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  • Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course World History,

    嗨,我是John Green,這裡是Crash Course世界歷史

  • and today, we're going to talk about Israel and Palestine, hopefully, without a flame war.

    今天我們要來談談以色列和巴勒斯坦,希望不會引起任何紛爭

  • John from the past: Yeah, yeah big ask, Mr. Green,

    過去的John:對,Green 先生,這很難做到

  • I mean, that fight goes back thousands and thousands of years.

    我的意思是,他們之間的衝突要回溯到好幾千年前

  • John: Except, thousands of years ago... there wasn't an Islam yet, so, yeah, no.

    但是,幾千年以前,伊斯蘭教還沒出現

  • Also, let me submit that very little of this conflict between Israel and Palestine over the last several decades

    還有,順提一下,這幾十年以來以色列和巴勒斯坦的衝突

  • has been about, like, theological differences between Islam and Judaism.

    其實跟伊斯蘭教和猶太教的差異沒有什麼關係

  • No one's arguing about whether the most important prophets

    沒有人會爭辯最重要的先知

  • descended from Abraham's son Isaac, or his son Ishmael, right?

    是亞伯拉罕的兒子以薩、還是他另一個兒子以實瑪利的後裔,是吧?

  • It's not about whether to fast during Yom Kippur or Ramadan. It's about land.

    這也跟他們是在猶太的贖罪日還是伊斯蘭的齋月齋戒無關。領土才是關鍵因素

  • Portraying the conflict as eternal or as religious makes it feel intractable in a way that frankly, it isn't.

    如果把這個衝突描述成是永無止盡或和宗教有關的話,會讓問題顯得很棘手,但坦白說事實非如此。

  • So instead, let's begin as most historians do in the late 19th century.

    所以,就像大部分史學家一樣,我們從19世紀晚期開始談起吧

  • And instead of talking about religion,

    與其討論宗教議題

  • let's follow the lead of historians like James Gelvin and discuss competing nationalisms.

    讓我們跟隨歷史學家James Gelvin的腳步,來探討民族主義的抗爭

  • Ok, so in the late 19th century, the Ottoman Empire ruled over what we now know as Palestine.

    在19世紀晚期,鄂圖曼土耳其帝國統治了巴勒斯坦地區

  • The population there, according to Ottoman records from 1878, was 87% Muslim, 10% Christian and 3% Jewish.

    當時的人口,根據鄂圖曼1878年的統計,有87%的穆斯林、10%的基督徒和3%的猶太人

  • Everybody spoke Arabic as the daily language, and in Jerusalem the religious populations were roughly equal.

    人們都用阿拉伯文溝通,而在耶路撒冷宗教人口的比例也差不多等同於那個數據

  • To give you a sense of life in Ottoman Palestine,

    讓你對鄂圖曼時期的巴勒斯坦先有個概念

  • an Arab Orthodox Christian musician named Wasif Jawhariyyeh

    有個叫做Wasif Jawhariyyeh信仰東正教的阿拉伯音樂家

  • grew up in Jerusalem in the first decade of the 20th century learning the Quran in school

    二十世紀的頭十年在耶路撒冷長大,在學校學習可蘭經

  • and celebrating both Passover and Eid with his Jewish and Muslim neighbours.

    並和他的猶太和穆斯林鄰居一起慶祝逾越節及開齋節

  • Ottoman Palestine was, in short, a place in which people of different religious faiths lived peacefully together.

    簡言之,鄂圖曼時期的巴勒斯坦是一個不同宗教可以和平共處的地方

  • Alright, let's go to the Thought Bubble. The late 19th century was the Golden Age of nationalism in Europe,

    好,讓我們看一下思想泡泡。19世紀晚期是歐洲國族主義的黃金時代

  • and no place was crazier than the Habsburg Austro-Hungarian Empire

    沒有一個地區比哈布斯堡皇室的奧匈帝國還要瘋狂

  • in which at least 10 different nations all wanted their own state.

    裡頭有至少十個民族想要成為獨立國家

  • And in that hyper-nationalistic empire lived a Jewish journalist named Theodor Herzl

    在那個過多國族主義的帝國裡有位叫做Theodor Herzl的猶太記者

  • who had hoped that Jews could assimilate into European nations

    他曾經希望猶太人可以和歐洲民族同化

  • but soon became convinced that the Jewish people needed to leave Europe and settle in their own state.

    但後來被說服猶太人應要離開歐洲建立自己的國家

  • The concept of Jewish nationalism came to be known as Zionism.

