗎?這能幫你在現實生活上活用這些詞語,這樣子,才能成為一位英語母語者

  • speaker. And let's go to the board to start.

    我們開始上課吧

  • We have a little seesaw here. or heehaw, whatever. And you notice a balance, it's balancing down

    白板上面有個小蹺蹺板,而且注意到它的平衡重心是往

  • for criticize, because criticism is usually considered negative. Okay? And praise is usually

    批評的那一方,因為批評通常被視為有負面的意思,懂嗎?而讚美通常

  • considered good. So you can think of devil - dun-dun-dun-dun", or angel - aaah. Okay?

    被視為是好的。因此,你可以聯想到惡魔(登場聲)或天使(登場聲),了解?

  • So, when we say somebody criticizes something it's they say something bad about something.

    當我們說某人批評某事物時,便是說他們在說某事物不好

  • Okay? "The food is too salty, it's too hot. The room's too warm. The car's too big." They

    了解?「這道菜太鹹、太燙了。這房間太熱了。那輛車太大了。」

  • criticize it. When they praise it, they might say: "It's very roomy", or: "The food is full

    他們批評。當他們讚美時,他們可能會說:「這房間真寬敞。」或是說:「這道菜味道十足。」

  • of flavour", or: "You did a good job." To praise. Opposites. Right?

    或者是:「做得好。」讚美,與批評相反,懂嗎?

  • So let's go start over here because I'm that kind of guy, and I'm going to look at "critic".

    好,讓我們看這裡,我們先來看「批評家;評論家」

  • So the noun, a person who criticizes is a critic. Now, a critic doesn't necessarily

    它是名詞,指一個批評的人。注意的是,批評家並不是

  • always have to be negative. It's considered negative, because when a critic speaks, they're

    只有負面的意思。它被認為是負面,是因為當批評家開口說話時,

  • going to talk about the things that didn't go well or weren't as good as they thought.

    他們會說事情進行並不順利,或沒有他們想像中美好

  • Okay? Now, a critic is also a job, because they might go see a movie or a book, and they'll

    懂嗎?批評家也是一份工作,因為他們可能會去看一場電影或讀一本書,

  • tell you what they loved about the book. But no critic will keep their jobs if they just

    然後會告訴你,他們為何喜歡這本書。但沒有一位批評家可以保得住飯碗,

  • say: "Everything was just great. I loved everything. I love all of the movies." They won't have

    如果他們只是說:「每件事都很美好,我喜愛每件事,我喜愛所有電影。」他們很快

  • a job very long, because people say: "Not everything's good." So a critic's job is to

    就會丟掉飯碗,因為人們會說:「不是每件事都很好。」所以,一位批評家的職責是

  • look at things, maybe say some things are good, but to tell you what was missing and

    看某樣事物,也許說有的東西很好,但也會說少了什麼,

  • what could have been done better. So that's an official job, a critic. But a critic could

    以及如何能做得更好。因此,批評家是一份正式的工作,但批評家也可以是

  • also be someone who finds faults, so we mean they look for things to be wrong, and then

    很愛找碴的人,意思是說他們專門找出錯誤,並說出來

  • mention it. They can't just be happy. You're eating dinner, it's a good restaurant, but

    他他們不能只是快樂。你在一間不錯的餐廳吃晚餐,但是

  • the lighting's not quite right and they're like: "Everything good, but the lighting wasn't

    燈光不怎麼對,他們便會說:「大致上都不錯,但燈光不對,

  • right and I don't like it." Why do you got to be such a critic? Why do you have to bring

    我不喜歡。」為何你一定要這樣批評呢?為什麼一定要提起

  • something negative?

    這麼負面的事呢?

