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  • Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course World History,

    嗨,我是John Green,這裡是Crash Course世界歷史

  • and today, we're going to talk about Israel and Palestine, hopefully, without a flame war.

    今天我們要來談談以色列和巴勒斯坦,希望不會引起任何紛爭

  • John from the past: Yeah, yeah big ask, Mr. Green,

    過去的John:對,Green 先生,這很難做到

  • I mean, that fight goes back thousands and thousands of years.

    我的意思是,他們之間的衝突要回溯到好幾千年前

  • John: Except, thousands of years ago... there wasn't an Islam yet, so, yeah, no.

    但是,幾千年以前,伊斯蘭教還沒出現

  • Also, let me submit that very little of this conflict between Israel and Palestine over the last several decades

    還有,順提一下,這幾十年以來以色列和巴勒斯坦的衝突

  • has been about, like, theological differences between Islam and Judaism.

    其實跟伊斯蘭教和猶太教的差異沒有什麼關係

  • No one's arguing about whether the most important prophets

    沒有人會爭辯最重要的先知

  • descended from Abraham's son Isaac, or his son Ishmael, right?

    是亞伯拉罕的兒子以薩、還是他另一個兒子以實瑪利的後裔,是吧?

  • It's not about whether to fast during Yom Kippur or Ramadan. It's about land.

    這也跟他們是在猶太的贖罪日還是伊斯蘭的齋月齋戒無關。領土才是關鍵因素

  • Portraying the conflict as eternal or as religious makes it feel intractable in a way that frankly, it isn't.

    如果把這個衝突描述成是永無止盡或和宗教有關的話,會讓問題顯得很棘手,但坦白說事實非如此。

  • So instead, let's begin as most historians do in the late 19th century.

    所以,就像大部分史學家一樣,我們從19世紀晚期開始談起吧

  • And instead of talking about religion,

    與其討論宗教議題

  • let's follow the lead of historians like James Gelvin and discuss competing nationalisms.

    讓我們跟隨歷史學家James Gelvin的腳步,來探討民族主義的抗爭

  • Ok, so in the late 19th century, the Ottoman Empire ruled over what we now know as Palestine.

    在19世紀晚期,鄂圖曼土耳其帝國統治了巴勒斯坦地區

  • The population there, according to Ottoman records from 1878, was 87% Muslim, 10% Christian and 3% Jewish.

    當時的人口,根據鄂圖曼1878年的統計,有87%的穆斯林、10%的基督徒和3%的猶太人

  • Everybody spoke Arabic as the daily language, and in Jerusalem the religious populations were roughly equal.

    人們都用阿拉伯文溝通,而在耶路撒冷宗教人口的比例也差不多等同於那個數據

  • To give you a sense of life in Ottoman Palestine,

    讓你對鄂圖曼時期的巴勒斯坦先有個概念

  • an Arab Orthodox Christian musician named Wasif Jawhariyyeh

    有個叫做Wasif Jawhariyyeh信仰東正教的阿拉伯音樂家

  • grew up in Jerusalem in the first decade of the 20th century learning the Quran in school

    二十世紀的頭十年在耶路撒冷長大,在學校學習可蘭經

  • and celebrating both Passover and Eid with his Jewish and Muslim neighbours.

    並和他的猶太和穆斯林鄰居一起慶祝逾越節及開齋節

  • Ottoman Palestine was, in short, a place in which people of different religious faiths lived peacefully together.

    簡言之,鄂圖曼時期的巴勒斯坦是一個不同宗教可以和平共處的地方

  • Alright, let's go to the Thought Bubble. The late 19th century was the Golden Age of nationalism in Europe,

    好,讓我們看一下思想泡泡。19世紀晚期是歐洲國族主義的黃金時代

  • and no place was crazier than the Habsburg Austro-Hungarian Empire

    沒有一個地區比哈布斯堡皇室的奧匈帝國還要瘋狂

  • in which at least 10 different nations all wanted their own state.

