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  • Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course World History, and today we're going to talk about

    嗨,我是約翰-格林,這裡是世界歷史速成班,今天我們要講的是...

  • our old friend trade and also corporations.

    我們的老朋友貿易和企業。

  • Oh great, another Marxist rant from my union-loving public school teacher about how capitalism

    哦,偉大的,另一個馬克思主義的咆哮 從我的工會愛好公立學校老師 關於如何資本主義?

  • is destroying the world.

    正在毀滅這個世界。

  • You know, Me from the Past, all the capitalists call me Marxist, all the Marxists call me

    你知道嗎,過去的我,所有的資本家都叫我馬克思主義者,所有的馬克思主義者都叫我。

  • capitalist, I--I can't win!

    資本家,我--我贏不了!

  • Here's the thing, Me from the Past, I am grateful that there is a market for people to, you

    這裡'的事情,我從過去,我很感謝有一個市場的人,你

  • know, sell books and make YouTube videos, and capitalism does a pretty good job of making

    知道,賣書和製作YouTube視頻, 資本主義做了一個相當不錯的工作,使得

  • goods and services available to large groups of people.

    向大批人提供商品和服務;

  • Plus how else am I going to turn sweat of the proletariat into delicious Diet Dr. Pepper?

    再加上我還怎麼把無產階級的汗水變成美味的健怡博士辣椒呢?

  • (Not a sponsor. I wish they were a sponsor.)

    (不是贊助商,我希望他們是贊助商)

  • I'll tell you what, Me from the Past, I've enjoyed a cup or two of the sweat of the proletariat

    我告訴你,過去的我,我已經享受了一兩杯無產階級的汗水。

  • over the years and it just doesn't have that carbonated "pop" of Diet Dr. Pepper.

    多年來,它只是沒有那個碳酸化的"pop"的健怡博士辣椒。

  • What were we talking about? Oh right, capitalism. I like capitalism, what I don't like are monopolies

    我們剛才在說什麼?哦,對了,資本主義。我喜歡資本主義,我不喜歡的是壟斷。

  • and violence, and those are both aspects of one of the first capitalist enterprises and

    和暴力,而這些都是最早的資本主義企業之一的兩個方面。

  • the subject of today's episode, the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (and I will remind

    今天的主題'集,Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie(和我會提醒

  • you that mispronouncing things is my thing).

    你,唸錯字是我的事)。)

  • In English of course that's the Dutch East India Company. I'd like to use the Dutch,

    用英語說當然是荷蘭東印度公司。我'想用荷蘭語。

  • though, but I can't pronounce it, so we're just gonna compromise and call it the VOC.

    雖然,但我不能發音,所以我們'只是要去妥協,叫它的VOC。

  • So you probably remember from our first series that trade in the Indian Ocean had gone along

    所以你可能還記得我們的第一個系列,印度洋的貿易一直在進行。

  • swimmingly for hundreds of years until the Portuguese tried and failed to dominate it

    數百年來,葡萄牙人一直試圖統治它,但失敗了。

  • in the 15th and 16th centuries.

    在15世紀和16世紀。

  • And you may also remember that in between the Portuguese and the massively powerful

    你可能還記得,在葡萄牙人和強大的葡萄牙人之間

  • British Empire there was another European power: the Dutch.

    大英帝國還有一個歐洲強國:荷蘭人。

  • At the time, the Netherlands was a country of 1.5 million people, about as many people

    當時,荷蘭是一個擁有150萬人口的國家,大約有多少人?

  • as currently live in Greater Indianapolis. Now, admittedly, they'd already accomplished

    作為目前住在大印第安納波利斯。現在,誠然,他們'已經完成了。

  • some impressive things, for instance, they'd dug most of their country out from the ocean,

    一些令人印象深刻的事情,例如,他們'把自己的國家大部分從海洋中挖出來。

  • but how they came to thoroughly dominate world trade for fifty years tells us a lot about

    但他們是如何徹底主導世界貿易五十年的,這告訴我們很多關於

  • capitalism, technology, and also, violence.