  • The second one is "cynic". Oh, sorry, I'm wrong. "Pessimist". A pessimist... Unlike

    第二個字是「憤世嫉俗者」。喔,對不起,我搞錯了,是「悲觀主義者」。「悲觀主義者」,

  • a critic, a critic as I said can be a job or someone who finds some fault. A pessimist

    跟批評家不同,批評家可以是一份工作或某人指出錯誤。「悲觀主義者」,

  • sees almost everything in a negative light. They see any situation, in a person - they

    幾乎都是用負面的角度去看待每一件事。不論是看任何情況,任一個人-他們

  • see the worst or something bad. You say: -"It's a beautiful sunny day. Like the birds are

    只看到最糟糕或不好的一面。你說:-「今天天氣很不錯,出太陽。小鳥在外飛翔,

  • out, children are smiling. I got a new car, a new job." -"It's going to rain soon." -"Why

    小孩子們在歡笑。我買了輛新車,找到一份新工作。」-「快要下雨了。」-「為什麼

  • you got to bring that up? The children are out, everything's good. Why do you have to

    你要提起快下雨的事?小孩子在外面玩要,一切很美好。為何你一定要

  • talk about it?" -"It will rain. It always does." -"Yes, but not today." Okay? So a pessimist

    提起快下雨的事呢?」-「一定會下雨,總是在下雨。」-「沒錯,但今天不會。」了解?所以,「悲觀主義者」

  • will say something will happen or you go: -"Look at my brand new car." -"It will break

    總會說某事會發生。或者你說:-「看看我新買的車子。」-「它之後會壞掉。」-

  • down." -"Okay. Leave it alone. I just got it. Okay?" Pessimist.

    「好,不要管它,我才剛買到而已,好嗎?」「悲觀主義者」

  • So, cynic, we get it. Could be a job or someone finds some fault in something. Okay? A pessimist

    所以,「憤世嫉俗者」(但其實講者應該是指critic-批評家),可以是一份工作或某人找碴,了解?

  • sees everything is negative, there's always a negative something to everything. It's not

    悲觀主義者看每件事都很負面,對於每件事總是有負面的評價

  • just looking at a book. Life's a bad situation. "You're born and you're going to die." This

    不只是看著一本書而已,人生是一個很糟的情形。「人出生了,然後死亡。」

  • is a pessimist. They can't see: but you are alive.

    這就是悲觀主義者,他們看不到:「但你還活著」的事實

  • So what's a "cynic"? Or what's this "kynikos", kynikos, kynikos. K9, k-ni-, kyninikini. Well,

    那什麼是「憤世嫉俗者」呢?或者,什麼是Kynikos呢? K9(狗食飼料牌之一)

  • let's look. This is actually a Greek word, and this Greek word has to do with doglike.

    我們來看一下這字,其實是希臘字,而且是「跟狗一樣」有關

  • So what does doglike and cynic have to do? Well, the pessimist is negative about everything.

    「跟狗一樣」與「憤世嫉俗者」有什麼關係呢?嗯,悲觀主義者是看每件事都很負面

  • Everything's bad. Sun: "Oh, the sun's out. You're going to get cancer." I'm drinking

    每件事都不好。舉例來說,太陽:「喔,太陽出來了,會得到癌症。」我正在喝水:

  • water. "Yeah, you're going to have to pee." Nothing is good. A cynic is a special brand

    「嗯,你等一下會想尿尿。」沒有一件事是好的。憤世嫉俗者的想法與其他人不同

  • of animal. A cynic, my friend, thinks that people only do things for themselves; it's

    憤世嫉俗者,認為別人只為他們自己著想,凡事都只關於自己而已

  • all about you. They're always about self-interest. They're not saying everything in the world

    他們總是關於自身利益。他們不是在說這世界每件事都不好

  • is bad. They don't think the sun is necessarily bad or water is bad, but they think... A cynic

    他們不覺得太陽一定不好,或水一定不好,但他們覺得。。。憤世嫉俗者是像:

  • is: -"Oh, he helped you move the couch. He wants a date." Everything someone does is

    「喔,他幫你搬沙發,那他一定是想要跟你約會。」認為某人做每件事,

  • for a reason. They're looking for self-interest. That's what cynics think.