    裡頭有至少十個民族想要成為獨立國家

  • And in that hyper-nationalistic empire lived a Jewish journalist named Theodor Herzl

    在那個過多國族主義的帝國裡有位叫做Theodor Herzl的猶太記者

  • who had hoped that Jews could assimilate into European nations

    他曾經希望猶太人可以和歐洲民族同化

  • but soon became convinced that the Jewish people needed to leave Europe and settle in their own state.

    但後來被說服猶太人應要離開歐洲建立自己的國家

  • The concept of Jewish nationalism came to be known as Zionism.

    這個猶太式的國族主義被稱作猶太復國主義

  • It's important to keep in mind that most Zionists were secular Jews,

    很重要的是,這些復國主義者大多為非教徒猶太人

  • so they imagined Israel as a state for Jews more than a Jewish state. In 1917, the British government,

    所以他們覺得以色列是一個猶太民族的國家而非猶太教國家。在1917年,英國政府

  • hoping to gain the support of Jewish people, issued the Balfour Declaration, promising, quote,

    在期望得到猶太人的支持下,發布巴爾福宣言,承諾要

  • "The establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people,"

    「猶太人在巴勒斯坦建立一個家園」

  • a bold promise considering that Palestine was still technically Ottoman,

    這是個很唐突的承諾,因為嚴格來說巴勒斯坦仍為鄂圖曼所屬

  • as they hadn't yet lost World War One.

    他們還沒有在第一次世界大戰中戰敗

  • Of course, they would soon, but it turned out that the British were overpromisers when it came to Palestine,

    當然,當時他們快了,但這顯示英國總對巴勒斯坦議題做出太超過的承諾

  • because a year before the Balfour Declaration, the British had secretly promised the French

    因為在巴爾福宣言一年之前,英國已和法國秘密協商

  • that they would divide up the Arab territories and the Brits would keep Palestine.

    他們要一起劃分阿拉伯的領土,且英國要佔有巴勒斯坦

  • Furthermore, in 1915, other British officials had promised the ruler of Mecca, Sharif Hussein,

    再者,在1915年,另一個英國官員也答應麥加的統治者,Sharif Hussein

  • that he would rule over an Arab state including Palestine if he led an Arab revolt against Ottoman rule,

    如果他發起反抗鄂圖曼的起義的話,他就可以統治一大塊阿拉伯地區

  • which Hussein promptly did. So basically

    Hussein隨即就照做了。所以基本上

  • the Brits had promised Palestine to the Meccans, to themselves, and to the Zionists.

    英國曾答應過要把巴勒斯坦給麥加人、他們自己及想復國的猶太人

  • What could go wrong?

    這會產生什麼問題呢?

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble. So shortly after the end of the war, the British established a colony in Palestine

    謝啦,思想泡泡。因此很快地在大戰結束之後,英國即在巴勒斯坦建立殖民地

  • with the idea that they'd rule until the Palestinians were ready to govern themselves,

    想在該區執政直到巴勒斯坦人已準備好治理自己為止

  • at which point the people living in Palestine were like, "Well, now seems good,"

    當下巴勒斯坦居民覺得:「現在似乎是個好時機」

  • and the British were like, "Yeah, but maybe not just yet."

    但英國人說:「時機應該還沒到」

  • Meanwhile, the British established separate institutions for Christians, Jews, and Muslims,

    同時,英國建立了基督徒、猶太教徒和穆斯林的分離制度

  • making it difficult for Palestinian Christians and Muslims to cooperate

    使巴勒斯坦的基督徒和穆斯林難以合作

  • and easier for the British to, quote, "divide and rule" the inhabitants of Palestine. Again, what could go wrong?

    卻方便了英國人分化和管理巴勒斯坦居民。同樣地,這會產生什麼問題?

