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  • As a matter of fact,

    其實,

  • I was trying to think about my career since I left the White House,

    自從我離開白宮後, 就在思考自己的事業,

  • and the best example I have is a cartoon in The New Yorker a couple of years ago.

    我能想到最好的例子是數年前 在《紐約客》刊出的一則卡通。

  • This little boy is looking up at his father,

    這個小男孩抬頭仰望 自己的父親,

  • and he says, "Daddy, when I grow up, I want to be a former president."

    他說: 「爸爸,我長大後要當前總統。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Well, I have had a great blessing as a former president,

    我當前總統有個很大的福氣,

  • because I have had an access

    因為我有機會接觸──

  • that very few other people in the world have ever had

    這機會世上只有少數幾個人有,

  • to get to know so many people around this whole universe.

    就是能瞭解整個宇宙這麼多的人。

  • Not only am I familiar with the 50 states in the United States,

    我不但很熟悉美國 50 州,

  • but also my wife and I have visited more than 145 countries in the world,

    我與妻子還訪問過 全球超過 145 個國家,

  • and the Carter Center has had full-time programs in 80 nations on Earth.

    而且卡特中心還在全世界 80 個國家設立全職單位。

  • And a lot of times, when we go into a country,

    有很多時候, 我們進入一個國家時,

  • we not only the meet the king or the president,

    我們不僅會晤國王或總統,

  • but we also meet the villagers who live in the most remote areas of Africa.

    我們還會見居住在 非洲偏遠地區的村民。

  • So our overall commitment at the Carter Center

    總體來說,卡特中心的承諾

  • is to promote human rights,

    是要提升人權,

  • and knowing the world as I do, I can tell you without any equivocation

    了解世界如我, 我可以很明確的告訴你

  • that the number one abuse of human rights on Earth

    地球上頭號人權侵犯,

  • is, strangely, not addressed quite often, is the abuse of women and girls.

    很奇怪,大家不太討論這個, 就是虐待婦女及女童。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • There are a couple of reasons for this that I'll mention to begin with.

    接下來我會談造成的幾個原因。

  • First of all is the misinterpretation of religious scriptures, holy scriptures,

    第一個就是錯誤闡釋 宗教經文、聖經經文,

  • in the Bible, Old Testament, New Testament, Quran and so forth,

    無論是聖經的舊約、新約, 還是可蘭經等等都是,

  • and these have been misinterpreted by men who are now in the ascendant positions

    這些經文被男性錯誤闡釋, 而他們在猶太會堂、

  • in the synagogues and the churches and in the mosques.

    基督教堂或回教清真寺 位居優越地位。

  • And they interpret these rules to make sure that women

    他們以這種方式闡釋教規,

  • are ordinarily relegated to a secondary position

    確保女性一定會在神的眼中,

  • compared to men in the eyes of God.

    降到比男性還次等的位置。

  • This is a very serious problem. It's ordinarily not addressed.

    這是很嚴重的問題, 通常很少人提及。

  • A number of years ago, in the year 2000,

    幾年前,在 2000 年,

  • I had been a Baptist, a Southern Baptist for 70 years --

    我是浸信會的會友, 在美南浸信會 70 年了,

  • I tell you, I still teach Sunday school every Sunday;

    我告訴你們, 我每個星期天都還在教主日學;

  • I'll be teaching this Sunday as well --

    我這個星期天也要教,

  • but the Southern Baptist Convention in the year 2000 decided

    但是 2000 年, 美南浸信會聯會做出決定

  • that women should play a secondary position,

    女性必須扮演次等角色,

  • a subservient position to men.

    要順服男人。

  • So they issued an edict, in effect,

    所以他們頒了一項教令,

  • that prevents women from being priests, pastors, deacons in the church,

    實施不讓女性在教會 當祭司、牧師、執事,

  • or chaplains in the military,

    或軍隊的隨行神職人員,

  • and if a woman teaches a classroom

    如果女性要在

  • in a Southern Baptist seminary,

    美南浸信會神學院教書,

  • they cannot teach if a boy is in the room,

    有男童在教室裡時就不能教,

  • because you can find verses in the Bible,

    因為你可以在聖經裡找到經文,

  • there's over 30,000 verses in the Bible,

    聖經總共有三萬多句的經文,

  • that say that a woman shouldn't teach a man, and so forth.