    都是有理由的。他們在尋找自身利益,那就是憤世嫉俗者所想的

  • So, why this word here? Well, it's really a Greek word. You see, the Greeks use this

    那為何這字(Kynikos)出現在這裡?實際上,那是個希臘字,希臘人使用這個字-

  • word, K9, if you know the word for dog is K9, kynikos, it means like a dog. This word

    K9,假如你知道稱呼狗的字是 K9,Kynikos,指像狗一樣

  • means like a dog. So a cynic sees people like a dog. A dog [pants like a dog] does everything

    這字意思是像狗一樣。所以,憤世嫉俗者看人像狗一樣。一隻狗[像狗一樣吐舌喘氣]做每件事,

  • for self-interest. Right? It's man's best friend because it will... [Pants like a dog]

    都是為了自身利益,是吧?牠是人類最好的朋友,因為牠會。。。[像狗一樣吐舌喘氣]

  • Wants a home and wants food. It loves you because you will take care of it, and they

    想要有一個家,想要填飽肚子,牠愛你,因為你會照顧牠,

  • think cynics are like that. They only look for interest for themselves. "What am I going

    他們認為憤世嫉俗者就像那樣子。他們只在乎自己的利益。「我能得到什麼好處?

  • to get? That's why I did it." So anything humans do that are good, a cynic thinks you

    那便是我為何那麼做。」因此,任何人做的好事,憤世嫉俗者認為你

  • did it for a reason because you benefit. And that's what makes it different from a pessimist.

    是因為能得到好處才這麼做的。這也是和悲觀主義者的不同之處

  • So, hey, even if you speak English, you just got schooled, Bub. Okay? A pessimist sees

    所以,即使你說英語,Bub,你剛好上了一課,了解?悲觀主義者看

  • everything negatively, a critic picks certain things, while a cynic looks at the human animal.

    每件事都很負面,批評家專挑某些事情,而憤世嫉俗者則把人當動物來看待

  • Right? [Pants like a dog] Like a dog.

    懂嗎?[像狗一樣吐舌喘氣]像狗一樣

  • So what's a "backseat driver"? Got to put it up there. Ladies, gentlemen, you know you're

    什麼是「後座駕駛員」呢?(指喜歡從後面指揮別人的人)必須把這字放上來,女士先生們,你知道

  • driving and you're driving 50 and the speed limit's 50, there's always some idiot in the

    你在開車,時速是50,而限速也是50,但總會有一些很白目坐在後座的人,

  • back, saying: "Just go 60. There's no one on the road. I don't know why you don't go

    說:「開60吧,又沒有其他人在路上,不懂為何你不開到60,

  • 60. And you know, you could also..." That's called a backseat driver. They are a critic

    而且你知道你可以。。。」那就是叫「後座駕駛員」

  • of the worst kind. They tell you how to drive when they're sitting in the back and it's

    他們是批評家種類中,最糟糕的一種。他們坐在後座,然後告訴你該怎麼開車,

  • all relax for them, got a drink in one hand, hamburger in the other one: "Hey, you know

    他們整個是放鬆狀態,一隻手拿著飲料,另一隻手拿著漢堡。「嘿,你知道

  • what else you can do?" They got all the answers. Right? You know what I'm talking? You know

    你還可以怎麼做嗎?」他們知道所有的答案,是吧?你懂我在說什麼吧?你知道

  • who I'm talking about. There's that one person. And it's worse, they don't sit in the backseat,

    我在說誰吧!還有一種人,更糟糕,他們不是坐在後座,

  • they actually sit beside you and tell you how you should drive, and you just want to

    而是坐在你旁邊,告訴你說要怎麼開車,而你只想說:

  • go: "Okay, take the wheel. Drive. I would like to relax." So a backseat driver always

    「好啊,那你來開啊,我也想輕鬆一下。」因此,後座駕駛員總是

  • has something to say about what you're doing. Usually it's involving a car. It doesn't have

    對你正在做的事情有話說。通常是跟開車有關。它不一定是

  • to be backseat; it can be right beside you, and they've got criticism that they spew...

    指在後座的人,也可以指在你旁邊的人,他們講出一堆批評

  • Spew, throw out like vomit, blah, at you as you drive. So you're like: "I would kill you

    就像嘔吐一樣,當你在開車時,一直對著你吐。所以,你想:「我會殺了你,

  • if I didn't have to drive this car right now. That's right." Okay? And it came from backseat

    要不是我現在在開車的話,沒錯。」了解?被稱做「後座駕駛員」

  • because usually it was the person in the back who didn't have a license who had all the

    是因為通常是指坐在後座沒有駕照的人,但卻有一堆的建議

  • advice. Okay, we're done.