    資本主義,技術,還有,暴力。

  • I suppose we could start with the revolt of the United Provinces in the union of Utrecht

    我想我們可以從烏得勒支聯合省的起義開始。

  • in 1579, which created the Netherlands, or perhaps the decision by the Catholic Duke

    1579年建立荷蘭,或者是天主教公爵的決定。

  • of Parma in 1585 to let Protestants leave captured Antwerp and set up shop in Amsterdam,

    1585年帕爾馬的新教徒離開被佔領的安特衛普,在阿姆斯特丹開店。

  • or we could start in 1595 with the creation of the first Amsterdam-based investment syndicate,

    或者我們可以從1595年第一個阿姆斯特丹投資集團的成立開始。

  • The Company for Far Lands, which is what I call my Minecraft server.

    The Company for Far Lands, which is what I call my Minecraft server.

  • So the founder of The Company for Far Lands published this report called the Itinerario

    所以遠方公司的創始人發表了這個報告,叫《行程》。

  • that excited dreams of vast wealth and spices from South-east Asia. There's a key passage

    興奮地夢想著來自東南亞的巨大財富和香料。有一個關鍵的段落

  • in the report that explains the riches available in the islands east of Malacca:

    在報告中,解釋了馬六甲以東島嶼的財富。

  • "In this place of Sunda there is much pepper, and it is better than that of India or Malabar,

    "巽他這個地方胡椒多,比印度或馬拉巴的胡椒好。

  • whereof there is so great quantity that they could lade yearly from thence 500,000 pounds.

    其中的數量之多,每年可從那裡得到50萬磅。

  • It hath likewise much frankincense, camphor, and diamonds, to which men might very well

    它也有很多乳香、樟腦和鑽石,人們可能會很喜歡。

  • traffic without much impeachment, for that the Portugals come not thither, because great

    葡國人不去那裡,因為那裡有很多人在那裡。

  • numbers of Java come themselves unto Malacca to sell their wares."

    爪哇人自己到馬六甲去賣東西,&quot。

  • You'll note there that the initial idea was to break into this already existing trade

    你'會注意到,那裡最初的想法是要打入這個已經存在的行業。

  • system and displace the Portugals. So in the same way that trade in the western Indian

    體系,並取代葡萄牙人。是以,在西印度的貿易中,同樣的

  • Ocean was flourishing before the arrival of the Europeans, the South China Sea region

    大洋彼岸

  • and eastern Indian Ocean was a trade hot-bed, perhaps even more valuable because of the

    和東印度洋是一個貿易溫床,也許更有價值的是,因為它是一個貿易的溫床。

  • riches of China. And it seems that the Dutch originally planned to try to break into that

    中國的財富。而荷蘭人似乎原本就打算嘗試著打入那個

  • existing trade network on equal terms, like, according to Jacob Van Neck, the captain of

    在平等的條件下,現有的貿易網絡,就像雅各布-範內克所說的那樣。

  • the first successful expedition to Indonesia, the plan was, quote, "not to rob anyone of

    第一次成功地遠征印度尼西亞,計劃是,"不搶任何人的。

  • their property, but to trade uprightly with all foreign nations."

    他們的財產,但要與所有外國國家進行正直的貿易。

  • But pretty soon that idea of free trade gave way to the hard reality that competition meant,

    但很快,這種自由貿易的理念就讓位於競爭意味著的殘酷現實。

  • you know, lower prices, and by 1601 there were enough successful trade companies that

    你知道,更低的價格,到了1601年,有足夠多的成功的貿易公司。

  • the cost of buying spices in Indonesia was going up, and also there was suddenly tons

    在印尼購買香料的成本正在上升,也突然有大量的

  • of pepper in Amsterdam, which meant the price that could be charged for that pepper was

    在阿姆斯特丹,胡椒粉的價格,這意味著可以為該胡椒粉收取的價格是1,000美元。

  • going down; clearly, something had to be done. Ideally that something would have been lower

    下去;顯然,必須做點什麼。理想的情況是,有些事情會被降低

  • prices for everyone, and an efficient marketplace, but the something that happened instead was the VOC.

    每個人的價格,以及高效的市場,但發生的事情反而是VOC。

  • Let's go to the Thought Bubble.