    說婦女不應教導男性,諸如此類。

  • But the basic thing is the scriptures are misinterpreted

    但基本上就是錯誤闡釋經文,

  • to keep men in an ascendant position.

    讓男性保持優越地位。

  • That is an all-pervasive problem,

    這是很普遍的問題,

  • because men can exert that power

    因為男性能運用這項權力,

  • and if an abusive husband or an employer, for instance, wants to cheat women,

    而且舉例來說, 如果施虐的丈夫或雇主想騙女性,

  • they can say that if women are not equal in the eyes of God,

    他們會說如果婦女 在神的眼中並不平等,

  • why should I treat them as equals myself?

    為什麼我應該 平等待她們如待己?

  • Why should I pay them equal pay for doing the same kind of work?

    為什麼我應該要同工同酬?

  • The other very serious blight

    另一項造成這個問題的嚴重因素

  • that causes this problem is the excessive resort to violence,

    就是過度訴諸暴力,

  • and that is increasing tremendously around the world.

    這現象在全球都顯著增加。

  • In the United States of America, for instance, we have had

    舉例來說,在美國我們看到

  • an enormous increase in abuse of poor people,

    虐待窮人的情況大幅增加,

  • mostly black people and minorities, by putting them in prison.

    絕大多數為黑人及少數族裔, 他們被關進牢裡。

  • When I was in office as governor of Georgia,

    我當喬治亞州州長時,

  • one out of every 1,000 Americans were in prison.

    每千名美國人中有一個人坐牢。

  • Nowadays, 7.3 people per 1,000 are in prison.

    現在,千人中有 7.3 人坐牢。

  • That's a sevenfold increase.

    那是七倍的增長。

  • And since I left the White House,

    我離開白宮後,

  • there's been an 800 percent increase in the number of women

    黑人女性被監禁的比例

  • who are black who are in prison.

    增加了 800%。

  • We also have [one of the only countries] on Earth

    我們也是這世上唯一

  • that still has the death penalty that is a developed country.

    還保留死刑的已開發國家。

  • And we rank right alongside the countries that are most abusive

    我們與最侵犯各式人權的國家

  • in all elements of human rights in encouraging the death penalty.

    同列鼓勵死刑的名單。

  • We're in California now, and I figured out the other day

    我們現在在加州開會, 而有一天我發現

  • that California has spent four billion dollars

    加州已經花了四十億美元

  • in convicting 13 people for the death penalty.

    判 13 人死刑。

  • If you add that up, that's 307 million dollars it costs California

    如果你加一加, 加州要花三億七百萬美元

  • to send a person to be executed.

    處死一個人。

  • Nebraska this week just passed a law abolishing the death penalty,

    內布拉斯加州 本週才通過法律廢止死刑,

  • because it costs so much. (Applause)

    因為那太花錢了。(掌聲)

  • So the resort to violence and abuse of poor people and helpless people

    所以訴諸暴力 與虐待窮苦及無助的人

  • is another cause of the increase in abuse of women.

    是虐待婦女現象 增加的另一項原因。

  • Let me just go down a very few abuses of women that concern me most,

    接下來我要說幾個 我特別關心的婦女受虐情況,

  • and I'll be fairly brief, because I have a limited amount of time, as you know.

    我會盡量簡潔, 因為你們知道我的演講時間有限。

  • One is genital mutilation.

    其中一個是女陰殘割。

  • Genital mutilation is horrible and not known by American women,

    女陰殘割非常恐怖, 而且美國女性對此一無所知,

  • but in some countries, many countries,

    但是在某些國家,在許多國家,

  • when a child is born that's a girl, very soon in her life,

    女嬰出生後,很快地

  • her genitals are completely cut away by a so-called cutter

    她的外生殖器 會被所謂操刀者完全切除,

  • who has a razor blade and, in a non-sterilized way,

    操刀者持一把刀片, 沒有消毒過,

  • they remove the exterior parts of a woman's genitalia.

    直接把婦女外陰割除。

  • And sometimes, in more extreme cases but not very rare cases,

    有時候,有些很慘卻非罕見的例子,

  • they sew the orifice up so the girl can just urinate or menstruate.

    他們會縫合陰道,只剩小洞, 讓女孩能排尿或排月經。

  • And then later, when she gets married, the same cutter goes in

    之後,當她要結婚時, 同樣的操刀者

  • and opens the orifice up so she can have sex.

    會來切開這個小洞, 所以她能有性行為。

  • This is not a rare thing, although it's against the law in most countries.

