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  • We live in difficult and challenging

    我們生活在這艱難而極具挑戰性的

  • economic times, of course.

    經濟時代中, 當然

  • And one of the first victims

    在這樣的情況下

  • of difficult economic times,

    首當其衝受害的一環

  • I think, is public spending of any kind,

    莫過於任何種類的公共支出

  • but certainly in the firing line at the moment

    但明顯地被猛烈抨擊的

  • is public spending for science,

    是科學領域上的公共支出

  • and particularly curiosity-led science

    尤其是純好奇心驅使的科學

  • and exploration.

    和探索

  • So I want to try and convince you in about 15 minutes

    我希望在接下來的15分鐘內

  • that that's a ridiculous

    試著說服大家

  • and ludicrous thing to do.

    削減科研開支是荒謬和不合理的

  • But I think to set the scene,

    為我的論述定調

  • I want to show -- the next slide is not my attempt

    我想給大家看張投影片 --

  • to show the worst TED slide in the history of TED,

    我無意播放這TED有史以來最糟的投影片 --

  • but it is a bit of a mess.

    但它實在是有點混亂

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But actually, it's not my fault; it's from the Guardian newspaper.

    這是來自英國衛報(The Guardian)

  • And it's actually a beautiful demonstration

    對於科學研究支出

  • of how much science costs.

    的一個精彩的呈現

  • Because, if I'm going to make the case

    因為,如果我要建立

  • for continuing to spend on curiosity-driven science and exploration,

    在好奇驅使的科研及探索上繼續投資的論點

  • I should tell you how much it costs.

    我就該解釋其支出佔比

  • So this is a game called "spot the science budgets."

    所以來玩個"尋找科研預算"的遊戲

  • This is the U.K. government spend.

    這是英國政府每年總支出

  • You see there, it's about 620 billion a year.

    這裡,大概一年6200億英鎊

  • The science budget is actually --

    其中用於科學的預算是 -

  • if you look to your left, there's a purple set of blobs

    在左手邊,看到那紫色的圓圈團

  • and then yellow set of blobs.

    以及下面黃色的圓圈團

  • And it's one of the yellow set of blobs

    科研的預算是黃色圓圈團中的一小圈

  • around the big yellow blob.

    其中大的黃色圓圈

  • It's about 3.3 billion pounds per year

    只佔了大約每年33億

  • out of 620 billion.

    是6200億的一小部分

  • That funds everything in the U.K.

    那包括所有英國科學研究支出

  • from medical research, space exploration,

    由醫療研究、太空探索、

  • where I work, at CERN in Geneva, particle physics,

    粒子物理 --- 我在日內瓦CERN的工作、

  • engineering, even arts and humanities,

    工程學,甚至藝術和人文,

  • funded from the science budget,

    都是由科學研究預算支出的

  • which is that 3.3 billion, that little, tiny yellow blob

    就只有33億,那小小的黃色圈圈

  • around the orange blob at the top left of the screen.

    繞著左上角橘色的圈圈團

  • So that's what we're arguing about.

    這就是我們爭議的焦點

  • That percentage, by the way, is about the same

    還有,此佔比與其他國家作比較如

  • in the U.S. and Germany and France.

    美國,德國,法國的

  • R&D in total in the economy,

    也是差不多

  • publicly funded, is about

    以公共經費支出佔了

  • 0.6 percent of GDP.

    約國內生產總額的0.6%

  • So that's what we're arguing about.

    這就是我們爭議的焦點

  • The first thing I want to say,

    我想說的第一件事

  • and this is straight from "Wonders of the Solar System,"

    取自BBC專輯"太陽系的奇蹟"

  • is that our exploration of the solar system and the universe

    就是從我們對太陽系和宇宙的探索之中

  • has shown us that it is indescribably beautiful.

    得知宇宙是筆墨無法形容的那般美麗

  • This is a picture that actually was sent back

    這幅照片是

  • by the Cassini space probe around Saturn,

    在我們完成"太陽系的奇蹟"的拍攝後

  • after we'd finished filming "Wonders of the Solar System."

    卡西尼(Cassini)太空船才從土星傳回地球的

  • So it isn't in the series.

    所以在專輯內沒有

  • It's of the moon Enceladus.

    這是土星的土衛二: "恩克拉多斯"(Enceladus)

  • So that big sweeping, white

    那又大又白

  • sphere in the corner is Saturn,

    在左下角的圓圈就是土星

  • which is actually in the background of the picture.

    在這幅照片裡面比較像是背景

  • And that crescent there is the moon Enceladus,

    那邊的彎月就是"恩克拉多斯“

  • which is about as big as the British Isles.

    大概有英倫群島那般大

  • It's about 500 kilometers in diameter.