    這個猶太式的國族主義被稱作猶太復國主義

  • It's important to keep in mind that most Zionists were secular Jews,

    很重要的是,這些復國主義者大多為非教徒猶太人

  • so they imagined Israel as a state for Jews more than a Jewish state. In 1917, the British government,

    所以他們覺得以色列是一個猶太民族的國家而非猶太教國家。在1917年,英國政府

  • hoping to gain the support of Jewish people, issued the Balfour Declaration, promising, quote,

    在期望得到猶太人的支持下,發布巴爾福宣言,承諾要

  • "The establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people,"

    「猶太人在巴勒斯坦建立一個家園」

  • a bold promise considering that Palestine was still technically Ottoman,

    這是個很唐突的承諾,因為嚴格來說巴勒斯坦仍為鄂圖曼所屬

  • as they hadn't yet lost World War One.

    他們還沒有在第一次世界大戰中戰敗

  • Of course, they would soon, but it turned out that the British were overpromisers when it came to Palestine,

    當然,當時他們快了,但這顯示英國總對巴勒斯坦議題做出太超過的承諾

  • because a year before the Balfour Declaration, the British had secretly promised the French

    因為在巴爾福宣言一年之前,英國已和法國秘密協商

  • that they would divide up the Arab territories and the Brits would keep Palestine.

    他們要一起劃分阿拉伯的領土,且英國要佔有巴勒斯坦

  • Furthermore, in 1915, other British officials had promised the ruler of Mecca, Sharif Hussein,

    再者,在1915年,另一個英國官員也答應麥加的統治者,Sharif Hussein

  • that he would rule over an Arab state including Palestine if he led an Arab revolt against Ottoman rule,

    如果他發起反抗鄂圖曼的起義的話,他就可以統治一大塊阿拉伯地區

  • which Hussein promptly did. So basically

    Hussein隨即就照做了。所以基本上

  • the Brits had promised Palestine to the Meccans, to themselves, and to the Zionists.

    英國曾答應過要把巴勒斯坦給麥加人、他們自己及想復國的猶太人

  • What could go wrong?

    這會產生什麼問題呢?

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble. So shortly after the end of the war, the British established a colony in Palestine

    謝啦,思想泡泡。因此很快地在大戰結束之後,英國即在巴勒斯坦建立殖民地

  • with the idea that they'd rule until the Palestinians were ready to govern themselves,

    想在該區執政直到巴勒斯坦人已準備好治理自己為止

  • at which point the people living in Palestine were like, "Well, now seems good,"

    當下巴勒斯坦居民覺得:「現在似乎是個好時機」

  • and the British were like, "Yeah, but maybe not just yet."

    但英國人說:「時機應該還沒到」

  • Meanwhile, the British established separate institutions for Christians, Jews, and Muslims,

    同時,英國建立了基督徒、猶太教徒和穆斯林的分離制度

  • making it difficult for Palestinian Christians and Muslims to cooperate

    使巴勒斯坦的基督徒和穆斯林難以合作

  • and easier for the British to, quote, "divide and rule" the inhabitants of Palestine. Again, what could go wrong?

    卻方便了英國人分化和管理巴勒斯坦居民。同樣地,這會產生什麼問題?

  • Meanwhile, the British did attempt to honor the Balfour Declaration's promise to, quote,

    此時,英國的確試圖要施行巴爾福宣言的承諾,言

  • "facilitate Jewish immigration under suitable conditions." Between 1920 and 1939,

    「在適當情況下要促進猶太移民。」 在1920和1939之間,

  • the Jewish population of Palestine increased by over 320,000 people.

    巴勒斯坦的猶太人口就增加超過32萬人

  • In fact, by 1938, Jews were just under 30% of the population of Palestine.

    事實上,在1938年以前,猶太人在巴勒斯坦的人口比例裡還佔不到30%

  • And the growing Jewish population focused on purchasing land from absentee non-Palestinian Arab landowners

    這些成長的猶太人口致力於購買非巴勒斯坦籍的阿拉伯地主的土地

  • and then evicting Palestinian farmers who were living and working there.

    再驅逐居住和工作於那些土地上的巴勒斯坦農夫

  • By controlling both the land and the labor, they hoped to establish a more secure community within Palestine,

    藉由控制土地和勞動人口,他們希望在巴勒斯坦境內打造一個更安全的社群

  • but of course, these practices heightened tensions between Jewish people and Arab Palestinians

    但當然,這些措施反而提升了猶太和巴勒斯坦阿拉伯人之間的緊張

  • between the 1920s and the 1930s. Along the way, Palestinian Arabs

    在1920到1930之間。隨著時間過去,巴勒斯坦的阿拉伯人

  • began to think of themselves as the Palestinian nation, and that growing sense of nationalism erupted in 1936,

    開始視自己為巴勒斯坦的民族,這日益漸深的民族情感終於在1936年爆發

  • when the Palestinians revolted against the British.