    好,解釋到此為止

  • These are the nouns. Okay? You can even say that about a relationship, even. Like: "You

    這些字是名詞,了解?你也可以把它運用在人際關係上,甚至像是:

  • don't have a girlfriend. Why are you telling me what to do, you backseat driver? Get a

    「你沒有女朋友,為何你在告訴我該怎麼做,你是後座駕駛員嗎?

  • girlfriend, then talk to me." Okay, sorry. It just went there. I went there.

    先去交個女友,再來跟我說。」好,不好意思,我扯得太遠了

  • All right, "disparage", "lambaste", and "denounce." These are synonyms for the verb "criticize".

    好的,「輕視;貶低」、「嚴厲斥責」、和「公開指責;譴責」,這些是動詞「批評」的同義字

  • We talked about what criticize means, okay? So now we're going to talk about the action.

    我們已經講過「批評」的意思,是吧?現在,我們要來談行為

  • "Disparage", many of us native speakers talk about disparaging or lambasting and denounce,

    「輕視;貶低」,許多英語母語者講到「輕視;貶低」、「嚴厲斥責」、和「公開指責;譴責」這幾個字時,

  • and you go: "It's the same. You know, it's the same." Enh - wrong. When you disparage

    你會說:「都一樣,它們的意思都一樣。」嗯,錯!當你輕視

  • someone or something, you give it little value or worth. When someone's disparaging you,

    某人或某事時,你認為他們沒什麼價值。當某人輕視你時,

  • they're saying: "You have little value or worth. Maybe you shouldn't exist. You're valueless."

    他們會說:「你沒有什麼價值。也許你根本不該存在。你毫無價值。」

  • So disparage somebody's work is to say it has little value. It means it means nothing

    因此,貶低一個人的工作,等於是說它沒什麼價值。它意味著對任何人來說,

  • to anyone; it's not important to anyone. Mm, interesting. Put that away. [Laughs]

    它什麼都不是,完全都不重要。嗯,挺有趣的,先擱在一旁[笑聲]

  • "Lambaste". Okay, I like to do things to help me remember, and in this case, you know, if you think about Easter, those little lambs,

    「嚴厲斥責」,好,我喜歡做可以幫助我記憶的事,在這種情況下,想到復活節和那些小羊,

  • They are so cute, innocent and nice. Okay? So you've got the word "lamb". This will help you remember.

    他們好可愛、好無辜,而且很溫順,懂嗎?你已得到「羊」這個字。這會幫你記得

  • Trust me. And "baste", when we baste things in English, we cook it. You know, you cook

    相信我。然後「(烤肉等時)往上抹油;痛斥」,當我們用英語說把某物抹油時,我們指的是烤食物。你知道,

  • it on the oven, and slowly cook it. You totally cook it, so you burn that meat, you eat it,

    你將食物放在烤箱,慢慢烤熟。整個完全烤熟的話,便把肉烤焦了,然後你吃掉它,

  • you kill it. When you lambaste something... I'm sorry. To lambaste something is to attack

    便是殺了它。當你嚴厲斥責某事物時。。。不好意思,嚴厲斥責某事物,

  • it violently. So you're attacking something. Now think of that [baas like a lamb], that

    表示猛烈地攻擊它。所以,你在攻擊某事物。現在,想像一下[羊叫聲],

  • little innocent lamb being attacked violently over and over. So when you lambaste somebody,

    無辜的小羊被一再猛烈的攻擊。所以,當你嚴厲斥責某人時,

  • you seriously and strongly and severely criticize them. You just go after them and you just

    你嚴厲強烈地批評他們。你追趕他們,然後

  • kill them. So when you think of lambaste, think of the lamb being cooked, that innocent

    殺了他們。所以,當你想到「嚴厲斥責某人」一字時,想到小羊被烤熟了,

  • little lamb going around and around, going: "He-e-e-elp me", and somebody's barbequing

    無辜的小羊在烤箱裡,轉啊轉的,叫著「救。。。救命」,而有人正在

  • the hell right out of it. Okay? That's to lambaste. Severely criticize. It's one thing

    用力地烤著牠,了解?那就是「嚴厲斥責」,嚴厲地批評。被人批評是一件事,

  • if someone criticize you, lambaste is to literally destroy you, violently attack. Whew, got that

    被人嚴厲斥責的話,便是在摧毀你,猛烈地攻擊你。呼~

  • out of my system.