    直徑有五百公里左右

  • So, tiny moon.

    很小的月亮,是吧

  • What's fascinating and beautiful ...

    他美麗和引人入勝的地方

  • this an unprocessed picture, by the way, I should say,

    對了,要提一下,這是一張未經處理的照片

  • it's black and white, straight from Saturnian orbit.

    從土星軌道拍下來的黑白照片

  • What's beautiful is, you can probably see on the limb there

    它最美麗的地方,是在"恩克拉多斯"下方

  • some faint, sort of,

    有一些朦朧的

  • wisps of almost smoke

    類似輕煙一般的東西

  • rising up from the limb.

    從彎月下方冒出

  • This is how we visualize that in "Wonders of the Solar System."

    這是我們在”太陽系的奇蹟“中,對這冒煙地帶做的一個虛擬影像

  • It's a beautiful graphic.

    很美,是吧。

  • What we found out were that those faint wisps

    根據我們的發現,那些輕煙

  • are actually fountains of ice

    原來是一個冰噴泉群

  • rising up from the surface of this tiny moon.

    從這細小的月亮上冒起

  • That's fascinating and beautiful in itself,

    這種景象本身就是美麗和引人入勝

  • but we think that the mechanism

    但我們如果想像一下這景象背後的原理

  • for powering those fountains

    噴泉群背後的動力

  • requires there to be lakes of liquid water

    需要的是在這個月亮的下面

  • beneath the surface of this moon.

    很多液態水做成的湖泊

  • And what's important about that

    重要的是

  • is that, on our planet, on Earth,

    在地球上

  • wherever we find liquid water,

    當我們發現有水的地方

  • we find life.

    便能發現生命

  • So, to find strong evidence

    因此 能找到有水的證據

  • of liquid, pools of liquid, beneath the surface of a moon

    在一距離地球7億5千萬英哩之外

  • 750 million miles away from the Earth

    更是從一衛星的地表之下

  • is really quite astounding.

    就是一件令人振奮的事

  • So what we're saying, essentially,

    要強調的是

  • is maybe that's a habitat for life in the solar system.

    那可能是在太陽系中另一生命的棲息地

  • Well, let me just say, that was a graphic. I just want to show this picture.

    讓我呈現另一張圖片

  • That's one more picture of Enceladus.

    “恩克拉多斯”的另一張照片

  • This is when Cassini flew beneath Enceladus.

    這是當"卡西尼"飛掠過“恩克拉多斯”所攝

  • So it made a very low pass,

    它低空掠過

  • just a few hundred kilometers above the surface.

    距離地面只有幾百公里

  • And so this, again, a real picture of the ice fountains rising up into space,

    所以這是一個確實的照片 顯示冰泉湧向宇宙

  • absolutely beautiful.

    真是美

  • But that's not the prime candidate for life in the solar system.

    而這還不是太陽系中,探索生命的主要研究對象

  • That's probably this place,

    而是這個

  • which is a moon of Jupiter, Europa.

    是木星系統中的 木衛二"Europa"

  • And again, we had to fly to the Jovian system

    再次的 我們得飛進木星系統

  • to get any sense that this moon, as most moons,

    去驗證這個衛星 就像大多數的衛星

  • was anything other than a dead ball of rock.

    都只是一個無生命跡象的大石球體

  • It's actually an ice moon.

    而它實際是個冰凍的月球

  • So what you're looking at is the surface of the moon Europa,

    現在看到的是木衛二的表面

  • which is a thick sheet of ice, probably a hundred kilometers thick.

    是幾百公里深的冰原層

  • But by measuring the way that

    根據研究

  • Europa interacts

    木衛二與木星的

  • with the magnetic field of Jupiter,

    磁場交互作用下

  • and looking at how those cracks in the ice

    長期觀察冰原的裂縫

  • that you can see there on that graphic move around,

    可以見到某些圖案的移動

  • we've inferred very strongly

    我們強烈的相信

  • that there's an ocean of liquid surrounding

    冰原下方是有流動的海洋

  • the entire surface of Europa.

    在整個木衛二的表面下!

  • So below the ice, there's an ocean of liquid around the whole moon.

    也就是整個冰凍的衛星表面下 是有流動的海洋

  • It could be hundreds of kilometers deep, we think.

    我們猜想 是有幾百公里深

  • We think it's saltwater, and that would mean that

    也認為是鹽水 這也說明

  • there's more water on that moon of Jupiter

    木衛二有比地球

  • than there is in all the oceans of the Earth combined.

    還多的海洋

  • So that place, a little moon around Jupiter,

    所以那個木星旁的木衛二

  • is probably the prime candidate

    就是主要的研究對象

  • for finding life on a moon

    期待發現地球以外的

  • or a body outside the Earth, that we know of.