    這並不罕見, 儘管大部分國家都明文禁止。

  • In Egypt, for instance,

    舉例來說,在埃及,

  • 91 percent of all the females that live in Egypt today

    現今居住在埃及的女性中有 91%

  • have been sexually mutilated in that way.

    受過那樣的性器官殘割。

  • In some countries, it's more than 98 percent

    在某些國家,超過 98% 的女性

  • of the women are cut that way before they reach maturity.

    在成年前受過如此殘割。

  • This is a horrible affliction

    這是種恐怖的折磨,

  • on all women that live in those countries.

    讓活在那些國家的婦女飽受痛苦。

  • Another very serious thing is honor killings,

    另一件非常嚴重的事 就是名譽殺人。

  • where a family with misinterpretation, again, of a holy scripture --

    家族因為錯誤闡釋的經文──

  • there's nothing in the Quran that mandates this --

    可蘭經裡找不到半條 這樣的命令──

  • will execute a girl in their family

    而將族中的女孩處死,

  • if she is raped

    只因為她被強暴,

  • or if she marries a man that her father does not approve,

    或嫁給父親不同意的人,

  • or sometimes even if she wears inappropriate clothing.

    有時甚至只是因為 她穿了不合宜的衣服。

  • And this is done by members of her own family,

    而且這由她自己家族的成員執行,

  • so the family becomes murderers

    所以家人變成兇手,

  • when the girl brings so-called disgrace to the family.

    把所謂讓家族蒙羞的女孩殺死。

  • An analysis was done in Egypt not so long ago by the United Nations

    不久前聯合國在埃及做過分析,

  • and it showed that 75 percent of these murders of a girl

    顯示出處決女孩的人,

  • are perpetrated by the father, the uncle or the brother,

    75% 是女孩的父親、 叔伯或兄弟,

  • but 25 percent of the murders are conducted by women.

    但 25% 由女人下手。

  • Another problem that we have in the world

    世界上還有一件 與婦女特別有關的問題,

  • that relates to women particularly is slavery,

    就是奴隸,

  • or human trafficking it's called nowadays.

    現今稱為人口販賣。

  • There were about 12.5 million people sold from Africa into slavery

    過去在十八及十九世紀, 大約有一千二百五十萬名非洲人

  • in the New World back in the 19th century and the 18th century.

    被賣到新世界當奴隸。

  • There are 30 million people now living in slavery.

    現在則有三千萬人 生活在奴役狀態下。

  • The United States Department of State now has a mandate from Congress

    美國國務院受剛果委託,

  • to give a report every year,

    每年要出一份(奴隸)報告,

  • and the State Department reports that 800,000 people are sold

    國務院的報告指出 每年有八十萬人口

  • across international borders every year into slavery,

    被賣為跨國奴隸,

  • and that 80 percent of those sold are women,

    而其中 80% 為女性,

  • into sexual slavery.

    成為性奴。

  • In the United States right this moment,

    就在這一刻, 光在美國就有六萬人

  • 60,000 people are living in human bondage, or slavery.

    生活在枷鎖中,成為奴隸。

  • Atlanta, Georgia, where the Carter Center is located

    喬治亞州亞特蘭大市, 即卡特中心的所在地,

  • and where I teach at Emory University,

    也是我教書的埃默里大學所在地,

  • they have between 200 and 300 women, people sold into slavery every month.

    每個月都有 二、三百名女性賣為奴隸。

  • It's the number one place in the nation because of that.

    因而在這個項目成為全國第一。

  • Atlanta has the busiest airport in the world,

    亞特蘭大有全球最繁忙的機場,

  • and they also have a lot of passengers that come from the Southern Hemisphere.

    他們也有許多旅客從南半球來。

  • If a brothel owner

    如果妓院老闆

  • wants to buy a girl that has brown or black skin,

    想買個膚色棕褐或黝黑的女孩,

  • they can do it for 1,000 dollars.

    他們花一千美元就能買到。

  • A white-skinned girl brings several times more than that,

    皮膚白皙的女孩 可以賣好幾倍的錢,

  • and the average brothel owner in Atlanta and in the United States now

    而現在在亞特蘭大及美國, 一般的妓院老闆

  • can earn about $35,000 per slave.

    可以從每位性奴身上 搖出三萬五千美元。

  • The sex trade in Atlanta, Georgia, exceeds the total drug trade in Atlanta, Georgia.