    還好我已經沒這個壞習慣了

  • "Denounce". I love this one. A lot of religions do it and politicians. "We denounce you!"

    「公開指責;譴責」,我喜歡這個字。很多宗教和從政者使用這個字。「我們讉責你!」

  • It means to say publicly you think something is wrong or evil. Okay? See the little devil

    表示你公開地認為某事是錯的或邪惡的,懂嗎?看到這個惡魔標誌了嗎?

  • thing? "It's evil. I denounce you." So if your parents denounce you, that's some serious

    「好邪惡,我讉責你。」因此,如果你的父母譴責你,表示事態嚴重 

  • stuff. Almost better to be lambaste. I don't know. Tough stuff either way, if you ask me.

    被嚴厲斥責總是比較好一點。我不知道,兩者都很不好,如果你問我的話

  • So when we're looking at the verb for "criticize", we can go from "disparage", say you have little

    所以,當我們看「批評」的動詞時,可以有「輕視;貶低」,表示你沒有什麼價值;

  • worth; "lambaste you", attack you violently; or "denounce" you and publically say: "I consider

    「嚴厲斥責」,表示猛烈地攻擊你;或是「公開指責;譴責」你,公開地說:

  • you evil and wrong in all ways." Man, this negative stuff is not good. Okay. No wonder

    「我認為你本身很邪惡,整個不對勁。」這負面的詞語真的都不太好。

  • they thought people were like dogs. Look at the things we come up with.

    難怪他們認為人像狗一樣。看看我們創造出來的這些字

  • Okay, but you know what? Now to go on the side of the angels, aaah. Let's start praising

    但你知道嗎?現在我們來看看天使這一邊。讓我們開始來讚美人

  • people. Funny enough, I couldn't find a lot of words about praise. And I think it has

    有趣的是,我找不到很多與讚美有關的字。我認為這是因為

  • to do with English does have a sort of a history with religion with our language, and it's

    英語和宗教的語言的淵源有關係,

  • okay to criticize because criticizing is what we do for humans. Right? But praising is usually

    而且批評是沒關係的,因為批評是身為人類會做的事,對吧?但讚美通常

  • something we do for the gods above us, so there's not many words for it. In fact, when

    是與神明有關,所以沒有很多字可以形容。事實上,

  • you come over here, you're going to see some of the words for praising aren't really that

    注意到這裡,會發現有些讚美的字根本就沒有那麼好,

  • good if you're a human talking about another human, but that's another story.

    如果是一個人在談論另一個人的話,但那又是另一回事了

  • Let's go to the board. When you praise somebody or something, it's to say that that person

    看白板這裡,當你讚美某人或某事物時,意味著某人

  • of goo-... Is good or institution is good. "McDonald's makes great hamburgers and they

    是好的,或者機關是好的。「麥當勞有最棒的漢堡,而且他們

  • make the best Chicken McNuggets." We're praising their service. We're saying they're good at

    有最棒的麥克雞塊。」我們正在讚美他們的服務,正在說他們擅長做什麼

  • what they do. They're good, which is the opposite is to criticize.

    這些是好話,和批評相反

  • So, what do you call a person who says nice words about the work somebody else does? Why,

    因此,那些因為別人有做好事,而稱讚他們的人,該怎麼稱呼他們呢?為何這麼問呢?

  • boys and girls, I could only find one word that we actually use regularly, and it is

    男孩女孩們,我只能找到一個我們經常在使用的字,

  • the word "flatterer". "To flatter", as a verb-I didn't put it here because I have to explain-is

    而那就是「奉承者」。動詞 -「奉承」- 我沒有把它放上來這裡,因為我必須解釋一下 -

  • to say nice things. The problem is "flatter" is it means to say things you don't really

    是指說好話。問題是,「奉承」的意思,是指你說的話沒有誠意

  • mean. Like you're saying to somebody who is not necessarily or not really beautiful: "You're

    就像你對著一位並不漂亮或不怎麼漂亮的人說:

  • beautiful, and your hair is like, like, like the finest straw, so dry and so, so falling