  • Meanwhile, the British did attempt to honor the Balfour Declaration's promise to, quote,

    此時,英國的確試圖要施行巴爾福宣言的承諾,言

  • "facilitate Jewish immigration under suitable conditions." Between 1920 and 1939,

    「在適當情況下要促進猶太移民。」 在1920和1939之間,

  • the Jewish population of Palestine increased by over 320,000 people.

    巴勒斯坦的猶太人口就增加超過32萬人

  • In fact, by 1938, Jews were just under 30% of the population of Palestine.

    事實上,在1938年以前,猶太人在巴勒斯坦的人口比例裡還佔不到30%

  • And the growing Jewish population focused on purchasing land from absentee non-Palestinian Arab landowners

    這些成長的猶太人口致力於購買非巴勒斯坦籍的阿拉伯地主的土地

  • and then evicting Palestinian farmers who were living and working there.

    再驅逐居住和工作於那些土地上的巴勒斯坦農夫

  • By controlling both the land and the labor, they hoped to establish a more secure community within Palestine,

    藉由控制土地和勞動人口,他們希望在巴勒斯坦境內打造一個更安全的社群

  • but of course, these practices heightened tensions between Jewish people and Arab Palestinians

    但當然,這些措施反而提升了猶太和巴勒斯坦阿拉伯人之間的緊張

  • between the 1920s and the 1930s. Along the way, Palestinian Arabs

    在1920到1930之間。隨著時間過去,巴勒斯坦的阿拉伯人

  • began to think of themselves as the Palestinian nation, and that growing sense of nationalism erupted in 1936,

    開始視自己為巴勒斯坦的民族,這日益漸深的民族情感終於在1936年爆發

  • when the Palestinians revolted against the British.

    他們掀起叛亂反抗英國統治

  • With the help of Jewish militias, the British brutally suppressed the Palestinian revolt,

    在猶太民兵的幫助下,英國狠狠地鎮壓住巴勒斯坦人的叛亂

  • but in the aftermath, the British issued a white paper, limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine,

    但是事後,英國卻發表白皮書限制猶太人移民到巴勒斯坦

  • and calling for the establishment of a joint Arab and Jewish state in Palestine within ten years.

    並呼籲十年以內在巴勒斯坦建立阿拉伯人和猶太人共同治理的國家

  • This managed to leave no one happy.

    這讓任何一方都很不開心

  • The Zionists were angry at Britain for limiting Jewish immigration

    復國主義的支持者對英國限制猶太移民非常不滿

  • at a time when Jews particularly needed to leave Europe,

    特別是在猶太人需要離開歐洲的時候

  • and the Arab Palestinians were unhappy about the prospect of waiting ten years for a state.

    巴勒斯坦的阿拉伯人則不滿還要再等十年才能成立國家

  • And then came World War II, which was actually quite a peaceful time in Palestine.

    之後第二次世界大戰來臨,當時巴勒斯坦地區是很平靜的

  • But then it ended, and tensions resumed, and the British realized

    但在戰爭結束後,緊張情勢又開始了,英國意識到

  • that colonies like Palestine were far more trouble than they were worth,

    那些如巴勒斯坦的殖民地問題實在太麻煩,不值得處理

  • so they handed the issue of Palestine over to the newly created United Nations.

    所以他們把問題丟給剛創立的聯合國

  • They were like, "Oh hey there, United Nations! For your first problem..."

    他們就像這樣:「喔嗨!聯合國這裡是你第一個要處理的問題...」

  • So in November of 1947, the United Nations voted to partition Palestine into separate

    於是在1947年11月,聯合國投票通過將巴勒斯坦劃分為

  • Palestinian and Jewish states. The Partition Plan called for two states roughly equal in size,

    巴勒斯坦和猶太人的兩個國家。這個分化計畫聲稱兩國的面積是一樣大的

  • but the borders looked like a jigsaw puzzle.