    讓我們'去思想保麗龍。

  • In 1601, the United Provinces, aka the Netherlands, were governed nationally by a representative

    1601年,聯合省(又稱荷蘭)由一個代議制國家管理。

  • body that met at the Hague, called the States General, although each of the individual provinces

    在海牙舉行會議的機構,被稱為 "總督府",儘管每個省都有自己的 "總督府"。

  • was largely self-governing, and the leader of the States General was able to convince

    大體上是自治的,而且各國總領能夠相信

  • all the provinces to accept a single entity to monopolize the East Indies trade. This new

    所有省份都接受一個單一的實體來壟斷東印度群島的貿易。這個新

  • company, the VOC, was run by a seventeen-member board called the Heeren XVII, and these directors

    公司,即VOC,由一個名為 "海倫十七世 "的十七人委員會管理,這些董事

  • supposedly had control over a company that was chartered with the power to hire its own

    據稱控制著一家特許公司,該公司有權僱用自己的人。

  • people, and also to wage war.

    人,也要發動戰爭。

  • I say supposedly because, you know, it took a year for communications from the Netherlands

    我說據說是因為,你知道,荷蘭的通信花了一年時間。

  • to reach the East Indies, and another year for company officers to respond, so the VOC

    抵達東印度群島,公司官員又要一年時間來應對,所以VOC

  • basically operated as its own sovereign nation, with the power to use as much violence as

    基本上是作為自己的主權國家運作的,有權力使用盡可能多的暴力。

  • it needed to build and maintain its trading power, like according to author Stephen Bown,

    它需要建立和維持自己的貿易實力,就像作者Stephen Bown所說的那樣。

  • "The VOC would essentially operate as a state within a state."

    "VOC將基本上作為一個國家中的一個國家來運作。

  • And the VOC, together with its sister company the West India Company, did use violence,

    而VOC與其姐妹公司西印度公司一起,確實使用了暴力。

  • attacking Portuguese and Spanish settlements in Chile, Brazil, East and West Africa, the

    攻擊葡萄牙和西班牙在智利、巴西、東非和西非的定居點,並對其進行了攻擊。

  • Persian Gulf, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, China and the Philippines between 1602 and

    波斯灣、印度、斯里蘭卡、印度尼西亞、中國、菲律賓等地

  • 1663, in what you could think of as an early world war.

    1663年,在你可以認為是一場早期的世界大戰。

  • The VOC was also different from a lot of corporations because it was initially funded with 6.5 million

    VOC也與很多企業不同,因為它最初的資金來源是650萬。

  • guilders, about 100 million dollars in today's money. And that capital was expected to fund

    盾,以今天的貨幣計算,約為1億美元'。而這些資金預計將用於資助

  • business ventures for a long time going forward -- not just for like one initial trade mission.

    在未來很長一段時間內的商業企業 -- -- 不僅僅是像最初的貿易任務那樣。

  • And this long-term business thinking was unique, especially compared to the funding strategies

    而這種長期的經營思路是獨特的,尤其是與融資策略相比更是如此

  • of the VOC's biggest competitor, the British East India Company, and it reflected the advanced

    的最大競爭對手--英國東印度公司,它反映了先進的

  • financial acumen of the Dutch model generally.

    荷蘭模式的金融敏銳度一般。

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble.

    謝謝你,思想保麗龍。

  • So, we've got this company that's basically also a country. But it's not a particularly

    所以,我們'了這家公司,基本上也是一個國家。但它不是一個特別

  • good country, because it doesn't have, like, any of the responsibilities of government,

    好的國家,因為它不',喜歡,任何政府的責任。

  • nor does it have to answer to the people it's governing. All it has to do is make money.

    也不需要對它所管轄的人民負責。它所要做的就是賺錢。

  • And it was really good at making money, like by 1648 the United Provinces were in better

    而且它真的很會賺錢,比如到了1648年,聯合省的情況更好了。

  • financial shape than every other nation in Europe.

    比歐洲其他國家的財政狀況都要好。

  • You can tell this partly just by looking at interest rates. Now admittedly, interest rates

    你看利率就能看出一部分。現在誠然,利率

  • are only one measure of financial health and power, but they're an important indicator,

    只是衡量財務健康和權力的一個標準,但它們'是一個重要的指標。

  • even today. So, Dutch businesses could borrow at a rate of 4 percent annual interest, and

    即使是今天。所以,荷蘭企業可以以4%的年利率借貸,而

  • that's pretty cheap compared to the 10 percent it cost corporations to borrow money in England

    這是很便宜的比10%,它的成本 企業借錢在英國的成本

  • or the 24.99 percent it cost me to borrow money on my credit card. And because Dutch

    或24.99%的費用,我用信用卡借錢。因為荷蘭人

  • debt was so much cheaper, they could invest two and a half times as much in pretty much

    債務是如此的便宜,他們可以在幾乎所有的投資中投資2.5倍的金額。

  • anything than the English could, including, like, an army and a navy, and this gave the

    比英國人能做的任何事,包括,比如,一支陸軍和一支海軍,而這給了英國人一個很好的機會

  • Dutch a huge head start over their rivals.