    「你好漂亮,你的頭髮,像是最好的稻草,好乾,都斷掉了

  • apart. And your legs are like broomsticks, they have no shape and it helps people who

    而你的腳像掃帚一樣瘦,完全沒有形狀。。。」

  • have to", do you understand? You say nice things that aren't really... You don't believe

    你懂嗎?你說好聽的話,但它們並不是。。。你並不相信那些話,

  • them, but you say them. Usually when you want to get a job or a date or you want somebody

    但你還是說了。通常當你應徵一份工作,或想要有個約會,或想要某人

  • to do something, you flatter them and say: "My, James, you look good today." I'm like:

    做某事時,你就會去奉承他們,並說:「哇,James,你今天看來很不錯。」我回答:

  • -"Really? I do?" -"No, I don't think so. Yes you do!" -"Don't flatter me." Remember here?

    -「真的嗎?」-「不,我不認為。是的,你看來很不錯!」-「別奉承我。」記得嗎?

  • Flattery will get you everywhere, because we're all suckers, which means we like to

    奉承能讓你通行無阻,因為我們像吸盤一樣,也就是我們喜歡

  • be told nice things, we want to believe them,

    聽好話,想要相信那些好聽的話,

  • and we'll do nice things to keep hearing nice things.

    而且為了能聽到好話,我們會一直做好事

  • Here's the problem: "flatterer" is supposed to be a good word, but it can be negative

    問題來了,「奉承者」應該是好字,但它可以帶有負面意思,

  • because it means insincere or not real praise. Huh? Sorry, kids, I did my research. There

    因為它表示不真誠或不是真心的讚美。啊?不好意思,孩子們,我有做功課

  • are other words we can use that are similar to "flatterer" that the dictionaries threw

    從字典查到,還有其他和「奉承者」類似的字可以使用

  • out for me. Want to see a couple of them? "Bootlicker", a boot looker-, licker. I'm

    想知道是什麼字嗎?「拍馬屁的人」,一個舔靴子的人-

  • wearing some boots. Is a person who's like [licks boot] you do not lick somebody's boots.

    我剛好穿著靴子 - 是指一個人喜歡[舔靴子],你不舔別人的靴子

  • If someone is from Saudi Arabia watching right now, they're like: "Oh my Lord!" because this

    假如現在有人在沙烏地阿拉伯看到這個的話,他們會說:「天啊!」

  • is such a bad thing I'm showing the boot. This is bad in many countries. Never show

    因為露出腳是件不好的事。在很多國家文化中,露出腳是不好的。絕對不要

  • your foot to someone. A bootlicker actually [licks] licks these boots. So to be a boot

    對別人露出你的腳。一個舔靴子的人[舔靴子],真的舔這些靴子。因此,

  • licker is similar to being a flatterer. There's another word I'm not allowed to use, but maybe

    當一個拍馬屁的人,就類似當一位奉承者。還有另外一個字我不被允許使用,但也許

  • I can. You can be a [makes noise] licker. See? I didn't say it, you two people, so you

    我可以。你可以當一個舔[XX]的人,看吧?我沒有說出來,你們兩個人,

  • can't get upset with me. I didn't say it. Okay?

    不能生氣喔!我沒有說,了解?

  • Another one is a "brown noser". What do I mean by "brown noser"? Imagine this is somebody's

    另一個字是「馬屁精」,什麼意思呢?想像這個是某人的

  • bum, imagine this is your nose. You put your nose inside their bum and go: "You're lovely.

    屁股,而這個是你的鼻子。你把鼻子放到他們的屁股裡,然後說:「你好可愛

  • I just love you. You're the best person in the whole world." That's a brown noser. Do

    我愛你。你是世上最棒的人。」那便是「馬屁精」

  • you know what comes out of people's nose? That's right, they're full of that stuff,

    你知道從鼻子出來的東西是什麼嗎?沒錯,就是那些東西,

  • ladies and gentleman. So this is the closest word I can get to a person who praises someone.

    女士先生們。因此,這是我能找到最接近的,形容一個人讚美另一個人的字

  • There is no such word as a "praiser", or an "applauder", or a "complimenter". They don't

    從來沒有「讚美者」,或是「鼓掌者」,或是「恭唯者」這些字。不知為何原因,

  • exist for some strange reason, but we've got all of these negative words. I love my language.