    喬治亞州亞特蘭大市的性交易 超過毒品交易總量。

  • So this is another very serious problem, and the basic problem is prostitution,

    所以這是另一個非常嚴重的問題, 而最根本的問題就是賣淫,

  • because there's not a whorehouse in America

    因為在美國每一間妓院

  • that's not known by the local officials,

    都在當地政府官員、

  • the local policemen, or the chief of police or the mayor and so forth.

    當地警察或警長 或市長等人的掌握之下。

  • And this leads to one of the worst problems,

    這導致另一項嚴重的問題,

  • and that is that women are bought increasingly and put into sexual slavery

    就是愈來愈多的女性被賣為性奴,

  • in all countries in the world.

    全世界所有國家皆為如此。

  • Sweden has got a good approach to it.

    瑞典有個對付的好方法。

  • About 15 to 20 years ago, Sweden decided to change the law,

    大約 15 到 20 年前, 瑞典決定要改變法律,

  • and women are no longer prosecuted

    女性不再被起訴,

  • if they are in sexual slavery,

    如果她們是性奴,

  • but the brothel owners and the pimps and the male customers are prosecuted,

    但是妓院老闆、皮條客 及男性嫖客卻會被起訴,

  • and -- (Applause) -- prostitution has gone down.

    因此(掌聲) 賣淫的情況減少。

  • In the United States, we take just the opposite position.

    在美國,我們的做法卻恰恰相反。

  • For every male arrested for illegal sex trade,

    在美國, 男性與女性因非法性交易

  • 25 women are arrested in the United States of America.

    被逮捕的比例為 1 比 25。

  • Canada, Ireland, I've already said Sweden,

    加拿大、愛爾蘭 及我剛談到的瑞典、

  • France, and other countries are moving now towards this so-called Swedish model.

    法國和其他國家都朝 所謂的瑞典模式前進。

  • That's another thing that can be done.

    這是另一件可以著手的事。

  • We have two great institutions in this country that all of us admire:

    這個國家有眾人景仰的兩大機構:

  • our military and our great university system.

    我們的軍隊及偉大的大學系統。

  • In the military, they are now analyzing how many sexual assaults take place.

    在軍隊,他們正在分析 發生過多少性侵案。

  • The last report I got, there were 26,000 sexual assaults

    我拿到的最新報告指出 有二萬六千筆性侵案

  • that took place in the military --

    在軍中發生,

  • 26,000.

    二萬六千筆!

  • Only 3,000, not much more than 1 percent, are actually prosecuted,

    只有三千件,比 1% 多一點點, 真的被起訴,

  • and the reason is that the commanding officer of any organization --

    原因是各單位的指揮官,

  • a ship like my submarine, or a battalion in the Army

    像船、以我為名的潛水艇、 陸軍軍營,

  • or a company in the Marines --

    或海軍連隊,

  • the commanding officer has the right under law to decide

    指揮官有法律賦予的權力

  • whether to prosecute a rapist or not,

    決定是否要起訴某名強暴犯,

  • and of course, the last thing they want is for anybody to know

    當然,他們最不想讓人知道的

  • that under their command, sexual assaults are taking place,

    就是在他們的指揮下 還發生性侵案,

  • so they do not do it.

    所以他們不會起訴強暴犯。

  • That law needs to be changed.

    這條法律必須改變。

  • About one out of four girls who enter American universities

    美國大學生中大約每四名女生

  • will be sexually assaulted before she graduates,

    就有一名會在畢業前遭受性侵犯,

  • and this is now getting a lot of publicity,

    現在這個情況受到許多媒體關注,

  • partially because of my book, but other things,

    部分是因為我的書, 但還有其它因素,

  • and so 89 universities in America are now condemned

    所以依照美國教育修正案第九條,

  • by the Department of Education under Title IX

    教育部已經譴責了 89 所大專院校,

  • because the officials of the universities are not taking care of the women

    因為這些大學的高層 沒有好好照顧女性,

  • to protect them from sexual assault.

    保護她們不被性侵。

  • The Department of Justice says that more than half of the rapes

    美國司法部說超過一半的 大學校園強暴案

  • on a college campus take place by serial rapists,

    都是連續強暴犯所為,

  • because outside of the university system,

    因為如果這件事發生在校園外,

  • if they rape somebody, they'll be prosecuted,

    他們強暴了某人, 一定會被起訴,

  • but when they get on a university campus, they can rape with impunity.