    他們掀起叛亂反抗英國統治

  • With the help of Jewish militias, the British brutally suppressed the Palestinian revolt,

    在猶太民兵的幫助下,英國狠狠地鎮壓住巴勒斯坦人的叛亂

  • but in the aftermath, the British issued a white paper, limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine,

    但是事後,英國卻發表白皮書限制猶太人移民到巴勒斯坦

  • and calling for the establishment of a joint Arab and Jewish state in Palestine within ten years.

    並呼籲十年以內在巴勒斯坦建立阿拉伯人和猶太人共同治理的國家

  • This managed to leave no one happy.

    這讓任何一方都很不開心

  • The Zionists were angry at Britain for limiting Jewish immigration

    復國主義的支持者對英國限制猶太移民非常不滿

  • at a time when Jews particularly needed to leave Europe,

    特別是在猶太人需要離開歐洲的時候

  • and the Arab Palestinians were unhappy about the prospect of waiting ten years for a state.

    巴勒斯坦的阿拉伯人則不滿還要再等十年才能成立國家

  • And then came World War II, which was actually quite a peaceful time in Palestine.

    之後第二次世界大戰來臨,當時巴勒斯坦地區是很平靜的

  • But then it ended, and tensions resumed, and the British realized

    但在戰爭結束後,緊張情勢又開始了,英國意識到

  • that colonies like Palestine were far more trouble than they were worth,

    那些如巴勒斯坦的殖民地問題實在太麻煩,不值得處理

  • so they handed the issue of Palestine over to the newly created United Nations.

    所以他們把問題丟給剛創立的聯合國

  • They were like, "Oh hey there, United Nations! For your first problem..."

    他們就像這樣:「喔嗨!聯合國這裡是你第一個要處理的問題...」

  • So in November of 1947, the United Nations voted to partition Palestine into separate

    於是在1947年11月,聯合國投票通過將巴勒斯坦劃分為

  • Palestinian and Jewish states. The Partition Plan called for two states roughly equal in size,

    巴勒斯坦和猶太人的兩個國家。這個分化計畫聲稱兩國的面積是一樣大的

  • but the borders looked like a jigsaw puzzle.

    但他們的邊界看起來就像拼圖一樣

  • I mean, you do not look at this map and think, "Yeah, that's gonna work!"

    我的意思是,你看到地圖的時候並不會想說:「嗯!這是行得通的!」

  • Sure enough, it didn't, and soon after the plan was announced, the cleverly named 1948

    無庸置疑,他是行不通的。這個計畫宣布不久後,巧妙命名的1948年

  • Arab-Israeli War broke out, with Israel on the one side and the Palestinians and many Arab states on the other.

    以巴戰爭一觸即發,其中一方是以色列,另一方則是巴勒斯坦和許多其他阿拉伯國家

  • The Israelis won, and when an armistice was signed in 1949,

    以色列戰勝了,並在1949年簽訂的停戰協議中

  • Israel occupied a third more land than they would have had under the UN proposal.

    他們多佔領了在聯合國提案中三分之一的土地

  • Meanwhile, Jordan controlled and later annexed the West Bank and the old city of Jerusalem,

    同時間,約旦接管並吞併約旦河河西區域及古城耶路撒冷

  • and Egypt controlled the Gaza strip.

    而埃及佔領加薩走廊

  • Over 700,000 Palestinians fled their homes and became refugees in the surrounding Arab countries.

    超過70萬的巴勒斯坦人逃離他們的家園,成為周邊阿拉伯國家的難民

  • To Israelis, this was was the beginning of their nation;

    對以色列人來說,這是他們國家的嶄新開始

  • to the Palestinians, it was the nakba, the catastrophe, as they became stateless.

    對巴勒斯坦人而言,這是一場浩劫、一場災難,因為他們失去了家園

  • Over the next 18 years, nothing changed territorially,

    在這之後的18年,領土沒有任何變更

  • and then, in 1967, Israel and several Arab states went to war again.

    1967年,以色列和其他阿拉伯國家又陷入戰爭

  • It was called the Six-Days War because -- get this -- it lasted six days. Israel won,

    這次被稱作六日戰爭,因為他們打了六天。以色列贏了

  • and then gained control over the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights.

    並且獲得了約旦河河西地區、加薩走廊、西奈半島和戈蘭高地

  • So the 1947 proposal looked like this; by 1967, things looked like this.