    但他們的邊界看起來就像拼圖一樣

  • I mean, you do not look at this map and think, "Yeah, that's gonna work!"

    我的意思是,你看到地圖的時候並不會想說:「嗯!這是行得通的!」

  • Sure enough, it didn't, and soon after the plan was announced, the cleverly named 1948

    無庸置疑,他是行不通的。這個計畫宣布不久後,巧妙命名的1948年

  • Arab-Israeli War broke out, with Israel on the one side and the Palestinians and many Arab states on the other.

    以巴戰爭一觸即發,其中一方是以色列,另一方則是巴勒斯坦和許多其他阿拉伯國家

  • The Israelis won, and when an armistice was signed in 1949,

    以色列戰勝了,並在1949年簽訂的停戰協議中

  • Israel occupied a third more land than they would have had under the UN proposal.

    他們多佔領了在聯合國提案中三分之一的土地

  • Meanwhile, Jordan controlled and later annexed the West Bank and the old city of Jerusalem,

    同時間,約旦接管並吞併約旦河河西區域及古城耶路撒冷

  • and Egypt controlled the Gaza strip.

    而埃及佔領加薩走廊

  • Over 700,000 Palestinians fled their homes and became refugees in the surrounding Arab countries.

    超過70萬的巴勒斯坦人逃離他們的家園,成為周邊阿拉伯國家的難民

  • To Israelis, this was was the beginning of their nation;

    對以色列人來說,這是他們國家的嶄新開始

  • to the Palestinians, it was the nakba, the catastrophe, as they became stateless.

    對巴勒斯坦人而言,這是一場浩劫、一場災難,因為他們失去了家園

  • Over the next 18 years, nothing changed territorially,

    在這之後的18年,領土沒有任何變更

  • and then, in 1967, Israel and several Arab states went to war again.

    1967年,以色列和其他阿拉伯國家又陷入戰爭

  • It was called the Six-Days War because -- get this -- it lasted six days. Israel won,

    這次被稱作六日戰爭,因為他們打了六天。以色列贏了

  • and then gained control over the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights.

    並且獲得了約旦河河西地區、加薩走廊、西奈半島和戈蘭高地

  • So the 1947 proposal looked like this; by 1967, things looked like this.

    1947年的提案看起來像這樣;到了1967年,則是長這樣

  • Then the UN passed Resolution 242 - man, they are good at naming resolutions! -

    接著,聯合國通過第242條決議 -天呀!他們真是超會為決議命名的!-

  • which outlined a basic framework for achieving peace, including Israel withdrawing

    擬定出一個達成和平的基本架構,包括以色列放棄

  • from the territory acquired in the war, and all participants recognizing

    在戰爭中贏來的土地,及所有會員國了解

  • the rights of both a Palestinian and an Israeli state to exist. This of course did not happen.

    巴勒斯坦和猶太兩國生存所需的權利。當然,這不會發生

  • After the war, the broader Israeli-Arab conflict morphed into a more specific Israeli-Palestinian conflict,

    戰爭過後,原本範圍廣大的以阿衝突漸漸剩下以巴兩國持續鬥爭

  • and this is a nice moment to note that not all Muslims are Arabs, not all Arabs are Palestinians,

    這是個很好的契機來提醒我們,並非所有穆斯林都是阿拉伯人,也不是所有阿拉伯人都是巴勒斯坦人

  • and not all Palestinians are Muslims. Like, there's a significant Christian minority of Palestinians, for instance.

    也並非所有巴勒斯坦人都是穆斯林。好比說,巴勒斯坦人中有一群值得注意的基督徒小眾,因

  • Palestinian is a word used to describe the ethnic identity of those who have historically lived in Palestine.