    這些字並不存在,但我們卻有一堆負面的字。英語真奇妙啊!

  • Next: so why don't we talk about the verbs? We do have some verbs you can use to talk

    接下來:我們何不來說說動詞?我們確實有些動詞可以使用來

  • in a positive way about something. You can "applaud" somebody. Applause is like this,

    以積極的方式談論事情。你可以給某人「掌聲」。鼓掌就像是這樣:

  • clapping. You're like: "You did a great job. We applaud you." It's another way of saying

    拍手。你會說:「做得好!我們為你鼓掌。」算是另一種表達

  • "approve". Not even "praise", we approve. We say: "What you did was okay." "Compliment",

    「讚許」的意思。不算是「讚美」,只是讚許而已。我們說:「做得好。」「誇獎;表揚」,

  • we can compliment you. And we can "congratulate" you. -"Way to go, Johnny!" -"Thanks, Bob!"

    我們可以誇獎你。而且我們可以「恭喜」你。-「Johnny,這麼做就對了!」-「Bob,謝謝!」

  • We can do all of these verbs to praise you, but it's not the same as praise because praise

    我們可以用這些動詞來讚美你,但它們和讚美又不盡相同,因為讚美

  • is like speaking up and saying: "Oh, you're wonderful and godlike." Okay?

    像是大聲說出來:「喔,你太美好,像神一樣。」懂嗎?

  • We do have words that are similar to "praise", but what I found was most of these words are

    我們確實有些字跟「讚美」類似,但我發現,這些字大部分跟宗教有關

  • religious. So to "glorify", "exalt", and "eulogize". You won't find people saying these at times

    像是「頌揚」、「讚揚」、「歌頌」。你平時找不到人會說:

  • like: "We exalt Brad Pitt." No, but they will exalt God and they will glorify God, and eulogize

    「我們讚揚Brad Pitt。」不會,但他們會讚揚神,會頌揚、歌頌祂

  • this. So it's not used in common speech, but if you go to church and you're religious,

    因此,這些字並不適用在日常對話中,但如果你上教堂,而且你很虔誠,

  • I just made you the A1 brown-noser for the priest. Okay? Sorry. I'm just joking.

    那我剛好讓你變成拍牧師馬屁的馬屁精。對不起,我只是在開玩笑

  • All right, so I've got a little box here, and every once in a while we put something

    現在看白板下方的格子,三不五時我們會放一些字在裡頭,

  • in the box, so you want to pay attention here, and it's something that will help you. Because

    因此你要專心點,這些將來可以幫到你,

  • sometimes you might see the word "critic" and "critique". Now, if you've never seen

    因為有時你會看到「批評家」和「批評;評論」這兩個字。現在,如果你從未見過它們,

  • them before, you're going to go like: "Hmm, they seem the same. I think it's the same."

    你也許會想:「它們看起來一樣,我想它們意思一樣。」

  • And I'm going to teach you now, there's a couple of differences that you want to be

    我現在來教你,其實這兩個字,有許多你要知道的不同處

  • aware of. A "critic", as we discussed, is a noun, a person who reviews or says bad things.

    一位「批評家」,如同我們討論的,是個名詞,指一個人評論或說不好的事

  • Right? They review magazines or papers and movies, and gives you some idea like is a

    對吧?他們評論雜誌或報章和電影,然後給你一些想法,像是那是一部

  • good movie or bad one, or they'll say negative things about things. Also, it's a short sound:

    好電影或爛電影,或他們會說一些負面的評語。另外,它是發短音:

  • "Critic", i-i-i. Not a long vowel sound. Okay? So that's one of the difference. Person and

    "Critic"的第二個"i "是短音,不是長母音,懂嗎?所以,那是不同處之一。它是指人,

  • it's a short vowel sound. When we look at "critique, critique, critique", it's a long

    而且是發短母音。當我們看「批評;評論」這個字時,它的第二個"i "是發長母音,

  • sound. Right? So we've got: it's a noun, that's the one difference, it's a noun. You can make

    懂嗎?因此,我們有:它是名詞,這是其中一個區別,是名詞。你可以

  • a critique on something. Sorry. It's only got one "i" in there. You can make a critique

    對某事物做批判。不好意思,我多寫了一個"i "。你可以批評某事物

  • about something. Okay? But it's also a verb, they're critiquing your work, meaning they're

    了解?但它也可以做動詞用:他們正在評論你的工作,意思指他們

  • looking at your work carefully because this is a detailed review of a subject or some

    正在仔細的檢視你的工作,因為這是一份需要詳細審查的主題或某種工作

  • kind of work. So they're critiquing the work now, which is a verb. "Critic" can't do that.