    但是因為發生在校園內, 所以可以免於懲處繼續強姦。

  • They're not prosecuted.

    他們不會被起訴。

  • Those are the kinds of things that go on in our society.

    這些就是我們社會的情況。

  • Another thing that's very serious about the abuse of women and girls

    還有一件非常嚴重的事, 與虐待婦女及女童有關,

  • is the lack of equal pay for equal work,

    就是沒有同工同酬,

  • as you know. (Applause)

    你們都知道的。(掌聲)

  • And this is sometimes misinterpreted, but for full-time employment,

    這有時也被錯誤闡釋, 但身為正職員工,

  • a woman in the United States now gets 23 percent less than a man.

    在美國女性比男性少拿 23%。

  • When I became president, the difference was 39 percent.

    我當總統時,差距為 39%。

  • So we've made some progress, partially because I was president

    所以我們的確有進步一點, 部分是因為我當總統

  • and so forth -- (Applause) (Laughter) --

    諸如此類── (掌聲)(笑聲)

  • but in the last 15 years, there's been no progress made,

    但是過去 15 年 沒有什麼顯著的進步,

  • so it's been just about 23 or 24 percent difference

    所以過去 15 年, 差距大約為 23% 或 24%,

  • for the last 15 years.

    這就是我們社會的寫照。

  • These are the kind of things that go on.

    如果你看富比士 500 大公司,

  • If you take the Fortune 500 companies,

    其中 23 間有女性執行長,

  • 23 of them have women CEOs,

    500 間裡只有 23 間,

  • out of 500,

    這些執行長,我不說你也知道,

  • and those CEOs, I need not tell you,

    比其他執行長

  • make less on an average

    平均還賺得少。

  • than the other CEOs.

    所以,這也是我國社會的寫照。

  • Well, that's what goes on in our country.

    美國還有一項問題,

  • Another problem with the United States

    就是我們是世界上 最愛打仗的國家。

  • is we are the most warlike nation on Earth.

    我們與 25 個國家打過仗,

  • We have been to war with about 25 different countries

    自二次世界大戰以來。

  • since the Second World War.

    有時候,我們派士兵去打地面戰,

  • Sometimes, we've had soldiers on the ground fighting.

    其他時候,我們飛過人家的領空

  • The other times, we've been flying overhead

    對人投擲炸彈。

  • dropping bombs on people.

    還有一些時候,當然現在 我們有無人機攻擊人民等等。

  • Other times, of course, now, we have drones that attack people and so forth.

    我們已經和超過 25 個國家打仗,

  • We've been at war with 25 different countries

    自二次世界大戰以來。

  • or more since the Second World War.

    其中有四年,我不會說是哪四年,

  • There was four years, I won't say which ones,

    我們沒有打仗,

  • where we didn't --

    (掌聲)我們沒有投擲炸彈, 我們沒有發射飛彈,

  • (Applause) -- we didn't drop a bomb, we didn't launch a missile,

    我們甚至沒有打過一顆子彈。

  • we didn't fire a bullet.

    但無論如何,這幾件事,

  • But anyway, those kinds of things, the resort to violence

    如訴諸暴力及錯誤闡釋經文,

  • and the misinterpretation of the holy scriptures

    是造成虐待婦女及女童的基本原因。

  • are what causes, are the basic causes, of abuse of women and girls.

    還有一個基本原因, 我不用說大家都知道,

  • There's one more basic cause that I need not mention,

    就是普遍來說, 男人根本不甩這回事!

  • and that is that in general, men don't give a damn.

    (掌聲)真的。

  • (Applause) That's true.

    會聲稱反對婦女及女童虐待的男人

  • The average man that might say, I'm against the abuse of women and girls

    可能會默默接受我們擁有的特權,

  • quietly accepts the privileged position that we occupy,

    這跟我小時候的情況很像,

  • and this is very similar to what I knew when I was a child,

    種族實施隔離但平等卻存在。

  • when separate but equal had existed.

    合法的種族歧視 已經存在了一百年,

  • Racial discrimination, legally, had existed for 100 years,

    從 1865 年南北戰爭結束起,

  • from 1865 at the end of the War Between the States, the Civil War,

    一直到 1960 年代

  • all the way up to the 1960s,

    林登·詹森通過

  • when Lyndon Johnson got the bills passed

    平權法案為止。