    「巴勒斯坦人」這個字是用來形容歷史上所有居住於巴勒斯坦的人

  • There were, for instance, lots of Christians in the Palestinian Liberation Organization, or PLO,

    舉例來說,有很多基督徒都有參與巴勒斯坦解放組織,簡稱PLO

  • formed in 1964 and led by Yasser Arafat. The PLO oversaw guerrilla groups that attacked civilians,

    是一個由Yasser Arafat在1964年創立的組織。PLO幫忙監視會攻擊平民的游擊隊

  • but also used nonviolent approaches to try to achieve a Palestinian state. And meanwhile,

    也試圖用非暴力的方式促成巴勒斯坦建國。但同時

  • the Israeli government began to establish Jewish settlements in what had been Palestinian territory,

    以色列政府開始在巴勒斯坦領土上建立猶太人聚落

  • including East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip.

    包括東印度撒冷、約旦河河西區域和加薩走廊

  • There are now over 350,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, and over 200,000 in East Jerusalem,

    目前有超過35萬猶太人定居於河西地區,超過20萬人居住在東耶路撒冷

  • and these settlements are illegal, according to international law, but Israel counters by saying

    根據國際法,這些聚落是非法的,但以色列反對這種說法,說

  • that they aren't really illegal because Palestine isn't really a state.

    他們沒有違背法律,因為巴勒斯坦不是真正的國家

  • By the late 1980s, Palestinians launched the first intifada, which literally means "shaking off."

    在1980晚期,巴勒斯坦人發動第一次大起義,字面上來說是擺脫的意思

  • And this began with, like, boycotts of Israeli products and services and refusing to pay Israeli taxes,

    由抵制以色列商品、服務和拒絕繳稅開始

  • but when the Israeli armed forces cracked down on protesters, violence ensued.

    但當以色列軍隊鎮壓反抗者時,他們便開始使用暴力

  • And the first intifada also saw the founding of Hamas,

    這個大起義也促成哈瑪斯的誕生

  • which launched the first suicide bombing against Israel in 1993.

    他們在1993年發起第一件反抗以色列的自殺炸彈事件

  • Hamas gained support partly because of its militancy,

    因為好戰性格,哈瑪斯只得到部分的支持

  • but mostly because of its social welfare projects in Gaza. It built and staffed schools, mosques, and clinics.

    但多半是因為它在加薩實施的社會福利。他們建立學校、提供教職、建立清真寺及診所

  • The most important legacy of the First Intifada was the emergence of peace talks between Palestinians and Israelis.

    第一次大起義最重要的效應是巴勒斯坦和以色列的和談

  • This led to the Oslo Accords,

    這促成了奧斯陸協議

  • But there were a lot of issues to resolve- I mean, putting aside the question of, like,

    但還有很多問題需要解決。我的意思是,先把某些問題放一邊,像是

  • how to make two states that don't look like a jigsaw puzzle. There was the question of the Jewish settlement,

    該如何讓兩國界線不那麼曲折。那裏依舊有很多問題,像是猶太聚落

  • and the right for Palestinian refugees and their descendants to return to Palestine.

    巴勒斯坦人的人權、和他們的後代是否可以重回巴勒斯坦的問題

  • Water rights, which are a big deal in that part of the world, and so on.

    還有用水權,在那個區域是很棘手的議題,及其他等等的

  • It's very complicated! So then came the Clinton talks. Oh, it's time for the Open Letter!

    非常複雜!然後柯林頓終於說話了。喔!是該發表公開信的時候了!

  • But first, let's see what's inside of the globe. Oh, look! It's a collection of

    不過首先,我們先看一下這顆地球裡面有什麼。哇,你看!是幾個

  • philandering American presidents. An Open Letter to Bill Clinton:

    會拈花惹草的美國總統!以下是我要給比爾柯林頓的公開信

  • Hey, Bill, so your talks probably came closer than any other time in recent history to

    嘿,比爾,你的發表比近期任何一個都還達到

  • an actual peace deal between the Israelis and the Palestinians. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak

    以色列和巴勒斯坦之間的實質和平。以色列總理Ehud Barak

  • was willing to give up more land currently claimed by Israel than at any other time in the past;

    比起以往,願意放棄更多所擁有的領土

  • even Yasser Arafat was surprised.