    1947年的提案看起來像這樣;到了1967年,則是長這樣

  • Then the UN passed Resolution 242 - man, they are good at naming resolutions! -

    接著,聯合國通過第242條決議 -天呀!他們真是超會為決議命名的!-

  • which outlined a basic framework for achieving peace, including Israel withdrawing

    擬定出一個達成和平的基本架構,包括以色列放棄

  • from the territory acquired in the war, and all participants recognizing

    在戰爭中贏來的土地,及所有會員國了解

  • the rights of both a Palestinian and an Israeli state to exist. This of course did not happen.

    巴勒斯坦和猶太兩國生存所需的權利。當然,這不會發生

  • After the war, the broader Israeli-Arab conflict morphed into a more specific Israeli-Palestinian conflict,

    戰爭過後,原本範圍廣大的以阿衝突漸漸剩下以巴兩國持續鬥爭

  • and this is a nice moment to note that not all Muslims are Arabs, not all Arabs are Palestinians,

    這是個很好的契機來提醒我們,並非所有穆斯林都是阿拉伯人,也不是所有阿拉伯人都是巴勒斯坦人

  • and not all Palestinians are Muslims. Like, there's a significant Christian minority of Palestinians, for instance.

    也並非所有巴勒斯坦人都是穆斯林。好比說,巴勒斯坦人中有一群值得注意的基督徒小眾,因

  • Palestinian is a word used to describe the ethnic identity of those who have historically lived in Palestine.

    「巴勒斯坦人」這個字是用來形容歷史上所有居住於巴勒斯坦的人

  • There were, for instance, lots of Christians in the Palestinian Liberation Organization, or PLO,

    舉例來說,有很多基督徒都有參與巴勒斯坦解放組織,簡稱PLO

  • formed in 1964 and led by Yasser Arafat. The PLO oversaw guerrilla groups that attacked civilians,

    是一個由Yasser Arafat在1964年創立的組織。PLO幫忙監視會攻擊平民的游擊隊

  • but also used nonviolent approaches to try to achieve a Palestinian state. And meanwhile,

    也試圖用非暴力的方式促成巴勒斯坦建國。但同時

  • the Israeli government began to establish Jewish settlements in what had been Palestinian territory,

    以色列政府開始在巴勒斯坦領土上建立猶太人聚落

  • including East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip.

    包括東印度撒冷、約旦河河西區域和加薩走廊

  • There are now over 350,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, and over 200,000 in East Jerusalem,

    目前有超過35萬猶太人定居於河西地區,超過20萬人居住在東耶路撒冷

  • and these settlements are illegal, according to international law, but Israel counters by saying

    根據國際法,這些聚落是非法的,但以色列反對這種說法,說

  • that they aren't really illegal because Palestine isn't really a state.

    他們沒有違背法律,因為巴勒斯坦不是真正的國家

  • By the late 1980s, Palestinians launched the first intifada, which literally means "shaking off."

    在1980晚期,巴勒斯坦人發動第一次大起義,字面上來說是擺脫的意思

  • And this began with, like, boycotts of Israeli products and services and refusing to pay Israeli taxes,

    由抵制以色列商品、服務和拒絕繳稅開始

  • but when the Israeli armed forces cracked down on protesters, violence ensued.

    但當以色列軍隊鎮壓反抗者時,他們便開始使用暴力

  • And the first intifada also saw the founding of Hamas,

    這個大起義也促成哈瑪斯的誕生

  • which launched the first suicide bombing against Israel in 1993.

    他們在1993年發起第一件反抗以色列的自殺炸彈事件

  • Hamas gained support partly because of its militancy,

    因為好戰性格,哈瑪斯只得到部分的支持

  • but mostly because of its social welfare projects in Gaza. It built and staffed schools, mosques, and clinics.

    但多半是因為它在加薩實施的社會福利。他們建立學校、提供教職、建立清真寺及診所

  • The most important legacy of the First Intifada was the emergence of peace talks between Palestinians and Israelis.

    第一次大起義最重要的效應是巴勒斯坦和以色列的和談

  • This led to the Oslo Accords,

    這促成了奧斯陸協議

  • But there were a lot of issues to resolve- I mean, putting aside the question of, like,

    但還有很多問題需要解決。我的意思是,先把某些問題放一邊,像是

  • how to make two states that don't look like a jigsaw puzzle. There was the question of the Jewish settlement,

    該如何讓兩國界線不那麼曲折。那裏依舊有很多問題,像是猶太聚落

  • and the right for Palestinian refugees and their descendants to return to Palestine.

    巴勒斯坦人的人權、和他們的後代是否可以重回巴勒斯坦的問題

  • Water rights, which are a big deal in that part of the world, and so on.