    荷蘭人比他們的對手有很大的優勢。

  • So one reason the interest rates were low is because the companies were healthy and

    所以,利率低的一個原因是,公司很健康,而且。

  • they tended to pay people back. But another is that normal Dutch people were already used

    他們往往會還人錢財。但另一個原因是,正常的荷蘭人已經習慣了。

  • to investing their money in bonds that had been issued for land reclamation projects,

    將其資金投資於為填海工程發行的債券。

  • the famous dykes and windmills that turned land below sea level into fields where you

    著名的堤壩和風車,把海平面以下的土地變成了田地,在這裡你可以看到你的生活。

  • could grow tulips, or maybe something else, but all they ever grow is tulips.

    可以種鬱金香,也可以種其他東西,但他們只種鬱金香。

  • Like according to business historian William Bernstein, the tradition of investing in bonds,

    像根據商業歷史學家威廉-伯恩斯坦的說法,投資債券的傳統。

  • quote "carried over into trade: after 1600 Dutch citizens would consider it just as natural

    quote "延續到貿易中:1600年後,荷蘭公民會認為這也是很自然的。

  • to own a fractional share in a trading vessel to the Baltic or the Spice Islands."

    擁有一艘前往波羅的海或香料群島的貿易船的部分股份。

  • And a fractional share is another really interesting idea embraced by the Dutch, that allowed merchants

    零碎股份是荷蘭人接受的另一個非常有趣的想法,它允許商人們...

  • to bear greater risks by purchasing smaller percentage shares in business ventures. Like,

    通過購買較小比例的商業企業股份來承擔更大的風險。像。

  • it's much better to own a tenth of ten ships than it is to own all of one ship, because

    擁有十艘船的十分之一比擁有一艘船的全部要好得多,因為

  • the loss of a single trading ship won't, like, ruin you. And Dutch business people also enthusiastically

    一艘商船的損失不會,毀了你。而荷蘭商人也熱衷於

  • invested in futures markets, guessing what the price of pepper would be six months or

    投資於期貨市場,猜測半年或半年後辣椒的價格會是多少。

  • a year from now, and they created new financial instruments that could be bought and sold,

    一年後,他們創造了可以買賣的新金融工具。

  • and merchants purchased maritime insurance, which further lowered their risk. And lower

    和商戶購買了海上保險,進一步降低了風險。而降低

  • risk means you could invest more of your capital until eventually you have a completely efficient

    風險意味著你可以投入更多的資本,直到最終你有一個完全有效的。

  • market and everything is perfect

    市場,萬事大吉

  • --until the 2008 crash.

    --直到2008年的崩盤。

  • Wait, what were we talking about?

    等等,我們剛才在說什麼?

  • The Dutch financial system and its corporations were simply better than their competitors,

    荷蘭的金融體系及其公司根本就比競爭對手強。

  • and that's why they seized the lion's share of the trading business

    這就是為什麼他們奪取了大部分的貿易業務。

  • -- but that isn't the whole story.

    -- 但這並不是故事的全部。

  • Like, one reason the VOC was so successful was government sponsorship and centralization.

    就像,VOC如此成功的原因之一就是政府的贊助和集權。

  • The VOC had been chartered by the States General, and it could count on the Dutch government

    VOC已經得到了州長的特許,它可以依靠荷蘭政府。

  • to back it up with money and military support.

    用金錢和軍事支持來支持它。

  • There's another benefit to being sponsored by your government, which is that it's very

    有'的另一個好處是由你的政府贊助,這是非常'的。

  • hard for competition to emerge, because it isn't sponsored by your government. For instance,

    很難出現競爭,因為它不是由你的政府贊助。比如說。

  • in Indonesia the VOC had a single governor general managing operations, while the British

    在印度尼西亞,VOC有一個總督管理業務,而英國人則有一個總督。

  • East India Company was more of like a collection of trading posts, each competing with each

    東印度公司更像是一個貿易站的集合,每個貿易站都在相互競爭。

  • other for a share of the spices. Competition may bring down prices for consumers, but it

    爭奪香料的份額。競爭可能會使消費者的價格下降,但也會使消費者的價格下降。

  • also brings down profits for businesses.