    連Yasser Arafat都感到驚訝

  • Although not all the questions got addressed, you were definitely closing in on something.

    雖然不是所有問題都被解決了,但你肯定已經很逼近他們了

  • But in the end, it didn't happen, and since then, not to criticize you, things have gotten kind of worse and worse and worse.

    可是最後,它卻沒有發生。自此,我不是在批評你,但是事態變得更糟

  • Worst of all, that was your big legacy moment. Now

    更糟的是,你造成了很多後續事件。現在

  • all you've got is the conflict in Northern Ireland getting resolved while you were president.

    你唯一得到的就是北愛爾蘭的衝突在你任內被解決了

  • In short, it could have been amazing, but instead it was kind of... neeeeh.

    簡言之,這原本該是一個很棒的事情,但最後卻演變成...呃

  • Kind of like your presidency, actually!

    其實這跟你當總統的狀況一樣耶!

  • At least you always have those vodkas-soaked hugs with Boris Yeltsin to look back on.

    至少你還有與俄國總統Boris Yeltsin深擁這件事值得回顧

  • Best Wishes, John Green.

    最美好的祝福,John Green.

  • So the Clinton talks failed; Ehud Barak's government was undermined. And then, in September of 2000,

    所以柯林頓的談話失敗;而Ehud Barak的政府逐漸衰弱。接著,2000年九月

  • Prime Minister candidate Ariel Sharon led a group of 1,000 armed guards to the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.

    總理候選人Ariel Sharon帶了1000位武裝保全上位在老城耶路撒冷的聖殿山

  • To Muslims, this is known as the Al-Aqsa Mosque, and it's the third-holiest site in Islam,

    對穆斯林而言,它被稱作阿克薩清真寺,是伊斯蘭教裡第三神聖的清真寺

  • behind only the Kaaba in Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque in Medina.

    緊接在麥加的克爾白寺和麥地那的先知寺之後

  • And it's the holiest site in Judaism, so in short, it's a pretty touchy place to march with a thousand armed guards.

    但它也是猶太教最神聖的聖地。簡單來說,帶著1000位武裝保全去那裏還蠻敏感的

  • So the events sparked a massive protest,

    這個事件掀起巨大的抗議

  • which eventually led to the much more violent Second Intifada,

    最終導致更激烈的第二次大起義

  • in which more than three thousand Palestinians and one thousand Israelis were eventually killed.

    造成超過三千位巴勒斯坦人和一千位以色列人身亡

  • In 2002, the Israelis, claiming to act in defense of civilians, began construction of a wall around the West Bank,

    2002年,以色列以保護百姓為由,開始在河西地區蓋起高牆

  • but instead of following the borders established after the 1967 War,

    但卻沒有依照1967年戰後劃分的邊界

  • the barrier was built to include many Israeli settlements on the Israeli side.

    這道牆以內包含了許多以色列邊境的猶太聚落

  • To Israelis, that was about self-defense; to Palestinians, it was an illegal land grab.

    以色列人認為他們是在自保;巴勒斯坦人則認為他們非法侵占土地

  • Then, in 2005, Yasser Arafat died, and in an election shortly thereafter,

    後來,2005年,Yasser Arafat逝世,在不久後的選舉中

  • Hamas won a majority of the parliamentary seats.

    哈瑪斯獲得多數的國會席次

  • Since then, Hamas and the Palestinian Authority have sort of divided how to govern Palestine,

    自此,哈瑪斯和巴勒斯坦當權者在治理問題上產生分歧

  • and it's also sort of been poorly governed.