    生命希統

  • Tremendous and beautiful discovery.

    經過了這麼多的探索

  • Our exploration of the solar system

    我們對太陽系的持續探索

  • has taught us that the solar system is beautiful.

    顯示我們的太陽系是如此的美麗

  • It may also have pointed the way to answering

    也試著回答

  • one of the most profound questions that you can possibly ask,

    你會想問的問題

  • which is: "Are we alone in the universe?"

    也就是: "浩瀚的宇宙中, 地球是孤單地有著生命嗎?"

  • Is there any other use to exploration and science,

    純科學探索的用途

  • other than just a sense of wonder?

    除了好奇心, 還有別的嗎?

  • Well, there is.

    還是有的

  • This is a very famous picture

    這是個非常有名的照片

  • taken, actually, on my first Christmas Eve,

    攝於我的第一個聖誕夜

  • December 24th, 1968,

    1968年的12月24日

  • when I was about eight months old.

    當我約8個月大

  • It was taken by Apollo 8

    由阿波羅8號所攝

  • as it went around the back of the moon.

    當它繞到月球背面

  • Earthrise from Apollo 8.

    看到地球升起

  • A famous picture; many people have said that it's the picture

    很多人也說是這張照片

  • that saved 1968,

    救回了在動盪邊緣的

  • which was a turbulent year --

    1968年世界 ---

  • the student riots in Paris,

    巴黎的學生暴動、

  • the height of the Vietnam War.

    越戰的高峰期,

  • The reason many people think that about this picture,

    這張照片所啟發的

  • and Al Gore has said it many times, actually, on the stage at TED,

    也是高爾(Al Gore)在TED一直強調的

  • is that this picture, arguably, was

    這張照片是

  • the beginning of the environmental movement.

    地球環境保護的開始

  • Because, for the first time,

    因為是第一次讓我們

  • we saw our world,

    看到我們的世界

  • not as a solid, immovable,

    不再是堅不可摧

  • kind of indestructible place,

    無法動搖的環境

  • but as a very small, fragile-looking world

    而是一個渺小易碎的星球

  • just hanging against the blackness of space.

    掛在漆黑的宇宙當中

  • What's also not often said

    但卻不會聯想到

  • about the space exploration, about the Apollo program,

    是因太空探索或是阿波羅計畫

  • is the economic contribution it made.

    而帶動的經濟貢獻

  • I mean while you can make arguments that it was wonderful

    我的意思是 我們會讚賞這景象的美麗

  • and a tremendous achievement

    以及偉大的成就

  • and delivered pictures like this,

    傳送的照片等等

  • it cost a lot, didn't it?

    但是花費不貲, 不是嗎?

  • Well, actually, many studies have been done

    實際上也做了許多

  • about the economic effectiveness,

    關於經濟上成效的研究

  • the economic impact of Apollo.

    像是阿波羅計畫之成本效益分析

  • The biggest one was in 1975 by Chase Econometrics.

    最大規模的是"大通計量經濟預測公司"於1975的研究

  • And it showed that for every $1 spent on Apollo,

    顯示花在阿波羅計畫上的每一美元

  • 14 came back into the U.S. economy.

    對美國經濟有著14美元的效益

  • So the Apollo program paid for itself

    也就是說阿波羅計畫支撐其所有花費

  • in inspiration,

    同時啟發了

  • in engineering, achievement

    工程的成就

  • and, I think, in inspiring young scientists and engineers

    我認為,也啟發了年輕的科學家與工程師

  • 14 times over.

    以14倍之多的方式

  • So exploration can pay for itself.

    所以科學探索本身就是能打平的

  • What about scientific discovery?

    更不用提科學發現的成果

  • What about driving innovation?

    或是刺激更多的創新

  • Well, this looks like a picture of virtually nothing.

    這張照片看起來似乎沒什麼重要

  • What it is, is a picture of the spectrum

    它實際是氫原子的

  • of hydrogen.

    放射光譜

  • See, back in the 1880s, 1890s,

    回溯到1880 1890年代

  • many scientists, many observers,

    許多科學家觀測家

  • looked at the light given off from atoms.

    研究諸多原子的放射光譜

  • And they saw strange pictures like this.

    得到許多像這樣的奇怪照片

  • What you're seeing when you put it through a prism

    我們看到的是經由菱鏡折射

  • is that you heat hydrogen up and it doesn't just glow

    得出氫原子加熱所放出的光線

  • like a white light,

    像是白光

  • it just emits light at particular colors,

    但其實是特定顏色的光

  • a red one, a light blue one, some dark blue ones.