    還有用水權,在那個區域是很棘手的議題,及其他等等的

  • It's very complicated! So then came the Clinton talks. Oh, it's time for the Open Letter!

    非常複雜!然後柯林頓終於說話了。喔!是該發表公開信的時候了!

  • But first, let's see what's inside of the globe. Oh, look! It's a collection of

    不過首先,我們先看一下這顆地球裡面有什麼。哇,你看!是幾個

  • philandering American presidents. An Open Letter to Bill Clinton:

    會拈花惹草的美國總統!以下是我要給比爾柯林頓的公開信

  • Hey, Bill, so your talks probably came closer than any other time in recent history to

    嘿,比爾,你的發表比近期任何一個都還達到

  • an actual peace deal between the Israelis and the Palestinians. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak

    以色列和巴勒斯坦之間的實質和平。以色列總理Ehud Barak

  • was willing to give up more land currently claimed by Israel than at any other time in the past;

    比起以往,願意放棄更多所擁有的領土

  • even Yasser Arafat was surprised.

    連Yasser Arafat都感到驚訝

  • Although not all the questions got addressed, you were definitely closing in on something.

    雖然不是所有問題都被解決了,但你肯定已經很逼近他們了

  • But in the end, it didn't happen, and since then, not to criticize you, things have gotten kind of worse and worse and worse.

    可是最後,它卻沒有發生。自此,我不是在批評你,但是事態變得更糟

  • Worst of all, that was your big legacy moment. Now

    更糟的是,你造成了很多後續事件。現在

  • all you've got is the conflict in Northern Ireland getting resolved while you were president.

    你唯一得到的就是北愛爾蘭的衝突在你任內被解決了

  • In short, it could have been amazing, but instead it was kind of... neeeeh.

    簡言之,這原本該是一個很棒的事情,但最後卻演變成...呃

  • Kind of like your presidency, actually!

    其實這跟你當總統的狀況一樣耶!

  • At least you always have those vodkas-soaked hugs with Boris Yeltsin to look back on.

    至少你還有與俄國總統Boris Yeltsin深擁這件事值得回顧

  • Best Wishes, John Green.

    最美好的祝福,John Green.

  • So the Clinton talks failed; Ehud Barak's government was undermined. And then, in September of 2000,

    所以柯林頓的談話失敗;而Ehud Barak的政府逐漸衰弱。接著,2000年九月

  • Prime Minister candidate Ariel Sharon led a group of 1,000 armed guards to the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.

    總理候選人Ariel Sharon帶了1000位武裝保全上位在老城耶路撒冷的聖殿山

  • To Muslims, this is known as the Al-Aqsa Mosque, and it's the third-holiest site in Islam,

    對穆斯林而言,它被稱作阿克薩清真寺,是伊斯蘭教裡第三神聖的清真寺

  • behind only the Kaaba in Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque in Medina.

    緊接在麥加的克爾白寺和麥地那的先知寺之後

  • And it's the holiest site in Judaism, so in short, it's a pretty touchy place to march with a thousand armed guards.

    但它也是猶太教最神聖的聖地。簡單來說,帶著1000位武裝保全去那裏還蠻敏感的

  • So the events sparked a massive protest,

    這個事件掀起巨大的抗議

  • which eventually led to the much more violent Second Intifada,

    最終導致更激烈的第二次大起義

  • in which more than three thousand Palestinians and one thousand Israelis were eventually killed.

    造成超過三千位巴勒斯坦人和一千位以色列人身亡

  • In 2002, the Israelis, claiming to act in defense of civilians, began construction of a wall around the West Bank,

    2002年,以色列以保護百姓為由,開始在河西地區蓋起高牆

  • but instead of following the borders established after the 1967 War,

    但卻沒有依照1967年戰後劃分的邊界

  • the barrier was built to include many Israeli settlements on the Israeli side.

    這道牆以內包含了許多以色列邊境的猶太聚落

  • To Israelis, that was about self-defense; to Palestinians, it was an illegal land grab.

    以色列人認為他們是在自保;巴勒斯坦人則認為他們非法侵占土地

  • Then, in 2005, Yasser Arafat died, and in an election shortly thereafter,

    後來,2005年,Yasser Arafat逝世,在不久後的選舉中

  • Hamas won a majority of the parliamentary seats.

    哈瑪斯獲得多數的國會席次

  • Since then, Hamas and the Palestinian Authority have sort of divided how to govern Palestine,

    自此,哈瑪斯和巴勒斯坦當權者在治理問題上產生分歧

  • and it's also sort of been poorly governed.

    而確實巴勒斯坦的政府也做不太好