    所以,他們正在評論這份工作,也就是做動詞用。「批評家」不能這麼用

  • Right? We have to say: "Criticize", we have to change the word. But a "critique" can be

    了解?我們必須改用「批評;評估」這個動詞。但「批評;評論」這個字

  • used as a verb or a noun. "Critic" is simply a noun. And don't forget: when we have the

    可以當動詞或名詞使用。「批評家」只能當名詞用。而且別忘了:這個字是

  • short vowel sound here; when you say "critique", it's a long sound. It's the long "e", "e":

    發短母音;當你說"critique"這個字時,則是發長母音"e "的音

  • "critique". Cool? There you go. Just in case you get confused, now you won't. Helped you.

    酷吧?好了,只是預防萬一你搞混了,現在應該是不會了,幫你個大忙

  • Pay attention to the special boxes - all those little things that might come up and be confusing,

    注意看這格子裡的單字-所有可能會令你搞混的字

  • we're going to make them not confusing for you. Anyway, you know what we got to do now?

    我們要來幫你搞懂它們。總之,你知道我們接下來要做什麼嗎?

  • Of course, we've learned some words, we've learned, you know, the positive and the negative.

    當然,我們已經學了一些單字,我們學了正面和負面的單字

  • Why did he say that?

    他為什麼這麼說呢?

  • That's the next part when we come back. Right? Are you ready?

    那就是等一下我們要來討論的,好嗎?準備好了?

  • Back in a flash.

    馬上回來

  • [Snaps] And we're back. Whew, you know what? Not to criticize you guys, but man, you're

    [彈指]回來了。你知道嗎?不是要批評你們,

  • making my day really long with all these explanations. Let's go to the board. Shall we? Let's be

    但你們真的讓我花上很長的時間做這些解釋。看白板這裡,好嗎?

  • positive. "Praise", we talked about doing popular expressions, and we're going to start

    我們來講講正面:「讚美」,我們說過要教一些流行用語,那就從

  • off with the praise, the positive way. "Praise", "p", "positive". Remember that. Okay?

    讚美這字開始,正面的字。「讚美」,和「正面」這字一樣,都有個"p",記住了?

  • "Something is first rate". When you say something is first rate, think of the number one, or

    「某事物是一流的。」當你說某事物是一流的,聯想到第一名,或是

  • "top notch", okay? We're saying think of top is like the very high, like the top of my

    「頂尖」。這裡說的頂端是指很高很高,像我的頭頂位置

  • head. We're saying it's the best. We can use this for things or people. "That hotel is

    我們說那是最棒的。我們可以把它運用在事物或人身上。「那飯店是

  • top notch." One of the best. "He's a top notch student." Very good. "She's a top notch mathematic...

    最頂尖的。」最棒的飯店之一。「他是最頂尖的學生。」很好。「她是最頂尖的數學家,

  • Mathematician or first rate mathematician." First, premier, number one. Okay? So "first

    或一流的數學家。」第一的、首位的、第一名的,懂嗎?

  • rate" means the best. We can use it for people or things. All right?

    因此,「一流的」是指最棒的。我們可以把它運用在人或事物上,懂嗎?

  • "Somebody is on the ball". Can you imagine...? Okay, here's a ball and somebody's standing

    「某人很機警;很高明;對事物反應迅速」你能想像嗎?好,這裡有顆球,有人站在球上面

  • on it. It's very difficult to stand on the ball. All right? So you have to work hard.

    站在球上面是很困難的,對吧?所以,你必須很努力才能站上去

  • When we say somebody is on the ball, there's a couple of meanings. Number one, we're like:

    當我們說某人站在球上面時,代表幾個意思。第一,我們指:

  • "They know. They