    而確實巴勒斯坦的政府也做不太好

  • In the past ten years, Hamas has frequently launched rocket attacks into Israel;

    在過去十年,哈瑪斯時常向以色列發動火箭攻擊

  • Israel has responded with extended and extremely violent invasions of Palestinian territory

    以色列則以更加激烈的武力侵略進行反撲

  • that have seen thousands of Palestinians killed, many of them militants, but also many not.

    數以千計的巴勒斯坦人遭到殺害,很多都是軍人,但也有很多不是。

  • Both parties claim to be responding to the provocations of the other, but much of the conflict

    雙方都聲稱是對方先挑釁,但大多數的衝突

  • reflects the consistent failure on all sides to understand the legitimacy of the other's narrative.

    反映出在他們對對方的各種論述都缺乏了解

  • To Palestine, the Palestinian people have been denied a state not just since the formation of Israel,

    對巴勒斯坦來說,他們不只是從以色列剛建國時就否認這個國家

  • but also for decades before that, and now they live under what amounts to a military occupation.

    而在建國數十年以前就不認同,而他們今天卻必須要在武力占領下生活

  • And that's all true. To Israel,

    這都是事實。對以色列而言

  • the Jewish people clearly need a homeland, which the United Nations established.

    猶太人顯然需要一個家園,而且這個家是聯合國建的

  • And they certainly aren't the first nation-state to consolidate and increase their territory via military victory.

    他們顯然不是第一個用武力鞏固和拓展自己領土的國家

  • And they need to protect their nation against the many active threats made against them by their neighbors.

    他們必須保護自己國家、反抗許多來自鄰國的威脅

  • That's also true! It's important to understand

    這也是事實!重要的是,我們必須理解

  • the internal logic of these competing nationalist visions.

    這兩個對抗民族的邏輯觀點為何

  • For both Zionists and Palestinian national visions to eventually work,

    因為猶太復國主義者和巴勒斯坦人的觀點都說得通

  • it's necessary to understand the right of each to exist and the legitimacy of each's historical narrative.

    理解兩方的生存正當性和歷史敘述的合理性是必要的

  • But these problems aren't thousands of years old, and they aren't intractable.

    但這些並不是已延續千年的問題,他們並不會很難處理

  • They emerged in the British Mandatory Period.

    他們是從英國統治時期開始的

  • But let's hope that by understanding this isn't an endless religious war,

    希望透過互相了解,這個宗教戰爭不會永無止盡得打下去

  • that we might be closer to seeing its end. Thanks for watching. I'll see you next week.

    希望我們可以在近期內看到它的落幕。謝謝收看,我們下周再見

  • Crash Course is filmed here in the Chad and Stacy Emigholz studio in Indianapolis, and

    Crash Course 是在印第安納波利斯的Chad and Stacy Emigholz工作室完成的

  • it's made possible by our subscribers on Subbable, so thanks to you all. By the way, if you want to learn more

    因為Subbable的訂閱者,我們才能維持運作,謝謝你們。如果你還想了解更多

  • about Israel and Palestine, our friends at Thought Café

    有關已巴的議題,我們在Thought Cafe的朋友

  • have made a series of videos; you can also find a link to them in the video info below.

    有做了一系列的影片。你也可以在下面的連結找到他們

  • Thanks again to all our Subbable subscribers; thanks to the educators who share these videos with their students

    在一次謝謝所有Subbable的訂閱者;謝謝向學生分享這些影片的老師們

  • and to the students who share them with their teachers. As we say in my hometown, don't

    也謝謝把我們介紹給老師的同學。在我的家鄉我們常說:別忘了

  • forget to be awesome.

    要成為很棒的人!

Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course World History,

嗨,我是John Green,這裡是Crash Course世界歷史

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 CrashCourse 巴勒斯坦 以色列 巴勒斯坦人 猶太 猶太人

以色列和巴勒斯坦的衝突。世界歷史速成班 223 (Conflict in Israel and Palestine: Crash Course World History 223)

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    Hsiu Ming Hsieh 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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