    紅光 青藍光 與一些深藍光

  • Now that led to an understanding of atomic structure

    也得到些對原子結構的理解

  • because the way that's explained

    是如此解釋的

  • is atoms are a single nucleus

    原子有著單一原子核

  • with electrons going around them.

    另外有電子繞著原子核

  • And the electrons can only be in particular places.

    而電子只能在特定軌道

  • And when they jump up to the next place they can be,

    當電子跳到更高能階的軌道

  • and fall back down again,

    也能降回較低軌域

  • they emit light at particular colors.

    同時方出特定能量(顏色)的光

  • And so the fact that atoms, when you heat them up,

    所以當加熱的原子是放光線

  • only emit light at very specific colors,

    只有特定的顏色光譜

  • was one of the key drivers

    而這也是當時重要的刺激

  • that led to the development of the quantum theory,

    引導推展出量子理論

  • the theory of the structure of atoms.

    來解釋原子的構造

  • I just wanted to show this picture because this is remarkable.

    我也要放出這張特別的照片

  • This is actually a picture of the spectrum of the Sun.

    這是太陽的放射光譜

  • And now, this is a picture of atoms in the Sun's atmosphere

    假設有一種原子在太陽的大氣層中

  • absorbing light.

    吸收光線

  • And again, they only absorb light at particular colors

    所以它只吸收特定顏色

  • when electrons jump up and fall down,

    當電子跳上能階又跳下

  • jump up and fall down.

    跳上又跳下

  • But look at the number of black lines in that spectrum.

    所以從光譜中的黑線比對

  • And the element helium

    早先氦元素便是

  • was discovered just by staring at the light from the Sun

    如此從太陽光譜中發現

  • because some of those black lines were found

    因為這些黑條紋

  • that corresponded to no known element.

    並未能相對應到當時已知的元素

  • And that's why helium's called helium.

    也就是氦的英文名是"Helium"

  • It's called "helios" -- helios from the Sun.

    源自"helios" --- "太陽的"

  • Now, that sounds esoteric,

    聽起來有些深奧

  • and indeed it was an esoteric pursuit,

    而當時的確有些難理解

  • but the quantum theory quickly led

    但是量子理論很快的就推導出

  • to an understanding of the behaviors of electrons in materials

    電子在物質中的行為

  • like silicon, for example.

    以矽為例

  • The way that silicon behaves,

    說明矽的特性

  • the fact that you can build transistors,

    之所以能做出電晶體

  • is a purely quantum phenomenon.

    就純粹是量子效應

  • So without that curiosity-driven

    因此若沒有好奇心的驅使

  • understanding of the structure of atoms,

    想了解原子的結構

  • which led to this rather esoteric theory, quantum mechanics,

    就不會提出當時深奧的理論--- 量子理論

  • then we wouldn't have transistors, we wouldn't have silicon chips,

    就不會有現在的電晶體, 也不會有矽晶片元件

  • we wouldn't have pretty much the basis

    也就不會有現代經濟的

  • of our modern economy.

    基本建構單元

  • There's one more, I think, wonderful twist to that tale.

    再來一個神奇的故事轉折

  • In "Wonders of the Solar System,"

    在"太陽系的奇蹟"專輯中

  • we kept emphasizing the laws of physics are universal.

    我們一直強調物理的基本定理是宇宙通行

  • It's one of the most incredible things about the physics

    這也是物理最不可思議之處

  • and the understanding of nature that you get on Earth,

    在地球上所學的自然知識

  • is you can transport it, not only to the planets,

    能延伸到不只是行星

  • but to the most distant stars and galaxies.

    可以到最遠的星球與銀河

  • And one of the astonishing predictions

    而最驚人的預測就是

  • of quantum mechanics,

    量子力學了

  • just by looking at the structure of atoms --

    光以原子結構來說

  • the same theory that describes transistors --

    就是那解釋電晶體的理論

  • is that there can be no stars in the universe

    能用來預測宇宙中的恆星

  • that have reached the end of their life

    當到達它們的生命末日

  • that are bigger than, quite specifically, 1.4 times the mass of the Sun.

    絕不會有大於1.4倍太陽的質量

  • That's a limit imposed on the mass of stars.

    也就是恆星質量的上限

  • You can work it out on a piece of paper in a laboratory,

    這是可用理論在實驗室中計算得出

  • get a telescope, swing it to the sky,

    再拿個天文望遠鏡對準天空

  • and you find that there are no dead stars

    一樣不會找到一個死恆星

  • bigger than 1.4 times the mass of the Sun.

    會大於太陽質量的1.4倍

  • That's quite an incredible prediction.

    這是個令人叫奇的預測

  • What happens when you have a star that's right on the edge of that mass?

    那麼假使有一個在臨界點的恆星 會如何?

  • Well, this is a picture of it.

    這張照片就是了