    也為企業帶來了利潤的下降。

  • In 1605, the VOC realized that if it really wanted to maximize its profits, it would need

    1605年,VOC意識到,如果它真的想實現利潤最大化,就需要

  • a monopoly of the world's spice trade, and to do that, they would need permanent bases

    壟斷世界香料貿易,而要做到這一點,他們將需要永久基地。

  • in Indonesia. Initially, they got spices by trading for them with the people who grew

    在印度尼西亞。起初,他們通過與種植香料的人交易來獲得香料。

  • them, especially with the inhabitants of the Banda Islands, which was the only place where

    特別是班達群島的居民,那裡是唯一一個能讓他們有更多機會接觸到他們的地方。

  • nutmeg was grown. But again, like, trading in a fair and equitable manner is no way to

    肉豆蔻的種植。但又喜歡,公平公正的交易方式是沒有辦法

  • maximize profits.

    利潤最大化。

  • So at first the Bandinese welcomed the Dutch, because they were much more laid-back in terms

    所以一開始班迪恩人很歡迎荷蘭人,因為他們更悠閒,在...

  • of religion than the Portuguese, but very quickly the Dutch tricked them into signing

    但很快,荷蘭人就騙他們簽署了一份協議。

  • exclusive trade agreements, which the Bandinese were almost certain to violate, and then when

    排他性貿易協定,萬邦人幾乎肯定會違反,然後當

  • they did violate them, ehh, it didn't go well.

    他們確實違反了他們,ehh,它沒有'不順利。

  • In 1609 the Bandinese were like, "No, you don't understand, like, we need trade for

    在1609年,Bandinese人就像,"不,你不明白,就像,我們需要貿易的。

  • food," and the Dutch were like, "But you promised!", and the islanders killed 47 Dutch soldiers

    島民們殺死了47名荷蘭阿兵哥,他們的食物,"荷蘭人就像,"但你答應了!"。

  • and officers in the ensuing fight.

    和軍官在隨後的戰鬥中。

  • The Dutch killed far more Bandinese, who were eventually subdued and agreed to a nutmeg

    荷蘭人殺了更多的萬邦人,他們最終被制服,並同意了肉豆蔻。

  • monopoly with the Dutch, although they continued to secretly trade with the English.

    與荷蘭人壟斷,儘管他們繼續與英國人祕密貿易。

  • And after all this, by 1612, Jan Pieterszoon Coen became the dominant force in Dutch Indonesia.

    而在這一切之後,到了1612年,揚-皮特宗-庫恩成為荷屬印度尼西亞的主導力量。

  • He was an accountant by training, but also a ruthless military leader, who is largely

    他是個會計出身,但也是個冷酷無情的軍事領袖,他在很大程度上。

  • responsible for the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade, and also for its really terrible

    負責荷蘭香料貿易的壟斷,也負責其真正可怕的。

  • relations with the British, and also for, like, you know, certain crimes against humanity.

    與英國人的關係,也為,像,你知道, 某些危害人類罪。

  • Coen brought about the shift in VOC policy, away from straightforward trade and toward

    Coen帶來了VOC政策的轉變,從直接的貿易轉向了

  • monopoly of both shipping and production of spices. He also made it clear that this trade

    壟斷了香料的運輸和生產。他還明確表示,這種貿易

  • needed to be based on military force.

    需要以軍事力量為基礎。

  • He wrote, "Your Honors should know by experience that trade in Asia must be driven and maintained

    他寫道:"quot;閣下根據經驗應該知道,亞洲的貿易必須由人來推動和維持。

  • under the protection and favor of your Honors' own weapons, and that the weapons must be

    在閣下的保護和恩惠下'自己的武器,而且這些武器必須是。

  • paid for by the profits from the trade, so that we cannot carry on trade without war,

    由貿易利潤支付,所以我們不能在沒有戰爭的情況下進行貿易。

  • nor war without trade."

    也不是沒有貿易的戰爭.&quot。

  • There is no trade without war, nor war without trade -- that's something to think about.

    沒有戰爭就沒有貿易,沒有貿易就沒有戰爭------這是值得思考的問題。

  • Anyway, Coen